Skip to main content

Full text of "A condensed course in motion picture photography"

See other formats



Motion Picture 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 








Formerly Cinematographer for Thanhouser, Edison, Pathe, 
World Film Companies and the United States Government 



of the Research Laboratories of 
the Eastman Kodak Company 



Formerly Chief Instructor in Cinematography 

Signal Corps School of Photography 

Columbia University 

New York 

Published by New York Institute of Photography, 
141 West 36th St., New York City 

Copyright 1920 




Copyright registration and all rights 
secured by House, Grossman & Vorhaus. 
Attorneys, 1476 Broadway, New York Uiy 


Introduction 5 

History of Cinematography 7 

Fascination of Cinematography 19 

The Nature of Light 25 

The Motion Picture Camera 53 

Cinematograph Lenses 64 

Focusing the Camera 76 

Preparation for the Day's Work 92 

How to Prepare Photographic Solutions 100 

Development of the Negative 133 

Making Motion Picture Positives 165 

Tinting and Toning Motion Picture Films 177 

Cutting and Editing 199 

Exterior Lighting 206 

Interior Lighting 220 

Educational and Industrial Picture Making 247 

Animated Cartoons 257 

Trick- Work and Double Exposure 267 

Composition by J. C. Warburg 288 

Airplane Photography 304 

How Submarine Movies Are Taken 310 

Making Up for Motion Pictures 315 

Relationship of the Cameraman to Other Workers 320 

Applying for a Position 328 

Bibliography 334 

Appendix (Making Direct Positives) 347 

Index 370 


ACKNOWLEDGjMEXT would be a more fitting heading 
than the word Introduction. i\cknowledgment is due to 
many men and to many companies for material and illus- 
trations used in the production of this book. So many sources 
have been consulted for information that it is probable that the 
editor, whose work of annotating and correlating for this book 
has extended over a period of so many months of a busy life 
filled with writing, directing, taking pictures, teaching and many 
other activities, may perhaps have missed giving credit where 
credit is due. 

For the main sources of information in the historical chapter, 
the editor is indebted to Homer Croy, C. Francis Jenkins, Henry 
V. Hopwood and, in a lesser degree, to many others. 

Several standard text books on physics contributed to the 
chapter on Light. 

Preparation for the Day's Work, Relationship of the Camera- 
man to Other Studio Workers, Applying for a Position, Trick 
Work and Double Exposure, and portions of other chapters are 
from the pen of Charles W. Hoflfman, a versatile photographer 
and a deep student of photographic lore. 

Photographic Solutions and The Tinting and Toning of Motion 
Picture Positives are contributed in their entirety by J. I. 
Crabtree, of the Research Laboratories of the Eastman Kodak 

For the chapter on Composition, the editor is indebted to 
J. C. Warburg. 

Cutting and editing were taken largely from articles by Edward 
Roskam, R. J. Huntington and Alfred Biggs. 

Publicity departments of film concerns and the apparatus 
manufacturers have been exceedingly generous in supplying cuts 
and photographs, credit for which is given in the legend under 
the pictures which have been used. 

The editor has written many chapters but since so many 
authorities have been consulted and quoted without citing the 
source, he should be considered more as the editor and compiler 
of this book which seems to be needed by many workers and 
friends of the motion picture industry. Its value is obvious for 

those who have not the time or the opportunity to wade through 
the extensive but sketchy literature on the subject to reach a 
practical solution of the problems they may encounter in their 
everyday work. 

While a work of this size can be in no way exhaustive, the 
editor has tried to retain as far as possible those details which 
explain the fundamental principles of motion picture photography 
to the average worker and at the same time serve as a guide and 
reference in his daily routine. 

No attemrpt has been made to cover the details of special sub- 
jects such as cinematography in natural colors, photomicrography 
with the motion picture camera, ultra-speed pictures, motion 
study, etc., as any one of these subjects would easily require a 
volume the size of this and still not do justice to the subject. 

In a work of this kind mistakes are liable to occur and while 
the manuscript has been carefully read and reread and the proof 
sheets carefully corrected by different persons, errors both of 
omission and commission may occur. 

Should this Condensed Course meet with the success indicated 
by the interest of our students it will undoubtedly pass into a 
second edition in a short time. For this reason the editor will 
be glad to receive suggestions and criticisms for the improvement 
of the second edition. 

Last, but most important of all, the officials and other in- 
structors of the New York Institute of Photography have con- 
tributed to the success of this work through hearty co-operation 
and helpful suggestions from their actual experience of years 
in teaching students the interesting subject of Photography. 

To all those who have thus assisted in the production of this 
Condensed Course in Motion Picture Photography, we wish to 
express our heartiest appreciation. 

Sutton Manor, New Rochelle, 
New York, April, 1920. 

Chapter I 

IT is not impossible that some form of motion pictures was 
known to the Ancients. Titus Lucretius Carus wrote sev- 
eral volumes entitled "De Rerum Natura" at least sixty-five 
years before the Christian Era, wherein book four, verse seven 
hundred sixty-six appears the following, freely translated : 

"Do not think thou moreover wonder that the images appear 
to move and appear in one order and time their legs and arms 
to use for one disappearance, and instead of it appears another 
arranged in another way, and now appears each gesture to alter, 
for you must understand that this takes place in the quickest 

In the year A. D. 130, Ptolemy, a Greek philosopher, wrote 
a series of books on Optics, in which he not only described the 
phenomenon of persistence of vision, but also described a piece 
of apparatus in the form of a revolving disk with spots upon it, 
which demonstrated this phenomenon. Persistence of vision is a 
scientific term for the fact that the sensation of light coming from 
an object remains in the brain for an appreciable fraction of a 
second after the light has been extinguished. Whatever knowledge 
the Ancients may have possessed of motion pictures is too remote 
and too far buried in the murky depths of the past to be of 
more than momentary interest in the history of Cinematography. 

The first step toward modern Cinematography took place about 
the year 1833, when W. G. Horner patented the Zoetrope, or 
Wheel of Life, which consists of a hollow cylinder turning on 
a vertical axis and having its surface pierced with a number of 
slots around the interior. Between the slots is a series of pictures 
representing successive stages of such a subject as a galloping 
horse, and when the cylinder is rotated, an observer looking 
through the slots as the wheel is rotated sees the horse ap- 
parently in motion. The pictures were drawn by hand, but 
photography many years afterwards was applied for their pro- 
duction. This did not occur until about the year 1877. 


About the year 1872, Edward Muybridge, an Englishman em- 
ployed in the United States Geodetic Survey, made photographs 
of a race-horse in motion. Muybridge made these at the in- 
stance of several race-horse owners, who had come to a hot dis- 
cussion regarding the gait and mode of locomotion of their 
favorite steeds. Muybridge set up his camera with wet collodion 
plates (dry plates did not come into general use until sometime 
later) and made snapshots of race-horses at the Sacramento 
race-track. A few trials demonstrated that unless he could show 
rapid successive pictures of the horses in motion he could not 
settle the dispute. The contestants made up a fund with which 
he purchased twenty-four cameras and placed them at the edge 
of the race course, close together in a row with a fine thread 
attached to the shutter of each camera and stretched across the 
race-track, so that the horse in passing would break the thread 
and release the shutter of the camera, and thus make an exposure 
upon the sensitized plate. Each successive camera passed would 
then show a slight advance in action, with the result that by the 
time the animal had passed in front of the twenty-four cameras, 
he would leave a fairly accurate record which could be studied at 
leisure. The first results were not very satisfactory, as the 
sensitiveness of the collodion plates was not sufficient to get 
pictures in the small fraction of a second required to stop the 
motion. To overcome this obstacle, a fence was built at the 
side of the track in front of the cameras and painted black. If 
the horse being studied was not white, lines were drawn upon 
its limbs in white paint, so that with the help of the brilliant 
California sun, sharp well-defined silhouettes could be made at a 
much greater speed than had hitherto been possible. 

Leland Stanford, Governor of California at that time, and an 
enthusiastic horseman himself, became very much interested in 
Muybridge 's experiments. Governor Stanford was a wealthy 
man and furnished him with funds, to continue his animal study. 
A studio was built at the Governor's private race-track in 
Palo Alto, where Leland Stanford University now stands, and 
in this studio were placed the twenty-four cameras. Here it 
was that Muybridge conducted the major part of his experiments. 
Having succeeded in analyzing animal motion, he now proceeded 
to synthetize his results; or, in other words, to reproduce the 
movements of the animal so that they would be visible to the eye. 


He finally produced a machine which would project the images 
of the glass plate upon a screen. He called this machine the 
Zoopraxoscope, probably with the intention of setting a record 
for a double-jointed polysyllabic word, which many others have 
tried to outdo. C. Francis Jenkins, in one of the first volumes 
ever published about motion pictures, gives a list of over a 
hundred coined words, which have been applied to motion pic- 
tures of which practically the only surviving one is Cinematog- 
raphy. Some of them were: Symographoscope, Chronomatog- 
raph, Chronophotographoscope, Photokinematoscope, Phantas- 
magoria and Getthemoneygraph. 

The Zoopraxoscope consisted of a large glass disk, with the 
reproductions of the photographs set along its margin. A lime- 
light was set up with a condensing lens, which would project the 
picture on a screen. This glass disk revolved continuously and 
the images on the screen were naturally blurred by this movement. 
However, the introduction of a shutter allowed the light to pass 
through each successive picture for a very short interval as 
each image came into place. These rapidly succeeding pictures 
produced the first moving picture on a screen. 

It is interesting to note that in i860, twelve years before 
Muybridge commenced his brilliant experiments the production 
of motion pictures by photographic men had already occupied the 
attention of scientists. 

Sir John Herschel, the celebrated astronomer, who was also 
a brilliant chemist, foretold nearly sixty years ago the method 
used today in making motion pictures. It was he, who in 18 19 
discovered the solvent power of hyposulphite of soda on the 
haloid salts of silver, thus introducing it as a fixing agent in 
photography. His prediction of motion pictures was published 
in i860 in the Photographic News, a leading journal of photog- 
raphy at that time. He says : "What I have to propose may seem 
to you like a dream, but it has, at least, the merit of being pos- 
sible and indeed at some time realizable. Realizable — that is to 
say, by an adequate sacrifice of time, trouble, mechanism and 
outlay. It is the representation of scenes in action by photog- 

"The vivid and life-like reproduction, and handing down to 
the latest posterity of any transaction in real life, a battle scene, 
a debate, a public solemnity, a pugiHstic conflict (Heenan and 


Sayers prize fight took place i860), a harvest home, a launch — 
indeed, anything, in short, where any matter of interest is enacted 
within a reasonably brief time, which may be seen from a single 
point of view. 

"I take for granted nothing more than — first, what photog- 
raphy has already realized or what we may be sure it will realize 
within some very limited lapse of time from the present date — 
viz., the possibility of taking a photograph instantaneously, of 
securing pictures in a tenth of a second ; secondly, that a mechan- 
ism is possible, no matter how complex or costly — and perhaps 
it need not be either the one or the other — by which a prepared 
plate may be presented, focused, impressed, displaced, numbered, 
secured in the dark and replaced by another within two or three- 
tenth seconds. 

*'In fact the dismounting and replacing need only be performed 
within this interval; the other items of the process, however 
numerous, following these up in succession, and collectively 
spreading over as long a time as may be needful. 

"There is a pretty toy called the phenakistoscope, which pre- 
sents a succession of pictures to the eye, by placing them on a 
wheel behind a screen, and bringing each in succession to an 
opening in the screen of the size of the picture and thus allow- 
ing it to be seen. The eye is in like manner covered by a dark re- 
volving screen, having narrow linear openings in it which allow 
glimpses through them precisely at and only at the instant when 
the pictures are in the act of transmitting the frame, and sensibly 
in the middle of the area. 

"By this arrangement it has been found possible to exhibit 
figures in action, as dancers pirouetting, wheels revolving, etc., 
by having prepared a set of figures taken from one model pre- 
sented at various angles to the visual ray. 

"Coarse as the representations so made have been, the ap- 
parent reality of movements has been very striking. The per- 
sistence of the impression on the retina and its gradual fading 
obliterates, or glosses over, the hiatus in a way which would 
hardly be thought possible. Now there is nothing in the law of 
periodicity as regards the movements of the model, to influence 
the results, and we have only to substitute for such a periodically 
recurrent set of pictures imperfectly drawn by hand, perfect 
stereoscopic and simultaneous pairs of photographs duly pre- 



sented to both eyes, in their natural order of succession to pro- 
duce a stereoscopic picture in action." 

In 1878, Muybridge pubhshed the results of his experiments, 
which excited great interest both in this country and in Europe ; 
particularly among artists who had always been puzzled as to 
the correct attitude assumed by animals in locomotion. As soon 
as the results of Muybridge's experiments were published, de- 
mands came for him to appear before various scientific bodies to 
demonstrate his discoveries. His first appearance in Europe was 
in the laboratory of Dr. E. J. Marey in 1881, where he lectured 
to some of the foremost savants of France. Dr. Marey, himself, 
was intensely interested and established a studio for investigation 
of the motion of animals by similar photographic methods. He 
had already invented an instrument called the Marey Photographic 
Gun, which was shaped somewhat like a monster revolver and 
took twelve quickly successive images of a moving object, re- 
cording them upon a circular sensitive surface. 

When Muybridge returned to this country, the University of 
Pennsylvania oflfered to equip a studio for him and furnish funds 
for carrying on his investigations. The studio, one-hundred-and- 
twenty feet long, was built on what is now known as "The 
Hamilton Walk" on the University campus. To carry his work 
much farther, he had to find a method of getting quicker ex- 
posures. He determined to solve the problem and achieved mar- 
velous results, making many advances in the science of Photog- 
raphy. So well did he succeed that some of his photographs are 
unexcelled at the present day, many of them having been taken 
in the one-sixth thousandth part of a second. 

In 1887, Muybridge, in collaboration with Dr. Edward Reichert, 
professor of Physiology at the University, made the first in- 
stantaneous pictures in medical research. A dog was given an 
anaesthetic, its chest opened, and the successive phases of the 
dilation and contraction of the heart were photographed. Thus 
the first motion picture record displaying the movements of any 
internal organs — ^human or animal — was made. 

In February, 1888, Muybridge went to Thomas A. Edison, the 
inventor of the phonograph, and asked if his zoopraxoscope and 
the phonograph could not be synchronized so as to give the simu- 
lation of people speaking. Edison had not yet perfected the 
phonograph so that it was loud enough to be heard by a large 



audience and therefore could not consider the project at that time. 

Muybridge pubHshed a book, "Animals in Motion," which is 
now used by artists in their studios, so that they may correctly 
delineate their subjects. It has proven a mine of information 
to those who produce animated cartoons and diagrams. 

In 1893, at the Chicago World's Fair, Muybridge exhibited 
more than twenty thousand original photographs in his machine 
for showing them. In recognition of this the commission of the 
Exposition awarded him a certificate of honor. This marked the 
practical completion of Muybridge's work, as he was then an 
old man. He devoted more than twenty years of his riper 
maturity to the advancement of pictured motion. It is true that 
compared with the motion picture of today, his results were crude 
but they were pictures in motion nevertheless and he iS honored 
and respected as the father of Motion Pictures. 

Inspired by the work of Muybridge, many other investigators 
sought to produce the simulation of life upon the screen. Dr. 
E. J. Marey of Paris, was the most prominent of these. In 
1890, he first used the celluloid roll film, which had just been 
given to the world through the efforts of the Rev. Hannibal 
Goodwin and George Eastman. Even before this, others had 
made partially successful attempts at using a flexible support for 
producing successive pictures from a single view point. As 
presented by Muybridge with his twenty-four cameras, the re- 
sult achieved was the same as the modern device of moving a 
motion camera in an automobile or on a moving truck, traveling 
at the same speed as the object photographed — in other words, 
the object on the screen remained stationary, while the back- 
ground moved past like a panorama. 

Dr. Marey decided that the pictures must be taken from one 
point of view and applied himself to perfecting a camera which 
would take photographs in rapid succession from the same view 
point. In this he was successful, but, on account of the limita- 
tions imposed by the weight of glass plates, was unable to take 
more than a relatively small number of pictures at one time. 
Not only did the employment of glass slides require very elab- 
orate mechanism, but the quantity of glass necessary prohibited 
the showing of more than a few short phases of action. 

In 1876, Wordsworth Donisthorpe patented a mechanism for 
making photographs on a deck of glass plates, like a deck of 


{Courtesy Unnersal Fihn Co. • 



cards, pushed to the focus of the lens and exposed, one at a time, 
then dropped down and out of the way of the next plate, at the 
rate of eight exposures per second. In his patent he makes this 
claim, "If the apparatus be arranged to take successive pictures 
at sufficiently short intervals of time, they may be printed at equal 
distances upon a continuous strip of paper. This paper, with 
the series of pictures upon it, may be used in the instrument 
known as the Zoopraxoscope, or Wheel of Life. To allow of 
this, the strip of paper may be wound on a cylinder to be un- 
wound from it, at a uniform speed, unto another cylinder, and 
so carried past the eye of the observer, any ordinary means being 
used for any showing that each picture shall be exposed momen- 
tarily to the observer. By this means, the movement made by a 
person or group of persons, or of any other objects during the 
time they were being photographed, may be reproduced to the 
eye of the observer." With this apparatus he photographed and 
re;>roduced growing grass, buds developing into flowers, and 
the metamorphosis of frogs. Thus he was the first to take "stop 
motion" pictures. 

The period from 1889 to 1893 might be termed the gestation 
period of what we still love to term our infant industry. 

The invention of the motion picture is ascribed by many to 
Thomas A. Edison, but so many other scientific men were busily 
engaged in trying to solve the problem of producing motion 
pictures in a commercial way at this time, that it is difficult and 
probably unjust to give the credit entirely to any one man. 

Dr. Marey, so far as is known, was the first to use the flexible 
sheet celluloid, but it is probable that the same instant that Dr. 
IMarey was carrying on his experiments in Paris, W. Friese 
Greene and M. Evans were using paper film for the very same 
purpose in England. In 1899, they filed application for patent 
on a machine for taking and projecting moving photography by 
means of a ribbon of successive photographs. On the other 
hand, a brochure published in 1895, and bearing Edison's entire 
endorsement, lays claim to his being the prior inventor as follows : 

"In the year 1887, Mr. Edison found himself in possession of 
one of those breathing spells, which relieved the tension of in- 
ventive thought. It was then that he was struck with the idea 
of producing on the eye the effect of motion by means of a swift 
and graded succession of photographs. The initial principles 



of moving images was suggested to him by a toy, the Zoopraxo- 
scope, or Wheel of Life. It was determined to revolutionize the 
whole nature of the proceedings, by instituting a series of im- 
pressions fixed to the outer edges of a swiftly rotating disk 
supplied with a number of pegs, so as to project from under each 
picture on the rim. A Geissler tube was placed, connected with 
an induction coil, which, operated by the pegs, lighted up the tube 
at the precise moment when the picture crossed its range of 

Curiously enough, during all of this period, when men like 
Marey, Edison, Evans, Demeny, Donisthorpe, Jenkins, Anchuetz, 
and many others were working upon the problem of photograph- 
ing pictures in rapid succession, very little attention was paid to 
the problem of projection, because their ideas were centered upon 
the use of the pictures for individual observers in coin operated 
slot machines. Although a number of the patent specifications 
include the use of the camera mechanism, or a similar mechanism 
for purposes of projection, very little actual work seems to have 
been done toward solving the problem of presenting motion pic- 
tures to a rtlultiple audience. Numerous authentic examples of 
motion pictures taken by various inventors at this period are in 
existence today, but it is probable that the first public exhibition 
to an assembly of people was given by C. Francis Jenkins on June 
6th, 1894, in his father's shop at Richmond, Indiana. Jenkins 
was at that time a stenographer in the treasury department at 
Washington, D. C, and, in his spare time had been experimenting 
in the making of motion pictures. 

Jenkins writes of his first inception of interest in the subject 
as follows : 

"In 1885, while standing one day on a high prominence in the 
Cascade Mountains, I watched the reflections of sun- 
light from the axes of some working men clearing the right of 
way for a railroad in the valley below. The reflection from two 
or three hundred axes produced a peculiar scintillating and 
beautiful eflfect. From that moment I date all of my efforts to 
achieve what finally resulted in the perfection of the chrono- 
photographic apparatus I have built and used. 

"My experimentation was dependent upon what could be spared 
out of a small salary. This is my excuse for the delay in com- 
pleting a commercial machine after the first conception of the 



phantoscope, which is simply a fanciful name for the various 
devices I have employed in this work — ^the different steps of 
Avhich may readily be followed by an inspection of the old ap- 
paratus now on exhibition in the United States National Museum. 

**My active efforts were begun in 1890. Of course, first of all, 
pictures were to be secured. The first apparatus built for this 
purpose consisted of a rachet rotated drum, upon which the film 
was wound to feed it past the point of exposure. The camera 
made a succession of pictures upon this film by short exposures — 
the film being jerked forward the width of one picture in the 
interim. Two shutters were supplied — one with a narrow open- 
ing employed when the apparatus was used as a camera, and the 
other having an opening three-fourths of the complete circum- 
ference of the disk employed in reproducing the pictures. The 
amount to cut away in the shutter was determined wholly by 
experiment. The film was wound upon the drum intermittently 
by a pawl and rachet arrangement. In reproducing the pictures, 
an oil lamp was used to project them upon a small screen. By 
accident the camera was found to be so constructed that it would 
take pictures without a shutter. 

**This seems at first glance incredible, but as the film gets only 
just sufficient exposure during the period of rest, the light is too 
weak to affect it during the movement of the film, for if five 
pictures per second were made and the exposure exceeded by 
fifteen times, the time necessary to move the unexposed por- 
tion of the film into position, and the period of exposure should 
be just sufficient to make a fully timed picture, then the remaining 
one-three-hundredth part of a second would be too small to per- 
ceptibly affect the film and a shutter would be unnecessary. 

"In these early experiments, the film was not perforated. At 
this time, the manufacturers did not keep a stock of film of any 
widths in considerable lengths. This convenience came later. 
So the longest film obtainable was split in the widths of about 
two and a half inches by drawing wide film beneath knives set 
in a board." 

This first exhibition at Richmond, Indiana, could not be prop- 
erly termed a public exhibition, as no admission fee was charged, 
but he followed this with a public exhibition in August, 1895 at 
the Cotton States Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia. So incredulous 
were the people at the exposition that less than one hundred per- 



sons could be induced to pay an admission fee of twenty-five 
cents to see motion pictures — a word which had not then been 
coined. The ballyhoo, or announcer, failed utterly to convey to 
the minds of the passing populace what they would see in the 
exhibit. Finally, in desperation, he decided to invite the crowd 
to enter for nothing, and after the show was given, it was ex- 
plained from the platform that those who so desired, might de- 
posit a coin in the ticket box as they went out. 

The interest aroused by those who saw the exhibition was such 
that it promised to be a success, but just as the young inventor 
had commenced to spend in his imagination the money he would 
make, a fire broke out in one of the neighboring concessions, de- 
stroying not only the exhibition hall, but a number of buildings 
surrounding it. 

Between the time of exhibiting the pictures in Richmond, 
Indiana, and the unfortunate catastrophe at Atlanta, Jenkins 
formed a partnership with another young man, Thomas Armat, 
who had worked with him in building the two projecting ma- 
chines which they took to the fair at Atlanta. Armat's father 
was a manufacturer of some means, so Armat was able to continue 
his experiments while Jenkins was compelled, for financial rea- 
sons, to return to work in the Treasury department. Jenkins' 
inability to devote his entire time to experimentation resulted in 
a breach between the co-workers, which finally resulted in a 
number of legal controversies which dragged through the courts 
for a long time. 

Discouraged by lack of popular interest in his projection ma- 
chine, Jenkins came to believe that it was of interest only to 
scientific bodies, and on December i8th, 1895, read a paper 
before the Franklin Institute of the state of Pennsylvania, in 
which he described and showed in detail the working of the 

Meantime, Armat, working independently, made another ma- 
chine, which he showed to Raff and Gammon, a finn largely in- 
terested in the penny peep shows prevalent at that time. They 
were the agents for the Edison coin-controlled Kinetoscope, 
which exhibited to one person only. Raff and Gammon did not 
display much interest in the Armat machine until the next year, 
when Jenkins set up his machine in a hall at Atlantic City 
directly opposite a peep-hole show. The managers of the slot 


(Courtesy of the Internat:u,.a: Film Service Company) 



machine arcade complained to their principals in New York, who 
investigated the cause for the falling off of patronage. People 
found it much more comfortable to sit in an orchestra chair and 
watch the pictures on the screen than to stand in an awkard 
position at the peep-hole of a slot machine. This stimulated 
Raff and Gammon to a new interest in the Armat machine, for 
although Edison had been working upon a projector, he had 
abandoned it for other matters. Raff and Gammon, therefore, 
made arrangements to have the Armat machine, which was 
copied from Jenkins' original model, manufactured in the Edison 
shops to be put out as the Edison Vitascope. The following 
letter from Raff and Gammon to Armat shows how the original 
Jenkins' invention came to be known as the Edison machine : 

**Kinetoscope and phonograph men and others have been 
watching and waiting for a year for the announcement of the 
perfection of the Edison machine which projects kinetoscope 
views upon a screen or canvas. No matter how good a machine 
should be invented by another, and no matter how satisfactory or 
superior the results of such a machine invented by another might 
be, yet we find the greatest majority of the parties who are in- 
terested and who desire to invest in such have been waiting for 
the Edison machine and would never be satisfied with anything 
else, but will hold off until they find what Edison can accomplish. 
We find that many of these parties have been approached in 
the last few months to invest in other similar machines, but they 
hesitate to do so, evidently believing that Edison would in due 
time perfect and put out a machine which would cast the others 
in the shade. 

**Tliis being the case, you will readily reach the same con- 
clusion that we have — ^that in order to secure the largest profit 
in the shortest time it is necessary that we attach Mr. Edison's 
name in some prominent capacity to this new machine. While 
Mr. Edison has no desire to pose as inventor of this machine, yet 
we think we can arrange with him for the use of his name and 
the name of his manufactory to such an extent as may be neces- 
sary to the best results. We should, of course, not misrepresent 
the fact to any inquirer, but we think we can use Mr. Edison's 
name in such a manner as to keep within the actual truth and yet 
get the benefit of his prestige. The machine might be made with 
a place upon which we could inscribe the words "Armat Design" 



or something of that kind, and you understand that after we have 
disposed of our territory and the business is fully established, 
and we have reaped the respective rewards, we will then make it 
our busmess to attach your name to the machine as inventor, and 
we are confident that you will eventually receive the credit which 
is due you for your invention. We regard this as simply a matter 
of business, and we trust that you will view it strictly in this 

Jenkins and Armat, before their dissention, had made a joint 
application for patent, which had not yet been issued on account 
of the friction between them. Armat, in order to clear the 
situation between them, offered to buy Jenkins' interest in the 
joint application, and finally induced him to accept twenty-five 
hundred dollars in cash for his interest. Having disposed of 
his principal asset in the infant industry, Mr. Jenkins turned his 
major attention to other inventions, and ceased to be a factor in 
the game until recently he entered extensively into the manu- 
facture of projecting machines and also organized the Society 
of Motion Picture Engineers. 

Having thus briefly reviewed the early history of the motion 
picture up to the point where the first crude projectors of the 
present type were evolved, we will leave this subject to pass on 
to present-day practices. To give even a skeleton synopsis of 
the development of the industry from that time to this would fill 
several volumes the size of this. The student who wishes to 
delve into the past can consult the many books mentioned in the 
bibliography and the bound volumes of motion picture periodicals 
in the libraries, 


Chapter II 

MOTION pictures cover a field that is almost universal, 
and the person who is skilled in taking pictures with the 
cinematograph camera, or interested in any of the pur- 
suits intimately connected with its operation, practically has an 
unlimited field in which to exercise his creative energy. 

Wander-lust, the desire to see strange countries and foreign 
peoples, is a longing which many possess, but few are able to 
satisfy. Many a man with a longing to travel and see the far 
stretches of the world has been able to pay all the expenses of 
his globe-trotting, and pocket a bonus, by taking along a motion- 
picture camera and bringing back to his less fortunate friends 
an interesting intimate reproduction of the sights and scenes 
which have held his interest during his journey. 

The making of dramatic pictures covers a field of ever vary- 
ing novelty that is the very antithesis of monotony. 

There is scarcely a trade or profession in which cinematog- 
raphy has not important and direct relation to its improvement 
and expansion. 

There is no doubt that by the aid of the motion picture, the 
duration of the great world war was very considerably shortened. 
In no other way could the tremendous amount of propaganda 
and information concerning the war situation have been made 
clear to the populace. The committee on public information, in 
conjunction with the government, sent out thousands upon thou- 
sands of feet of motion picture film, showing the activities of the 
government and of the army and navy. All of the allied war 
charities attribute their ability to raise tremendous sums for phil- 
anthropic purposes mainly to the agency of motion pictures. 
Thousands of men and women were engaged in making propa- 
ganda films of all kinds. The war loan committee, aided by the 
motion picture industry, made thousands of feet of film to stim- 
ulate the loan drives. 



In educating and training our army and navy, the motion pic- 
ture was of incalculable value. So remarkable have been the 
results achieved in the training of men by the use of motion 
pictures that it is freely and confidently predicted that tremendous 
and important as is the production of motion pictures for amuse- 
ment and entertainment purposes, in a comparatively short time 
to come that use will be relegated to a position of insignificance 
in comparison with the tremendous production of motion pictures 
for educational and pedagogical purposes. 

In the making of these pictures, thousands of craftsmen have 
yet to receive their training. The government of the United 
States, realizing the tremendous importance of motion pictures 
as an educational factor, is establishing a bureau in Washington 
for the production and distribution of educational pictures to 
be used by schools, churches, colleges, community organizations, 
and welfare units. The film manufacturers, who have hitherto 
been blind to the educational possibilities and the financial op- 
portunities presented, are now eagerly seeking to make up for 
lost time and are hastening their preparations to supply the 
rapidly growing demand for this kind of picture. 

"Educational" is a much abused word, which, in the past, 
generally meant to the exhibitor and show-man, a scenic picture 
or an industrial picture of haphazard construction, which, more 
often than not, acted as a chaser to drive people from the theatre. 
Gradually, producers of scenic, industrial, and educational pic- 
tures came to realize that unless their product was made with 
the same care, as or even greater care, than that devoted to the 
production of dramatic pictures, they could not continue to exist 
Today, people of speciaHzed training in nearly every profession 
are being employed in the studios and laboratories of producers 
of educational pictures in order to make them more interesting 
and instructive. 

Thousands of manufacturers are using motion pictures to in- 
struct and amuse their employees, and have found in them, one 
of the most powerful antidotes for labor troubles and social 
unrest. In no other manner can the destructive conditions caused 
by labor troubles be so forcibly and favorably impressed upon the 
mind of the workers. 

All of this is quite aside from the use of motion pictures for 
the advertisement and exploitation of the manufacturer's pro- 



duction. Here is another avenue for the disposal of the product. 
One of the greatest problems in connection with the demonstra- 
tion of large and not easily portable pieces of machinery has been 
that the customer could not see these machines in operation. 
Today the manufacturer's salesman can carry a portable projec- 
tion machine, less heavy and cumbersome than a well-packed 
suit-case, with a reel or reels of film, with which he can demon- 
strate upon the walls of his customer's office all of the possibilities 
of which the machine is capable, with far greater brevity, and 
often, with greater clarity than he could demonstrate the actual 
machine in operation. By means of close-up views, enlarge- 
ments, and animated diagrams, he can show details and features 
that could not be demonstrated even by the operation of the ma- 
chine itself. 

For the production of pictures of this kind, thousands of 
camera and laboratory and technical workers must be trained. 
Authors of industrial scenarios, directors, who understand the 
intricacies of complicated machinery and of industrial and manu- 
facturing processes ; camera operators, who can photograph 
the things which the directors wish to show ; title writers and 
film editors for placing the photographer's scenes in logical and 
interesting continuity ; laboratory workers to turn out prints of 
the highest photographic quality, tinted and toned in attractive 
colors ; all are needed for this rapidly growing industry. 

The film reporter, gathering the topical news of the day with 
his motion picture camera, lives a strenuous but intensely in- 
teresting life. He must be ready at a moment's notice to take 
his grip and motion picture outfit and travel to any point on the 
globe to feed the insatiable appetite of the news-loving public for 
minute details of the latest event. In the larger cities, the big 
theatres are slow indeed, if they do not throw upon the screen 
on the same day that it happens, any event of importance taking 
place within two or three hours' ride of the city. 

Besides the news events, thousands of short subjects of more 
general interest have brought the Animated Screen Magazine 
into existence. In the same way that the animated newspaper 
satisfies the curiosity of the public for the latest news, the screen 
magazine treats all the latest topics of the day in much the same 
manner as the popular magazine. It has this advantage over the 
magazine, compelled to confine itself to cold type and still pictures ; 



it can show operations, movements, and animated diagrams in 
a few seconds' time, that pages of print could not half so 
adequately explain. 

It is obvious that this branch of the business must fall largely 
into the hands of the unattached or independent worker, who 
bears the same relation to the picture theatre as the outside 
correspondent to the newspaper. A firm engaged in supplying 
news films cannot hope to succeed without amateur assistance. 
No matter how carefully and widely it distributes its salaried 
photographers, numberless events of interest are constantly hap- 
pening — shipwrecks, accidents, fires, sensational discoveries, 
movements of prominent persons, and the like, at places, beyond 
the reach of the retained cinematographer. For film intelligence 
of these incidents the firm must rely upon the independent 

Curiously enough, in many cases, the amateur not only executes 
his work better than his salaried rival, but often outclasses him 
in the very important respect that he is more enterprising. Act- 
ing on his own responsibility, he knows that by smartness alone 
can he make way against professionals. Only by being the first 
to seize the chance can he find a market for his wares. Thus 
when Bleriot crossed the English Channel in his aeroplane it 
was the camera of an amateur that caught the record of his 
flight for the picture theatres, although a corps of professionals 
were on the spot for the purpose. True, the successful film 
showed many defects. But defects matter little compared with 
the importance of getting the picture first or exclusively. Plenty 
of similar cases exist. The amateur has an excellent chance 
against the professional. His remuneration, too, is on a gener- 
ous scale. The market is so wide and the competition so keen, 
especially in New York, the world's centre of the cinemato- 
graphic industry, that the possessor of a unique film can dictate 
his own terms and secure returns often twenty times as great 
as the first cost of the film he has used. 

Aside from the wide field of entertainment to which most of 
the products of the motion camera are devoted it is daily broad- 
ening its scope in the field of scientific investigation. Technical 
laboratories are daily finding new and diverse problems in the 
solution of which the cine camera plays an important role. 

Scientific research has received a mighty and tremendous im- 



petus in this country through the conditions arising from the 
great world conflict. We are just beginning to realize how de- 
pendent we have been in allowing foreign brains to solve for 
us the great bulk of the more complex industrial processes and 
the awakening finds us determined and able to take and retain 
the leadership in this important task. 

Efficiency means the elimination of waste — one of our greatest 
wastes is time waste; every excess movement wastes a precious 
interval of time ; the cine camera has become a detective, sleuth- 
ing out the thieving excess motion which steals valuable time. 

Frank Galbraith, a noted efficiency engineer, has, by the use 
of motion pictures, succeeded in eliminating false and useless 
motions to such an extent that various factory operations have 
been speeded up so the output has been increased as much as 
three and four hundred per centum. Marvelous as it may seem, 
the worker was able to turn out this increased amount of work 
with much less fatigue than when he had done a less amount 
under the haphazard regime. 

When the motion camera is used for time studies, a split- 
second clock is generally placed in the picture and photographed 
at the same time, thus giving an accurate record of the time in- 
terval between each frame or picture on the celluloid tape. 

Percy Haughton, the Harvard football coach, has adopted the 
motion camera for revealing the faulty and unnecessary motions 
of players on the football field. Every fraction of a second 
gained on the athletic field is a big boost toward victory. 

A picture released about a year ago by one of the large com- 
panies excited much comment and illustrated how motion pictures 
may prove of great service in correcting faulty muscular action. 
The picture showed an athlete in various simple gymnastic feats 
such as walking, running, jumping and shot-putting, taken simul- 
taneously with two cameras. One camera took the action at 
the ordinary rate of sixteen pictures per second, while the other 
camera made one hundred exposures to the second; the normal 
and the ultra-speed pictures were projected one after the other 
at the normal rate of projection thus prolonging or amplifying 
the ultra film to nearly six times the duration of the normal 
motion. It was very weird and interesting; the ease and de- 
liberation of the prolonged action gave time for the study of 
every movement and the play of every muscle. One could not help 



but marvel at the co-ordination of the work of the muscles. The 
figure of the athlete seemed like a diver immersed in crystal 
clear water, the buoyancy of which floated him through the grace- 
ful attitudes of his movements. 

As ordinarily shown, motion pictures are taken and projected 
at the rate of sixteen pictures per second, but for the scientific 
investigator the rate of speed may vary from as high as 30,000 
to the second in the study of high speed phenomena to as low 
as one exposure per hour or even one exposure per day, as used 
in studies in the change of structural materials, or the growth of 
a plant. All of these may be projected at normal speed for 
screen study or each frame may be subjected to individual 
scrutiny under the magnifying glass in special cases as in seeking 
to eliminate lost motions in machine assembly, etc. 

Reduced to normal projection speed, bullets swim across the 
screen like leisurely fish and bursting shells separate like a group 
of mosquito wrigglers. Many high speed processes, such as the 
flow of steam; air and gases; combustion and explosions; auto- 
mobile engines; the action of governors; the synchronism of 
electric generators; the flow of water in turbines and water 
wheels; the action of steel and wood-working machinery; and 
machine tools; etc., may be photographed at high speed and 
slowed down in projection so that they may be studied with the 
greatest accuracy. 


(Courtesy of E. Fhxk, Graduate of X. Y. Institute of Photography ^ 


. Chapter III 

AS the whole structure of photography rests upon the ap- 
pHcation of the science of physics and chemistry, the 
student of photography or of cinematography can never 
be too well informed upon these subjects. While we shall en- 
deavor to merely touch upon the more important principles of 
physics and chemistry which are most intimately concerned in 
their relation to photography, it would be well for the reader, 
who is earnestly in search of information, to dig up his high- 
school text-books and study the subjects of the physics of light 
and the chemistry of the salts of silver. If he has no such books, 
he will find a mine of interesting information in the public lib- 
raries, which are so numerous over the country that there are 
very few who do not have access to them. He who has con- 
sidered these subjects dull and uninteresting will find they con- 
tain an unsuspected interest when he comes to trace their relation 
to and use in photography. It is not necessary to go deep into 
these subjects to get the simple facts upon which photography is 
based. When one has a clear conception of these facts, they will 
form a firm foundation upon which to build a sound structure of 
photographic knowledge. New facts acquired will then fit upon 
this foundation like bricks into a wall. If the student is uncertain 
as to what books to consult to acquire the knowledge which he 
wishes, he may find some assistance in consulting the bibliog- 
raphy or list of suitable text-books given in another place in this 

It is hardly two hundred years ago since people first had any 
adequate idea that our atmosphere exists and that we live and 
move about at the bottom of a sea of air — the weight of which 
presses upon us and all other objects about us with a pressure of 
approximately fourteen pounds to the square inch. With our 
present day knowledge gained from barometers, air-ships and 
balloons floating in the air, and from hundreds of other common 
facts, we accept the presence of the atmosphere as a matter of 





The existence of an all pervading ether is, however, somewhat 
more difficult to grasp. Much like our knowledge of the air, its 
existence is only an inference from observed facts. Ether is an 
all-pervading medium in which the entire universe is submerged, 
and by means of radiation or vibration, are transmitted light, 
radiant heat, actinic radiation, X-rays, electro-magnetic oscil- 
lations, magnetism, and Hertzian waves. Of these forms of 
radiant energy, light, or those radiations which enable the eye to 
see objects, are the only ones with which we are to deal. 

Light is transmitted through the ether in straight lines, by very 
minute waves or vibrations, which travel with great rapidity. 

For purposes of comparison, we often refer to the similarity 
of light waves to sound waves, but sound waves are carried by 



r i x" --n\ 


Fig. 1. 

A B represents a minute section of a ray of light traveling in the 
direction indicated by the arrows. The curved line represents light 
waves. The distance from crest to crest of two consecutive waves 
is the wave length designated by C. The distance Rr from the 
crest to the bottom of the curve is called the amiplitude of vibration. 

the atmosphere at a comparatively slow rate. It will be noted 
when viewing the steam emitted by a whistle at some distance 
from the observer that the steam is seen some little time before 
the sound is heard, showing that the light waves from the object 
travel much more quickly than the sound. Ether waves do not 
correspond to sound waves in some other respects. For instance, 
sound waves are composed of alternate compressions and refrac- 
tions, while the wave movement or displacement in light waves is 
from side to side at right angles to the direction in which the 
light wave is traveling. 

Figure one is an illustration of the movement of light waves 
from side to side as it might appear if it were possible to magnify 
a ray of light and render it visible. Light itself is not visible. 
When we say we see a ray of light, as we sometimes do when the 



sun-shine falls through a window or through the foliage of trees, 
we do not actually see the ray of light — what we see is small par- 
ticles of dust floating in the atmosphere which show us where 
the ray of light is passing. The particles of dust reflect to our 
eye a small portion of the light which comes through the window 
or between the leaves, as the case may be. In ordinary diffused 
light, these particles are too small to be seen, but under the strong 
light of the sun, each particle becomes a tiny luminous point. 

This drawing is an attempt at showing figure one in perspective 
with the purpose of revealing the fact that the curved line of figure 
one not only extends up and down but in every conceivable direc- 
tion at right angles to the direction of propagation A. B. 

For an experiment to prove this, turn the light of a projection 
machine on in a quiet room, and if the atmosphere has not been 
disturbed so as to stir up dust, the path of the light will not be 
visible, but if we stir up a little dust, or blow a puff of smoke in 
front of the machine, we will see the path of the light spring out 
so that we can see it distinctly. 

To return to the vibration of the ether waves back and forth 
in a ray of light, we see that in the first diagram the waves are 
represented as traveling like the crests and hollows of waves on 



water, which move forward without moving the water which 
composes them forward. This we know, because a boat floating 
upon water agitated by waves, does not move forward with the 
waves, but simply bobs up and down in the same spot. In the 
same manner, light waves pass through the ether without the 
ether moving forward in the direction of the waves. There is a 
difference in the light waves and the water waves, however; for 
while the waves in water move up and down only, the vibrations, 
or waves, which occur in the ether, take place in every conceiva- 
ble direction — sideways as well as up and down. Figure 2 
represents a cross-section of a ray of light in which may conceive 
that the wave or ray is vibrating back and forth in every direc- 
tion within the limits of a circle. 

Waves of light pass through any transparent medium, which 
may be air, glass, water, celluloid, amber, or any other substance 
through which we can see. As long as light travels in the same 
substance or medium, it goes forward in a straight line, but as 
soon as it strikes the surface of a different medium, it is de- 
flected or bent at a slight angle, depending upon the nature of 
the substance, and does not bend again until it encounters another 
medium. This is called the rectilinear propagation of light, which 
simply means, as before stated, that in any particular medium — 
whether air, water or glass, light always travels in straight lines. 

The principal sources of light are from objects heated to a 
high temperature. The most common source of light is, of 
course, the sun, which is a heavenly body incandescently hot. In 
the arc light, the light is emitted by the carbon tips heated to in- 
candescency by the passing of the electric current. Incandescent 
lights give forth light because their filaments are heated by the 
passing of the electric current. Ordinary kerosene lamp flames 
are luminous, because of the hot particles of carbon in the flame. 
Bunsen burners and alcohol lamps give forth very little light, 
because there are no solid particles in their flames to be heated 
to incandescency. There are exceptions to this rule of light 
being accompanied by heat, such as the glow of the glow-worm, 
phosphorescence of phosphorus, and light from some kinds of 
electric discharges. These exceptions are not very well under- 
stood and are seldom of any use in connection with photography. 

In the Cooper-Hewitt lamp, vapor of mercury is rendered in- 
candescent by the passing of the electric current. A luminous 


Si. a- 

P ? r- 

•o o 

^ ►-. t« ^ 



-! *- 



o '~, 



T ^ 


ri i 







n o 



3 S 



:* ^. 



1 ^^ 



























































































































^ .' 


















body, that is, an)rthing g^iving forth light, sends forth the light 
in all directions from itself, just as a pebble dropped on the 
surface of quiet water sends out ripples which leave the place 
where the pebble dropped in ever-widening circles. Do not be- 
come confused by the idea of the circle. Remember that any 
point on the crest of any of these ripples or waves has come 

FijT. s. 

This diagram roughly illustrates how a luminous point S radiates 

light outwardly in every direction like the radii of a sphere, in 

this case the figure represents a cross-section of such a sphere. 

outward from the pebble in a straight line. In a similar way, 
light waves move ouit in straight lines from their point of origin, 
not only in one plane, as the ripples do from the surface of the 
water, but in every direction. (Fig. 3.) 



The velocity at which light travels is i86,cxx) miles per second ; 
that is, nearly eight times the distance around the earth in one 
second. What increases the heat in a light source, increases the 
amount of light from that source, so by increasing the amount 
of an electric light current or energy through an electric arc light, 
its brightness is increased. 

The size of the waves or vibrations of light varies as do the 
size of the ripples in a pond when stones of different size have 
been thrown in, but no matter what size these vibrations possess, 
they move forward at the same speed or velocity. The ether 
waves produced by a luminous body vary from 20,000,000,000,000 
to 40,000,000,000,000,000 waves per second, and the wave length 
in ether accordingly varies from one 3,250,000th of an inch to 
about one 1,675th of an inch. Light waves, as they travel 
through ether, are all alike in every respect except that of size, 
and in that respect, they differ only in wave length and amplitude 
of vibration. 

In figure one, the distance from A to B represents a ray of 
light traveling in the direction indicated by the arrow. The 
curved line represents light waves. The distance from crest to 
crest of a wave is the wave length. The distance from the crest 
and in that respect, they differ only in wave length and amplitude 
of the vibration. 

Light waves of different lengths produce different effects when 
they strike a solid body. Those of the greatest wave length give 
the sensation of red light ; as the wave length shortens, the color 
changes to orange-red, then to orange, and so on through orange- 
yellow, yellow, yellow-green, green, greenish-blue, blue, blue- 
violet, and violet. Waves of shorter lengths than these cannot 
be seen by the eye at all, but they are still able to produce an 
effect upon a photographic plate. They are called ultra-violet 
waves, or actinic waves. There is no fixed line between actinic 
waves and visible waves; that is, between light which we can 
see and light which we cannot see, but which will have an effect 
upon a photographic plate, because most of the light, which we 
can see, also has an effect upon a photographic plate. 

Actinic light simply means the light which has the strongest 
action upon a photographic plate, whether visible or not. 

There are also light waves, which are so long that they are not 
visible, they are longer than the visible red rays and are called 
infra-red or heat waves. 



The intensity of light refers to its brightness, for example, a 
sunshiny day possesses a more intense or brighter light (degree 
of illumination) than a cloudy day. 

The intensity of light diminishes in proportion to the square 
of the distance from its source. For instance, let us refer to 
Figure No. 4, which represents light rays emanating from a small 
source, such as an arc lamp or the flame of a candle. Let the 
square A represent screen one foot square placed at a distance 

Fig. 4. 

The intensity of light falling upon a given area varies inversely as 
the square of the distance from which it is removed from the light 
source. The black squares marked X are the whole, one-fourth, 
and one-ninth, respectively, of the larger squares A, B and C. A 
is one foot, B, two feet and C, three feet away from the light 
source S. The black squares being of the same size will receive 
less light as they are removed from the arc light. 

of one foot from the light and the square B screen placed at a 
distance of two feet from the light. These two squares are in 
a line with the light, square A exactly shades square B. If we 
remove square A the same amount of light which fell upon 
square A will now fall upon square B. Square B is twice the 
diameter of square A, or four times its area. Since the same 
amount of light which fell upon square A covers a surface four 
times as great as twice the distance, it follows that the intensity 
of the light falling upon B is only one-fourth of the intensity of 



O F 


light falling upon A, or conversely, the intensity of the light 
falling upon A is four times the intensity of light on screen B. 

This law of illumination must be taken into account very par- 
ticularly where artificial illumination is used, for if it takes a cer- 

Fig. 5. 

When a ray of light strikes another medium of greater or lesser 
density than the one it is leaving then, unless it strikes exactly 
perpendicular to the surface of the new medium^ it will be bent 
or refracted. Figure 5 shows a ray passing through a block of 
glass and suffering two refractions, one upon entering and one 
upon leaving. In this case the two surfaces being parallel, the 
first refraction is neutralized by the second and the light ray con- 
tinues in its original direction slightly displaced but parallel to 
its original course. 

tain number of lights to illuminate a certain small set properly, 
it will require four times as many lights to properly illuminate a 
set which is only twice as large. Therefore, it is practically im- 
possible to artificially illuminate a very large set since the limit 
of the practical number of artificial lights is soon reached. 
When light strikes an object, part of it is reflected or thrown 



back. It is because of this fact that we are enabled to see objects 
and to photograph them. The kind or quahty of Hght reflected 
enables one to photograph objects. The violet light is quite 
active photographically, while the other end of the spectrum, 
red, is not. 

If the object reflects all blue or violet the photographic sensi- 
tive surface will be strongly aflected and the object easily photo- 
graphed, but if the object reflects yellow and red* waves only, 
the sensitive surface will be only feebly affected. 

Fig. 6. 

Production of the spectrum by means of a prismk 

It is for this reason that photographic operations are carried 
on in dark rooms which are illuminated only by faint red or 
orange light. All dark room lights should be carefully tested 
by exposing a sample of the most sensitive surface that is to 
be worked under the light in question for a greater period of 
time than such sample would be exposed under any ordinary 
working conditions. If on development the sample shows traces 
of fog, the light should be changed or its intensity decreased. 
When a certain color of light predominates, the unaided eye is 
not able to distinguish a contamination of another color, con- 
sequently wherever possible it is very desirable to make a spectro- 
scopic examination of the light passed by screens used for dark 
room illumination. 



O F 


From this it will be seen that much depends upon the quality 
of light reflected in photographic work. 

Refraction — When light passes from one medium to another 
of dififerent density it is refracted or bent as shown in diagram 
No. 5. The different colored rays being ^refracted or bent in 
different degrees. Upon this principle depends the construction 
of lenses. 

Dispersion is shown in diagram No. 6 that is, light in passing 
through a glass prism is separated into its component parts, and 

Fig. 7. 

Showing the elementary character of a primary color. Primary 
colors cannot be further resolved into other colors. 

in case of white light into the spectrum colors violet, indigo, 
blue, green, yellow, orange and red. 

Absorption — When light falls on an object which neither re- 
flects, refracts nor transmits, the light is said to be absorbed. No 
known substance is an absolute absorber of light ; that is, an ab- 
solute non-reflector. A flat or matte black surface comes the 
nearest to being a total absorber of light, but it is not possible to 
paint an object so black but what sufficient light will be reflected 
from it to reveal its details when brilliantly illuminated. Thus 
we see that what we call blackness is not caused by no light 
reaching the eye but when very little does. The blackest object 



looks gray in comparison to what is called Chevreurs black, 
which is the darkness of the mouth of a dark cavern or a hole in 
a large box lined with black velvet. 

If the object reflects only red all the other colors are absorbed ; 
if only yellow is reflected, then all others are absorbed. Again, 
if we use, as our incident light, any particular color of light 

Fig. 8. 

When light strikes a smooth reflecting surface such as a mirror 
or a pool of still water it is reflected back at the same angle at 
which it strikes or in more scientific terms the angle of reflection 
N, C, B in figure 8 is equal to the angle of incidence A, C, N, 
both angles being measured from a line perpendicular to the reflect- 
ing surface at the point where the reflection takes place. These 
two angles always lie in the same plane with the perpendicular 
line which is always at right angles to the reflecting surface. 

which happens to be wholly absorbed by the object, that object 
will appear black; if, for example, we look at a yellow and a blue 
flower by the yellow flame of a spirit lamp with common salt in 
the wick, the yellow flower appears distinctly yellow, for it does 
not absorb yellow light on reflection, but the blue flower looks 
black, for it absorbs all the yellow light and reflects none of it. 
We have briefly discussed four qualities of light. The entire 



science of optics is embraced under these four sub-heads and 
the better we understand these properties of Hght the more in- 
teUigently will we be able to know how to illuminate a scene and 
what lenses to use, in order to obtain any photographic result 
that we wish. 

We have already found that light is propagated outwardly in 
straight lines in every direction from a luminous object. When 
it strikes a smooth reflecting surface, such as a mirror or a pool 
of still water, it is reflected back from the reflecting surface at 
the same angle at which it strikes, or in more scientific terms, the 
angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence, as shown in 
Figure 8. As we have become accustomed to visualizing objects 
as being in a straight line before us, since light always travels 
in straight lines, when we look into a mirror we do not see the 

Fig. 9 
Reflection of light from an irregular surface. 

mirror itself but the image which it reflects and the reflected 
image appears to be behind or beyond the mirror, since our habit 
of sight perceives the reflected object in that direction. If, how- 
ever, the rays of light fall upon an object which is not perfectly 
smooth, each tiny particle which composes its surface presents 
a different angle to the light rays than its neighbor, so that the 
light will be reflected at a dififerent angle from each of these par- 
ticles. This light reflected from the rough surface has thus had 
its direction broken so that it travels in many different directions. 
This is shown in exaggerated form in Figure No, 9, 

























L. J 



>— 1 


















— ' 







» 2 






t— 1 

n o 


> ffi 



























1— 1 

f 2: 


Such light is called a diffused light, thus, on a cloudy or hazy 
day, the light of the sun is diffused by its many reflections and 
re-reflections from' the particles of watery vapor in the atmos- 
phere. On a clear day the direct rays of the sun cast a dark 
shadow when any object is interposed between the sun and any 
surface upon which its rays fall, but when the light is diffused 
the reflected rays from many directions fall beneath the object, 
since the object is not in line with these reflected rays, and il- 
luminate the surface beneath the object and we axe not able to 
distinguish any perceptible shadows. 

Practically all interior illumination is diffused light, for we 
can only have direct illumination where the sun shines through 
a window or other opening. We find it necessary to diffuse the 
light in interior scenes in order to make them appear natural, 
for it is not yet possible in the majority of cases to obtain suffi- 
cient illumination in an actual interior to act upon a photographic 
film with sufficient intensity in the short time of the exposure 
necessary with the motion picture camera. We have to build 
our interior sets in a studio leaving them open to the light at 
the top, and generally upon two sides, thus allowing a flood of 
light to enter. If the stage is an open platform, or if the studio 
is not of ground or ribbed glass, which of itself diffuses the light, 
it becomes necessaiy to suspend screens of thin white cloth 
called diffusion or halation screens above the set, to break up 
and diffuse the direct rays of the sun. 

We can all recall witnessing, even very recently, interior scenes 
taken in the direct sunlight where the pictures hung on the wall 
cast long oblique shadows and the characters, as they went 
through their actions on the screen, were each accompanied by 
a funereal silhouette which mocked every gesture in grotesque 
.distortion upon the floor or wall. Happily, such scenes have now 
passed into the limbo of fading memories. When artificial lights 
are used, such as arc lamps, the light is diffused by ground or 
ribbed glass screens or with tracing cloth or similar material. 
The tubes of Cooper-Hewitt lights cover such an area that it is 
not usually necessary to use a screen for them, for the light, 
coming from so large an area covered by the tubes, is already 
sufficiently diffused. 

When we produced the spectrum by passing a ray of light 
through a glass prism we found that the beam of light was bent 




or turned to one side by the glass ; that is, the light was refracted. 
This refraction only takes place at the point of entrance between 
two mediums of different density. After being refracted at the 
surface the light continues to travel through the second medium 
in a straight line from the point of entry to the point where it 
emerges on the other side where a second refraction takes place, 
light again continuing to travel in a straight line. This angle of 
refraction varies according to the density of the medium in its 
relation to light and is always the same in the same medium, thus 
different kinds of glass and all transparent crystals and liquids 
have different angles of refraction. This angle of refraction is 

Illustrating the relationship between lenses and prisms. If we 

consider a lens as consisting of innumerable small prisms built up 

around a comimon center this relationship will become apparent. 

called the index of refraction. These indexes of refraction have 
been measured by mathematicians who make calculations for 
manufacturers of lens and predict all of its properties before one 
has been made. Such calculations are, however, far beyond the 
scope or needs of any ordinary photographer. 

In Figure No. lo, we have a point from which emanates rays 
of light. Suppose we take a number of prisms with varying 
angles as illustrated in the diagram, the angle of each being such 
that each ray which passes through each prism is refracted to 
the point so that each of these rays is again collected at this point. 
Let us now examine the line of prisms which we have thus placed. 
The central prisms have sides which are nearly parallel, which 
progress outward from the center, the angle increases until the 
two faces come together. We will now replace the line of prisms 



with a lens covering practically the same range as the prisms as 
in Figure No. ii. We find that the lens also gathers all of 
the rays as the prisms did and refracts them again to the same 
point so that we can consider the lens as a number of prisms 
rounded off into a single piece, or speaking still more exactly, 

This is the same as Figure 10 with the proper curved surfaces sub- 
stituted for the angular surface of the joined group of prisms. 

Fig. 12. 

If we take two luminous points, A and B, we find that the lens 
will form images of these two points as a and b. The point A 
being on the principal axis of the lens its image will be formed at 
a, also on the principal axis any motion of B will cause a 
diametrically opposite motion in b. 

that the lens is a continuation of an infinite number of prisms, 
the flat surfaces of which are too small for the eye to detect. This 
infinite number of surfaces, or points, we find ranges itself into 
the segment of a circle. This refraction of rays emanating from 
a point back to a point again is termed a "point of focus." 
If we now take two luminous points at the same distance from 



the lens but separated a short distance from one another, as in 
Figure No. 12 we will find if we have a screen for the rays to 
fall upon, that the two points will be reproduced side by side in 
exact miniature on the screen, but that the point of illumination 
which is above the original point of illumination is reproduced 
below the point of the original point of focus of the first point. 
If we now move this screen closer to or farther away from the 
lens, we find that the point of light enlarges in a circle of illumin- 
ation. This is termed the circle of confusion. By moving the 
screen back and forth we also find that there is only one position 
in which the points of illumination are perfectly reproduced. If, 
however, we now move one of these points of illumination to a 
much greater distance than the other, we find that while one is 
sharp and distinct the other forms a small circle of confusion 
and that when we move the screen so that the more distant one 
is in focus, that the other becomes a circle of confusion, or out of 
focus, as it is termed. If, however, we move the two points 
closer to one another, but still at different distances from the 
lens, we find that we can bring them both to a focus on the screen 
or rather, so nearly to a focus that the eye is not able to dis- 
tinguish the difference in sharpness between the two. This 
difference of distance between the two points of illumination is 
called the depth of focus. 

Let us now take the points of illumination, as in Fig. 13, with 
one of the points focused sharply. If now we interpose a piece 
of black cardboard, in which a small round hole has been cut, 
close to the lens so that this hole is near the center of the lens, 
we find that the brightness of the images is much decreased but 
that the image of the point which was out of focus is now much 
sharper. Let us refer again to our Fig, 13. Our images are not 
nearly so brilliant because much of the light which formerly 
came throug'h the lens has been cut off by the piece of black card- 
board ; but as the cardboard has narrowed down the angle which 
the light ray takes from the lens to the focal plane, we have nar- 
rowed down, or made smaller, our circle of confusion. 

Up to this point we have only considered light as it emanates 
from a point, but now we are ready to consider any object which 
may be reproduced by a lens as an image. In photography, prac- 
tically all images that we have to consider are delineated or 
formed in one plane; that is, either upon the flat surface of a 



photographic plate or upon a film stretched flat or upon a piece 
of photographic paper, as in a photograph, or upon a screen in 
a moving picture theater, so that no matter by what means we 

Fig. 13. 

Let us take the points A and B in these two diagrams. In both the 
upper and lower diagrams the image of A will formj in the plane a 
and that of B will form in the plane b. It is in these two planes 
that the sensitive surfaces should lie to render sharply the images 
of A or B as the case may be. 

We desire to receive both of these images however on the plate at 
once and utilize the two following means for obtaining the result. 
First we compromise between the two planes a and b and place 
our plate in the plane "C." We do this because the circle of con- 
fusion at C, is common to both and is the smallest mean between 
the planes a and b. This compromise prepares us for better 
results in our 2d procedure. This consists of placing 
a diaphragm close to the lens. This diaphragm is a piece of 
black cardboard with a smooth, round hole in it and its function 
is to diminish the angle on the rays of light that represent the 
extremes of the oones of light which form the images a and b. 
This has the desired effect of reducing the size of the circles of 
confusion at C to an inappreciable size. This size depends on the 
distance between A and B and on the size of the hole in the 
diaphragm. A circle not greater than 1/100 inch is permissible in 
stills but for the cinema film one of 1/400 inch is about the limit 

of size. 

produce a photographic image it is practically always done upon 
a flat surface. Let us for the purpose of our analysis, consider 
any object or any image as being composed of a collection of a 





vast number of small points of different degrees of illumination, 
placed beside each other forming an infinitely fine mosaic which 
delineates the object or image which we have under consideration. 
To make this point clearer, inspect very closely with the naked 
eye, or better still, with a small magnifying glass, any half-tone 
cut in this or any other book or paper and you will see that the 
entire picture is formed by small dots of varying sizes which 
make up the picture. In the same manner we may consider any 
object or image as consisting of an infinite number of small points 
not necessarily arranged in mechanical order as in a half-tone 
cut. This mechanical sequence in a half-tone is merely a method 
of surmounting certain mechanical difficulties in photo-mechanical 

Fig. 14. 
Production of an image by a lens. 

reproduction, the size of the dot representing the intensity of 
illumination of that particular portion of the picture which it 

There are many other processes of photogravure too com- 
plicated for ordinary book production in which the dots are 
arranged in irregular order or in which the light intensity is 
registered by other means, such as the Mosstype, the Albertype 
and various photogelatine and lithographic processes. 

We have already seen that all objects reflect a certain per- 
centage of light. If by means of a lens we can focus the lumi- 
nous points which delineate an object upon a flat surface, we must 
necessarily obtain an image of that object upon the focal plane, 
as in Fig. 14. 



This image is always reversed and inverted; that is, like a 
mirror reflection turned upside down. By again referring to 
Fig. 14 we see the reason for this. All of the light rays emanat- 
ing from A on the tree which strike the lens are condensed 
and brought to a focus at the point a in the image. Likewise, 

Fig. 15. 
Indistinct image caused by overlapping circles of confusion. 

all of the rays which strike the lens from the point B are focused 
at the point b in the image; in a like manner all of the other 
points on the surface of the tree are delineated on the screen 
without rendering the diagram too complicated by trying to 
reproduce the path of the light rays from all of the other points 
on the tree. If we move the screen a small distance in either 

Fig. 16. 
Double inversion by means of two lenses. 

direction from the focal plane the image becomes blurred and in- 
distinct, since our points of illumination then become overlapping 
circles of confusion, as in Fig. 15. The image ab in Fig. 14 is 
termed a real image, because it may be focused upon a screen and 
to distinguish it from certain other images which we will con- 
sider later, which can be seen but which cannot be focused upon 
a screen and which are termed virtual images. This image may 



be again focused by another lens which again inverts the image, 
as in Fig. i6. 

In Fig. 17 we have a diagram of the ordinary telescope in 
which the real image has been twice enlarged, in order that the 

Fig. 17. 

Diagram showing the path of the light rays in an ordinary telescope. 

eye may see the enlarged image as an erect object. As it is of no 
consequence that the image be inverted in an astronomical tele- 
scope, it is provided with only two sets of lenses and the image 
is enlarged but once, the large lens, or objective, being made as 

Fig. 18. 
Light dispersion caused by an uncorrected lens. 

large as possible in order to collect all of the possible light from 
dim and distant stars. The image formed by this large objective 
with great light collecting power being then examined by a 
magnifying eye-piece selected by the astronomer as being most 
suitable for whatever investigation he is conducting; large as- 
tronomical telescopes being provided with a number of eye-pieces 



















of various degrees of magnification. When photographs are 
taken of heavenly bodies the eye-pieces are removed and the 
photographic plate inserted in the tube of the telescope at the 
proper focal distance. 

In our experiments with the prism, we learned that the glass of 
the prism had not only the power of refracting or bending the 
light, but also of dispersing or separating it into its component 
colors, and in our previous experiments with a single lens we will 
have noticed, if we have observed closely, that the images which 
we produced were fringed with prismatic color. In diagram i8 

Fig. 19. 
Correction of dispersion by lens elements of different kinds of glass 

we see the reason for this, the blue and violet rays being refracted 
to a greater extent than those of the other end of the spectrum. 

Very happily for photographic purposes, the light refracting 
power and the dispersive power of different kinds of glass are 
very different and not interdependent so that we are able to pro- 
duce by cementing together, as in Fig. 19, or sometimes only 
mounting together in a metallic mount, lenses from certain com- 
binations of different kinds of glass in which one kind counteracts 
the dispersive power of another kind and thus the different colors 
are brought to a focus at the same point. It would be very incon- 
venient to make a mathematical calculation and a very fine read- 
justment of a ground glass from the visual focus to the actinic 
focus of a lens every time we wished to take a photograph. 
This correction for visual and actinic focus is thus very impor- 



tant and is one of the principal reasons an ordinary magnifying 
lens is not suitable for making photographs. 

It is an unfortunate fact that there are on the market today 
some makes of cinematographic lenses which are not fully 
corrected for visual and actinic focus. The writer was at one 
time compelled through force of necessity, to use such a lens, 
and it was only after making many tests to obtain a focusing 
scale or by focusing upon an object at a certain ratio of distance 
nearer the lens, that he was able to produce pictures of satis- 
factory sharpness with it. As it is never necessary to change the 
focal distance from infinity in astronomical photography, no at- 
tempt is made to correct telescopic objectives since, when actinic 
focus is once obtained, it is never necessary to change it. 

The lens is the agent by which the light is directed to the 
right spot in forming the image depending upon the refraction 
of light. But before taking up the consideration of this impor- 
tant piece of apparatus for photographic work it will be necessary 
to explain what we mean by the "Optics of Photography" as 
distinguished from the optics of other sciences, such as those of 
the telescope and the microscope. 

The chief distinctions are of two kinds: ist, in photographic 
optics, the lens must be capable of transmitting and bringing 
to a focus in the same plane oblique and axial rays of light, 
as shown in Fig. 20. 

The principal lens or objective of the telescope will not give a 
sharp image of an object if removed a slight degree from the 
axis or perfect squareness of position in relation to the line of 
light. Hence, the sharpness of the image produced by the 
objective of the telescope is confined to a small area close to the 
axis. The photographic lens, on the other hand, must be so 
constructed that it will give a sharp image of objects in front 
of the center of the lens and also of those that are situated to a 
certain extent on each side of the center. 

2d. The photographic lens must also be so constructed that it 
will bring to a focus at the same spot the chemical and visual 
rays of light. If not corrected, the lens will act as a prism and 
separate the light into its component parts and produce the 
spectral or rainbow fringe around the edges of the image. 

The violet or active end of the spectrum is brought to a focus 
close to the lens and the red at the greatest distance. The 



yellow, which is brightest visually, is also further from the lens 
than the active violet. In focusing visually, the plane of the 
yellow would be sharp, but in photographing the sensitive sur- 
face would have to occupy the plane of the violet. The result 
would be that the image of the object focused by the eye would 
be a blur in the photograph. The photographic lens must be so 
constructed that the image of the object will appear sharp and 
clearly defined to the eye, and be equally sharp as a result of the 

A cross section of a photographic objective, one of the combinations 
consisting of uncemented elements and the other of cemented lenses. 

chemical rays, when it is developed upon the photographic plate. 
Such a coincidence of the chemical and visual rays does not exist 
in the telescope or the microscope, but only in the photographic 
lens. In the telescope and the microscope, which are constructed 
for visual work, it is not necessary. 

To sum up these remarks it can be stated briefly that photo- 
graphic lenses transmit oblique as well as axial rays and bring 
them to a focus in the same plane; and also bring the chemical 
and visual rays of light. to a focus at the same spot. 

This brings us to the consideration of the photographic lens 
and the principles which underlie its construction. By a lens is 
understood a piece of clear glass bounded by polished curved 
surfaces. The various forms of simple lenses are divided into 
two general classes: 




iist. Double Convex. 

2nd. Piano Convex. 

3rd. Convexo-Concave. 

{1st. Double Concave. 

2nd. Piano Concave. 

3rd. Concavo-Convex. 

The first are thickest in the center, while the second are 
thinnest in the center. 

Fig. 21. 

A, B, C, positive or converging lenses. D, E, F, negative or 
diverging lenses. A, double convex; B, plano-convex; C, convexo- 
concave or meniscus; D, double concave; E, plano-concave; F, 


These simple forms may be made up of one single piece of 
glass or they may be composed of several cemented together, as 
will be seen later. Diagram 21, illustrates these forms of lenses. 

All lenses, whether considered singly or in combination, have 
the following properties : 

1. Principal axis. 

2. Optical center. 

3. Principal and conjugate foci. 

4. Nodal points. 

1st. Principal axis of a lens is a line passing through the 
thickest part of positive lenses and thinnest part of negative 




lenses, perpendicular to the surfaces of the lens, as in diagrams 
No. 22 and No. 23. 

2d. The optical center of a lens is the point from which focal 
measurements are made. This does not refer to a photographic 
objective which (in other than single view lenses) is a combina- 
tion of lenses and quite another matter for the reason that a 
combination may have its optical center at a number of places 
according to the circumstances under which it is employed. The 

Fig. 22. 
NodaJ point within the lens. 

positive Optical center of a lens is determined by its form as 
follows and shown in diagrams No. 22 and No. 23. 

Draw two parallel radii AB and ab one from each center of 
curvature, and both inclined to principal axis ; then connect the 
two points B and b at which they touch the curved surfaces of 
lens. The point O, at which the line connecting B and b cuts the 
principal axis, is the optical center. In most cases the optical 
centre is within the lens itself but in some cases as with telephoto 
combinations and single meniscus lenses it may be some distance 
outside the lens. Such an example is shown in Fig. 23. 

3d. Conjugate foci. If a lens which has been carefully 
focused upon a distant object be then directed toward one com- 
paratively near at hand, the nearer object will be found to be 




out of focus, necessitating the withdrawal of the ground glass 
from the lens before the image will assume its maximum sharp- 
ness. This establishes the fact that there exists a relation be- 
tween the object that is focused, as regards its distance from the 
camera, and the focus of the lens. This relation is termed "con- 
jugate foci." Foci is the plural of focus; conjugate means com- 
bined in pairs ; kindred in meaning and origin. Conjugate foci 
are then the distances from the lens to the image and from the 

Fig. 23. 

Nodal point outside the lens. 

lens to the object. Hereafter we will speak of the distance be- 
tween the lens and the object as the anterior or major conjugate, 
and that existing between the lens and the ground glass of the 
camera, as the posterior or minor conjugate focus. Parallel rays 
aa — ^that is, rays from a great distance — falling upon a lens come 
to a focus at f ; but those from b, which may serve to represent 
any object ten or twenty yards distant, have their focus at c 
(Fig. 24). Then fo is the solar focus, bo and co are conjugate 
foci. The former of these is the anterior, and the latter the 
posterior conjugate. To facilitate reference, the lines indicating 
the conjugate foci are solid, while those relating to the solar focus 



are dotted. The points b and c are interchangeable; an object 
placed at either is sharp at the other. 

Rule for Conjugate Foci. Now for every position of the 
object there is a certain position of the camera, and these two 
distances, the distance of the object from the lens and of the 
lens from the plate, are called conjugate foci. 

ft ^^^.P'o^'i^m^^^t^im^m^mtm^ 

Fig. 24. 
Conjugate foci. 

A very simple mathematical rule connects the distance from 
lens to object (D) the distance from lens to plate (d) and the 
enlargement or reduction of the object (i.e., the number of times 
a given line in the object is larger or smaller in the image). 
Note the word Hne, because some prefer to calculate reduction 

Fig. J 5. 
Determination of Conjugate foci. 

and enlargement on the basis of area, which introduces diflferent 

Let F be the focal length of the lens and r the ratios of en- 
largement or reduction. 

Then the distance d is equal to F plus F divided by r. Ex- 
pressed more shortly : 




d = F plus — . 


On the other hand, D equals F plus F multiplied by r, or 

D = F plus F X r. 

An example will show how simple this rule is. Suppose one 
wants to reduce a picture so that a twelve-inch line becomes three 
inches — i. e., r = 4. 

If a six-inch lens is being used, d (camera extension) =6 plus 
6/4 == 6 plus lyi = 73^ inches, and D = 6 plus 6x4 = 6 plus 
24 = 30 inches. 

Bear two other things in mind which will help to use this 
formula: (i) Positions of image and object are reversible. If 
we were enlarging 3 inches to 12 with a 6-inch lens we should 
place the lens and negative 7^ inches apart and the paper 30 
inches apart. (2) The smaller conjugate is just r times the 
larger, e.g., 7^ x 4 = 30. This is always the case, and is useful 
as a check on calculation. 


iPhoto by U. S. Signal Corps School of Photography) 

An American-made camera copied after the French De Brie. The 
De Brie is the most compact of any model of Professional camera. 

{Courtesy of Wilart Instrument Coui/^cny ) 

This camera is extensively used in our school because of the various 
modern devices embodied therein. 

Chapter IV 


LONG before motion pictures were dreamed of, philosophers 
and medical men were conscious of persistency of vision. 
They knew from their experiences and the experiences of 
others, if they looked at a bright object, such as the sun or a 
lighted lamp and turned their eyes to a dark corner the image, or 
at least a bright spot, would remain before their eyes for a few 
moments. The brain retained the illumination that the eye had 
sent to it for a few moments. Experiments proved that this 
persistency of vision did not occur in the retina of the eye. Close 
inspection of the retina showed that the picture projected thereon 
by the lens of the eye vanished the instant the entering ray was 
cut off. Therefore scientists stated definitely that the illusion was 
centered in the brain. No further explanation has been made. 

No human being or animal has ever been known to be without 
this peculiar trait. No human being or animal has been known 
to lose this persistency of vision. If a mortal could be found 
who did not possess it, when looking at moving pictures, he 
would see not pictures in motion, but a number of "still" or inani- 
mate pictures following one another very rapidly, each one per- 
fectly still for about a sixteenth of a second. 

Motion pictures are simply a number of snapshots run before 
a strong illuminating light and projected, by means of a power- 
ful lens, upon a white screen or surface. Each picture is ar- 
ranged so that it will stop for a fraction of a second and then 
move on, succeeded by another slightly different in appearance. 
The brain retains the image of the first picture and when the 
image of the second is telegraphed to it, by the sense of sight, 
the two blend and overlap and the spectator imagines he has 
seen but one image. 

The camera in which the pictures are taken is similar to the 
projecting apparatus but instead of the light rays being emitted 
from the machine, as in the case of the projecting machine, they 
are gathered in or admitted through the lens. The rays fall 



upon a long strip of sensitized film, the same as that used in small 
hand cameras, made into a continuous roll which is fed past the 
lens intermittently at the rate of sixteen exposures a second. 
A revolving shutter is used in both camera and projector to 
cut off the light w^hile the film is moving and a new section is 
being drawn into position before the lens. 


}^^y///^^////////////////// /j'////y////// ///////////A 


Diagram of the mechanism of the Universal Camera. A single 
sprocket camera with harmonic cam movement. 

The motion picture camera is similar to the ordinary camera 
with the exception that it is provided with a mechanism for 
making exposures in rapid succession on a ribbon of film. Six- 
teen pictures per second has been adopted as the standard speed 
for taking and projecting motion pictures. This rate was adopted 
after a long series of experiments to ascertain the least number 



of pictures necessary to produce upon the screen a moving pic- 
ture which would not offend the eye by the flicker or pulsation 
due to the intermittent succession of light and darkness which 
produces the illusion of motion. 

If the number of pictures thrown upon the screen is less than 
sixteen per second, the persistency of vision is not sufficient to 
carry the impression of light over the intervening period of dark- 
ness. Although the eye ma}»not be able to distinguish that the 
light is completely cut off while the next succeeding picture is 
being drawn Into place, there is an unpleasant pulsation com- 
monly called "flicker," which is very fatiguing and annoying. 
By increasing the number of alternate dark and light periods per 
second the persistency of vision is able to bridge the gap between 
the successive periods of light thrown on the screen. As the 
flashes increase In their rapidity, they gradually merge Into a 
sensation of continuous light upon the screen without perceptible 
pulsation or flicker. 

At sixteen pictures per second flicker is very perceptible so 
that many of the first cameras made w^ere constructed to take 
many more than sixteen pictures per second. Some of them 
made as many as sixty-four exposures and used a film four times 
the area of the present standard. With the small returns obtain- 
able from the exhibition of motion picture films in those days, 
this rendered the expense of taking motion pictures almost pro- 
hibitive. The present narrow width of film was adopted to cut 
down expense. 

It was also found that it was not necessary to take so many 
pictures to produce a satisfactory illusion of motion. However, 
flicker is unpleasant when the number of light flashes is less than 
thirty per second. Sixteen pictures per second produce a satis- 
factory illusion of motion so Instead of taking and projecting 
thirty or more pictures per second, a second blade or flicker blade 
was placed upon the shutter of the projection machine. This 
Intercepted the light for an instant while the individual pictures 
stood still upon the screen so that there were two flashes of 
light for each picture. 

Any camera mechanism which records the successive pictures 
upon the sensitive film Is satisfactory — ^there Is no need of a 
flicker blade except to make a perfect record for reproduction. 

It is highly desirable that the pictures be accurately spaced at 



the standardized distance of three-quarters of an inch apart or 
sixteen pictures per foot. Each successive picture when thrown 
upon the screen will be as nearly as possible in perfect register, 
that is in exactly the same place upon the screen. If this is not 
done an unpleasant jumpiness or wavering of the picture will 

In recording, that is in photographing, a motion picture at the 
rate of sixteen per second, there are several operations in making 
each frame or picture which must be accomplished in one- 
sixteenth part of a second. It is not possible to utiHze all of 
this sixteenth part of a second in making the exposure because 
the film must be drawn down into position for a succeeding ex- 
posure before the next sixteenth part of a second. During this 
very short period of time it is necessary to cut off the light from 
the lens by means of the shutter, draw the film down accurately 
just three-fourths of an inch, hold it in place, and expose it to 
the image from the lens long enough to impress that image upon 
the sensitive surface, then completely cover the film exposed 
in the frame aperture before repeating this cycle of operations. 
All must take place in the sixteenth part of a second. 

It will be appreciated that a mechanism which fulfills these 
conditions must be accurately and substantially constructed and 
be able to perform this cycle of operations many thousands of 
times without appreciable wear. It is possible to construct an 
intermittent mechanism which will draw the film down so rapidly 
that only a fifth or sixth part of this sixteenth of a second is 
used in changing the film, but such a mechanism wears out many 
times more rapidly than one which takes a longer time to pull 
the film down for the next exposure. 

In constructing a camera, therefore, it has been the generally 
accepted practice to use an intermittent mechanism, comparatively 
slow in moving the film and to make up for its slowness by in- 
creasing the "rapidity" or "speed" of the film. Although these 
words are not correct, they are often used to indicate the sensi- 
tiveness of the photographic emulsion. Sensitiveness of the film 
is its ability to record the lens image in a given time. 

There are many types of camera movement, but the best of 
these is probably the harmonic cam. This is often called the 
Lumiere, or the Lumiere-Carpentier movement, as it was first 
used in a camera of that name. The harmonic cam is a trian- 



(Courtesy Wilart Instrument Company) 


(Photo by U. S. Signal Corps School of Photography) 

Wilart Professional Camera mounted on a Motion Picture Apparatus 
Company's Precision Ballbearing Tripod. 


gular cam with curved sides, working between two guides which 
it moves up and down as it revolves. As it accomplishes the 
downward movement of the fingers in a third of a revolution it 
permits of a larger shutter opening than any other movement in 
general use. 

The Geneva, or Maltese Cross movement has been used in 
camera construction, and while it gives a quicker downward 
pull of the film than the harmonic cam, it has several dis- 
advantages which preclude its use. In ihe Geneva movement 
the downward draw of the film is accomplished in about an eighth 
of a revolution, but, as this movement has four bearing surfaces 
which are liable to wear unevenly it has not found much favor as 
a camera movement. Should one side, for instance, wear a trifle 
more than the other three sides, every fourth picture in the 
negative would be slightly out of register with the other three. 
In addition to this, slight variations in the thickness of the nega- 
tive film, or its pliability, cause it to ride the intermittent sprocket 
more or less snugly, causing a variation in the frame line, or an 
up and down movement of the picture. 

The harmonic cam, on the other hand, revolves once for each 
frame taken. Any small amount of wear, being the same for 
each successive picture, is not appreciable. This wear may be 
readily taken up in most constructions by loosening two screws 
which hold one of the guides between which the cam runs, and 
the guides may be adjusted firmly against the cam. The shutter 
opening with the Lumiere movement may be greater than i8o 
degrees, which is much more than any other movement in com- 
mon use. The shutter blade could be reduced to 120 degrees 
were it not for the fact that it must have an additional width 
sufficient to cover the aperture opening, so that the smallest 
shutter blade that can be used in any movement is that fraction 
of a revolution during which the film moves downward plus a 
segment wide enough to completely cover the aperture opening 
from corner to corner. The Pathe, Prevost, the Universal, the 
Gillon, and many other makes of cameras, use the harmonic cam. 

Almost all other movements are some variation of the rod 
and crank principle. That is, a rod, or other connection, fitted 
to a crank pin on the shutter shaft actuates the up and down 
movement of the claws. Since the downward movement of the 
crank is one-half of a revolution, no rod and crank motion can 



have as wide a shutter opening as the harmonic cam. Some of 
them decrease the time in which the film is moved down by having 
a crank whose throw is greater than the distance from picture 
to picture, and use only a portion of the crank throw for draw- 
ing the film down, the engagement of the pins or claws with the 
film taking place after the crank has commenced to move down- 
ward and releasing before the crank reaches the bottom of its 

There are many variations of the rod and crank movement. 
In the Pittman model the fingers are upon springs actuated by a 
crank. The fingers move in a circular path except when drawing 
down the film, where they are forced to subtend a chord of the 
circle by a friction plate in the plane through which the film 
moves. This friction plate being struck i6 times per second by 
the revolving spring claws makes this movement a very noisy 
one. In the Williamson movement a small arc-shaped slot guides 
the pins in an approximately straight line during the period of 
their engagement with the film. In other movements a double 
crank is used, giving both the in and out and up and down move- 
ment to the claws. A third variety of movement which was 
much used a few years ago was called the slip claw movement. 
In this movement the claws were ratchet-shaped and in their 
upward travel slipped along the perforation as a pawl slips over 
a ratchet. 

The Pathe Freres formerly made an amateur model which used 
the slip claw movement. The slip claw movement has almost en- 
tirely gone out of use because it could not be reversed. No mat- 
ter in which direction the crank of the camera was turned the 
slip claws would pull the film down in the same direction. An 
inadvertent throwing back of the crank, for even a fraction of a 
revolution, would cause the film to lose its upper loop. Unless 
there was a great nicety of adjustment between the friction at 
the gate and the pressure of the spring claws they were liable to 
push the film backward on their upward travel, causing the 
frames to overlap, thereby making what is called a creep in the 

The in and out movement, or the movement of the pins in and 
out of the perforations, is accomplished in various cameras by 
many different methods. A positive in and out movement is 
much to be preferred over one which is accomplished by some 



sort of spring pressure. A positive in and out movement is one 
in which the pins are pressed in and withdrawn by a mechanical 
movement, such as a cam or drunken screw. In the Pathe or 
Gillon types the in and out movement is accomplished by a 
drunken screw. A drunken screw is a thread having an ir- 
regular pitch, the thread used for the in and out movement 
being a continuous one with the contours so placed as to force 
the pins into the perforations at the beginning of the downward 
throw of the cam and withdraw them at the bottom of the throw. 
In the Prevost movement the in and out throw of the pins is 
accomplished by small harmonic cams of the same design as the 
larger cam which produces the up and down movement. Most 
of the rod and crank types of movement have a cam working 
against a spring to push the fingers in and out, the cam pressing 
the fingers in and the spring pushing them out when released by 
the cam. It is possible to operate a movement of this type so 
fast that the spring does not have an opportunity to withdraw 
the fingers quickly enough, thereby causing creeping and losing 
of the loop. The Ememann camera has a rod and crank move- 
ment with cam and spring for the in and out finger movement. 

There are many types of movement beside those mentioned, 
none of which, however, are enough in general use to justify 
discussion here. In purchasing a camera, therefore, make sure 
that the movement is some modification of the harmonic cam 
with a positive in and out movement of the claws. A second 
choice is one of the better types of rod and crank movement. 
The DeBrie camera is one of the highest type of rod and crank 

As nearly all parts of a camera movement shift backward and 
forward i6 times per second they are subjected to a great deal 
of wear. All of these parts subject to wear must, of course, 
be kept constantly but lightly lubricated, and should be provided 
with means for adjustment so that there is the least possible 
amount of play between bearing surfaces. The finger shuttle, 
that is a frame bearing the fingers, which moves up and down, 
is carried in some sort of guides which should be provided with 
adjustable gibs for taking up wear. 

The shutter is the revolving blade which cuts oflF the light 
from the lens while the film is being moved downward for the 
next picture, or exposure. The circular revolving shutter is so 



universally used in motion picture cameras that it is almost un- 
necessary to take any other type into consideration. The shutter 
should consist of two blades, one of which is set immovably with 
a minimum area for keeping the aperture closed during the down- 
ward movement of the film. Another blade should be provided 
which may be adjusted so as to decrease the opening in the shut- 
ter by revolving it past the fixed blade, so that the opening may 
be entirely closed if necessary. While it is preferable to use 
the maximum opening of the shutter in most instances, there are 
many times when it is desirable, for various reasons, to cut down 
the exposure by means of the shutter opening instead of a smaller 
diaphragm opening. 

A means for decreasing the shutter opening while the camera 
is in operation is called a shutter dissolve. By its employment 
are obtained such effects as fade-outs, fade-ins, dissolves, etc. 
There are two types of shutter dissolve, the automatic and the 
hand operated. In the automatic dissolve the pressure of a 
button on the camera throws a clutch into operation that closes 
the movable shutter blade gradually in a predetermined number 
of feet of film. With the hand operated dissolve the shutter may 
be closed gradually by hand in any length of film desired. Gen- 
erally neither one of these features is provided by camera manu- 
facturers, one of the few exceptions being the Bell & Howell 
camera, which has an automatic dissolve incorporated in the 
camera mechanism. So desirable is this form of dissolve that 
most professional cameramen have had them installed in their 
cameras by some mechanic who makes a specialty of cinematog- 
raphic machinery. It is to be expected that most manufacturers 
will meet the demand for this device in their later models of 

One of the hardest problems for the student motion picture 
photographer is the choice of a camera. The popularity of motion 
pictures has caused many inventors and promoters to place minia- 
ture or toy motion picture outfits on the market. While such 
cameras and projectors may have a field of their own among 
amateurs who have no serious intention of becoming professional 
motion picture photographers, they are of little use for any 
other purpose. 

The reason for their existence is the decreased cost in their 
operation, by reason of the very small film which they use. This 



puts them within the reach of those who could not otherwise 
afford the expense of private production. In some cases, they 
may be a boon to a student with professional aspirations whose 
financial position will not permit the purchase of apparatus using 
standard film. In general, however, the use of toy or miniature 
picture apparatus by those for whom the contents of this book 
are intended, is strongly deprecated. In the first place, cheap 
cameras using standard film may be purchased for the same price 
as a good miniature camera. In the second place, there is always 
a chance that the owner or user of a standard camera may be 
able to dispose of his production in some commercial way. On 
the other hand, there is no chance for the operator of the minia- 
ture camera to obtain any financial return of the expenditure 
which he has made. 

By judicious forethought, the owner of a standard camera 
may conduct his exf)eriments with very short lengths of film, 
using only a foot or two at a time. The cost of material need 
not influence even those whose financial restrictions are most 

It must be understood that the purchase of a cheap camera 
for serious work is not recommended. By all means, purchase 
the highest grade of camera that your means will allow. Gen- 
erally speaking, the price of a camera is in fairly direct propor- 
tion to the quality of work which it will produce. A cheap 
camera produces poor work because the manufacturer cannot 
afford to put accurate workmanship into it. On the other hand, 
some of the better makes of the cheaper cameras will produce 
pictures for certain purposes, which are almost, if not quite, as 
satisfactory as those made by a much higher priced instrument. 
It would be ridiculous for a man who expected to use his camera 
only for taking a few topical events for exhibition in a local 
theatre to buy an expensive studio outfit with an equipment of 
lenses, diaphragms, hoods and dissolves, when a cheaper camera 
would do perfectly well for his purpose. 

So many different types and brands of cameras have been 
placed on the market that it is not possible to give a description 
of all of them here, but most of the principal types are shown in 
the illustrations and the reader must depend upon his judgment 
in selecting the type of instrument best adapted to his re- 



The ease or difficulty with which the film may be threaded 
through the camera has an important bearing upon its usefulness. 
As a rule, a camera of a straight line threading, that is one in 
which there are no twists in the film in its passage through the 
camera, is the simplest and most desirable. On the other hand, 
the more compact models, in which the retorts are placed side 
by side, cannot be threaded without a twist in the film. 

The general rule for threading the camera is as follows : 

Place the feed retort in position. 

Pull out as much film as is needed to thread the camera. 

Pass the film over the feed sprocket and open the gate. 

Place the film smoothly between the side guides with the 
emulsion towards the lens. 

Close the gate carefully and latch, leaving a loop of film be- 
tween the feed sprocket and the upper portion of the gate large 
enough so that pulling the film down in the gate for six perfora- 
tions will not draw the loop taut between the sprocket and the 
top of the gate, and yet not so large that the loop will strike any 
portion of the camera mechanismi. 

Then leave another similar loop at the bottom of the gate. 

Carry the film around the take-up sprocket beneath the rollers, 
through the light trap in the retort to the spool in the take-up 
sprocket and the take-up spool. 

Fasten the cover of the take-up magazine. 

Give the handle a turn to see that the film is feeding through 
properly and close the camera. 

The film in the feed retort must be wound so that when the 
retort is in place the film is threaded properly, the emulsion side 
of the film in the gate toward the lens. In straight line thread- 
ing the loop is not a true loop but only a slackness in the film 
to provide for a quick downward movement of that portion of 
the film within the gate when it is dragged down by the claws. 

In cameras with the magazines side by side a true, or return, 
loop must be made in the film between the feed sprocket and the 
gate and between the gate and the take-up sprocket. Types of 
the double return loop threading are found in the DeBrie, Pathe 
Portable and Newman & Sinclair cameras. 

The Prevost, carrying its magazines side by side on top of the 
camera, is an exception, the feed magazine being directly above 
the feed sprocket and gate, feeds downward in a straight line 




fniCATIOI nifO MAT 21. 19 

Patented Apr. 29. 1919 



(An imiirovenieiit over Mr. Lavvluni's former patent. See diagram.) 









I— I 





and simple loop into the gate. From the bottom of the gate 
it goes upward and to the right in a long single loop, without a 
twist, to the take-up sprocket, where it feeds directly into the 
take-up retort. The return, or true, loop is the same sort of a 
loop as would be formed by wrapping a piece of film in a spiral 
direction about a round object, while the simple loop of straight 
threading is merely a slackness in the film without any other 
twist or turn. 

In addition to the simple directions given here there are a 
number of variations in different cameras which provide rollers 
for guiding the film in various directions. For example, in the 
old style Gillon a roller is provided which brings the film in a 
straight line from the feed retort, from whence it passes over 
another roller before passing to the feed sprocket ; the object of 
the second roller being to engage the film around a greater part 
of the circumference of the feed sprocket, in which only two 
teeth would engage the film around a greater arc of the sprocket's 


Chapter V 


TECHNICAL terms used in photography are often puzzling 
to the amateur, particularly those terms which relate to 
the science of optics. The following glossary of optical 
terms has been prepared to give general information as to the 
descriptive words and phrases in ordinary use. 

Equivalent focal length. Focal plane, is the plane in which a 
far distant object is imaged by the lens. The line drawn per- 
pendicularly through the center of the lens is its Optical Axis; 
the point at which the Focal Plane intersects the Optical Axis, 
the Focal Point of the lens. 

The Focal Length of a lens is the value upon which depends 
the size of the images produced by that lens. Its magnitude can 
be determined only by comparing the size of a given object with 
its image as formed by the lens. The distance of the object, 
unless very great, must also be considered. 

For far distant objects the size of the image is in direct pro- 
portion to the focal length. A lens of 12-inch focal length will 
produce an image of a distant steeple twice as large as the image 
formed by a lens of 6-inch focal length. 

Back Focus is the distance from the focal point to the rear 
surface of the lens. In very thin lenses, this back focus is equal 
to the focal length. In lenses of considerable thickness and in 
combinations of lenses, the back focus cannot be relied upon as 
any indication of the value of the focal length. The focal length 
of such a lens is equal to the focal length of a thin lens, which 
gives an image equivalent in size to the one formed by the com- 
bination lens, hence the term Equivalent Focal Length. 

In using short focus cinematographic lenses it is important to 
know both the back and the equivalent foci, since the construction 
of some makes of motion picture cameras is such that the re- 
volving shutter has not been placed close enough to the aperture 
to admit a lens of very short back focus without interfering with 
the shutter blades. 


(Photo by U. S. Signal Corps School of Fhotcgraphy) 

Lt. Charles Downs, S. C. U. S. A., operating a Bell and Howell 

Canieia. The Bell and Howell Camera is all metal and has a turret 

w'hich holds four lenses of different focal lengths. 


The installation of a 35 mm. lens often demands considerable 
alteration in a cine camera, not only of the shutter, but of the 
front board as well, since the lens flange ordinarily used with 
lenses of longer focal length is apt to cut off the comers of the 

On account of the exaggerated perspective, lenses of extremely 
short focus are not recommended for use except where limited 
space prevents the use of a lens of sufficient focal length to 
give a normal perspective. 

In the majority of photographic lenses the equivalent focal 
length is greater than the back focus, an exception being found 
in single meniscus or single concavo-convex combinations, which 
are practically never used as cine lenses where the back focus is 
the longer. 

By measuring back from the focal point a distance equal to 
the equivalent focal length, we find the position of the so-called 
optical center of the lens, which is nearly always near the dia- 

Angle of mew is the angle under which the diameter of the 
circular area covered sharply by the lens appears from the center 
of the lens. If the largest plate, which the lens covers sharply, 
is used, the angle of view is equal to the angle under which the 
diagonal of the plate appears from the center of the lens. The 
angle of view increases with the increase of the focus of the 
lens or the same size plate. Lenses for general purposes are 
calculated for an angle of about 60°. Lenses covering 75° to 
100° are termed Wide Angle Lenses. Wide angle lenses have 
necessarily shorter foci than other lenses rated for the same plate. 

As a motion picture is customarily viewed at a distance 
relatively greater than a still photo the angle of view averaging 
nearest normal is about 28°, using the base and not the diagonal 
of the picture as a basis for calculation. This is the angle sub- 
tended by a two-inch lens on the standard ^ by i inch aperture 
or picture frame. Lenses of shorter focus than this are termed 
wide angle, although the angle of view is still not so great as 
that found in many still pictures which are taken with lenses 
which would be far from being considered wide angle for an or- 
dinary photograph. 

The circular area which is covered by the lens on the ground 
glass is called its image circle, and Its diarrteter is expressed in 
linear measure (inches or centimeters). 



Effective aperture is measured by the diameter of the beam of 
light admitted by the lens. The effective aperture is not, as often 
thought, equal to the diameter of the front lens, nor is it equal 
to the linear diameter of the diaphragm opening used. It equals 
the diameter of the diaphragm as it appears when observed 
through the front lens; therefore, the effective aperture cannot 
be found by unscrewing the front lens and measuring the actual 
diameter of the diaphragm. Only in the case of a landscape lens, 
or meniscus, where the diaphragm is placed in front of the lens, 
is the effective aperture expressed by the linear diameter of 
the diaphragm. 

The actual diameter of the effective aperture may be obtained 
by placing a piece of developing paper against the glass of the 
front combination of the lens and exposing it through the lens. 
The diameter of the round black spot obtained by developing the 
paper is that of the effective aperture of the lens. 

The effective aperture varies, of course, with the size of the 
diaphragm opening. 

Relative aperture is a fraction which expresses the ratio of 
effective aperture to focal length ; for instance, relative aperture 
of 1 :6.3 means that the focal length is 6.3 times greater than 
the effective aperture. The denominator of the fraction, in this 
instance the figure 6.3, is called the F value. If the relative aper- 
ture is known, the effective aperture can be found by multiplying 
the relative by the focus. For example: F:i6o; relative aper- 
ture = 1 :8; effective aperture = 160 x i :S = 20. The relative 
aperture is a term of greatest value and convenience in judging 
the time of exposure. All lenses of the same relative aperture, 
no matter what their focus may be, require the same exposure 
under the same conditions. An exception will be mentioned 
under the heading "Depth of Focus." 

The exposure necessary for different relative apertures can be 
found easily because they are proportionate to the square of the 
F values. For instance, if two lenses are compared with the 
relative apertures i 4 and i :8 respectively, the squares of F 
values are 16 and 64 respectively, which means that the 1 :8 re- 
quires four times as long exposure as the 1 4 lens, since 
64/16 = 4. This, of course, holds true also in comparing the 
different stops. 

Speed. The relative aperture is very commonly called the 



speed of the lens, although speeds of two lenses are not propor- 
tionate to their relative apertures, but to the squares of the 
aperatures. In other words, a lens with the speed of i 4 is not 
twice as fast as a lens with the speed of i :8, but four times so, 
as the comparison of the squares of their relative apertures 
1/16 and 1/64 shows. 

There are two methods of designating lens stops, znz: the 
so-called F System of the Royal Photographic Society, wherein 
the stop is expressed by fractions of the focal length, and the 
U. S. (Uniform System), in which every following stop requires 
a doubling of the exposure or represents half the speed of the 
foregoing, the exposure required with F 4 being taken as the 

Comparison between the F system and the U. S. (Uniform 
System) of Stops: 

F. System F:4 F:4.5 F:5.6 F:6.3 F:8 F:11.3 F:16 F:22.6 F:33 

U. S. System... 1 1.2 2 .2.5 4 8 16 32 64 

The above table gives the comparative stops in the two systems 
and shows at the same time the exposure values of the different 
stops in the F system. For instance, F 111.3 requires four times 
as long as F 15.6; and F :32, an exposure sixteen times longer than 
F :8, since S/2 = 4 and 64/4 = 16. 

At first glance it would seem that the U. S. system would be 
the more convenient one to use since it gives the relative exposure 
direct, but in practice it is really just as simple to use the F 
system if it is well fixed in the mind that each succeeding F 
number as customarily marked on the lens barrel is half the 
speed of the preceding one. Wherever any calculation is in- 
volved the F number is the one used and a U. S. number must 
first be resolved to its F equivalent to obtain a result. The 
U. S. is becoming obsolete except on some of the simpler hand 
cameras with low grade lenses. 

Depth of focus. Very closely connected with the speed of 
a lens is its depth of focus. All well-corrected lenses image 
only one plane of the object space sharply. The reason why a 
lens focused at a house images also with sufficient sharpness, 
a horse in front and a tree back of it, is that a slight racking out 
of focus will not cause an indistinctness great enough to be notice- 
able to the eye. The range of sharpness forward and back of 



the object is called "depth of focus" or "depth of field." It de- 
pends on several factors, viz: the focal length of the lens, the 
aperture used (consequently its speed), the distance of the object, 
and the amount or lack of sharpness which seems permissible 
to the operator. Of these factors, focal length, aperture and 
distance are definite numerical values. 

That the amount of indistinctness permissible on the picture 
is susceptible of numerical expression is easily seen from the 
following: If an object at a given distance is in sharp focus, the 

D is the Depth of Field and is that distance between two planes 

within which all objects are rendered reasonably sharp on the 

ground glass. It varies directly as the /; value and inversely 

as the focal length. 

light issuing from a point of that object is converged to a point 
on the plate. Light issuing from a point in the original object 
will also be converged to a point, but not on the plate, the cone 
of light showing in either case a circular patch of light on the 
plate. This circle of light is known as the "circle of confusion." 
Its diameter can be used to express the amount of indistinctness 
existing in a picture. If the circle of confusion is not greater 
than i/io mm. or 1/250 inch, it would appear as a point to an 
eye 10 inches away, hence, an object no point of which is imaged 
by a circle larger than i/io mm. would appear sharp. 

No matter what their type of construction may be, all lenses 
of the same equivalent foci and the same relative aperture require 
the same exposure — that is, have the same speed, other condi- 
tions being equal. They will have the same depth also. 

The depth of focus decreases: i. with increase of focal 
length; 2. with increase of relative aperture (speed); 3. with 
increasing nearness of object. 

Of two lenses of equivalent foci, the one with the lower rela- 
tive aperture (sp«ed) has the greater depth of field. On the 

V 68 


Other hand, if the focal length of the lens is very short, a speed 
as high as F: 4.5 will allow bringing every object from 10 feet 
to infinity to a sharp focus, while a studio lens of long focus and 
the same speed may not even image an object of the depth of 
a head sharply within the range of the length of a studio. 

Speed, great focal length and depth of focus cannot be com- 
bined in the same lens. This is an unalterable law of optics. If 
speed be the most desirable quality, depth of focus must be sac- 
rificed ; if depth of focus, speed. This does not detract from the 
value of fast lenses, because with a given lens the depth of focus 
can be increased by diaphragming down the lens which means re- 
duction of speed. If a short exposure demands the use of the 
lens wide open, one must not expect great depth of focus. Under 
ordinary conditions of light and distance, with fair judgment, and 
with lenses not too long in focus, these opposing qualities may be 
happily combined, so that lack of depth is hardly perceptible. 

Some apparent exceptions may be stated, for instance, a lens 
which produces images of general "softness," i.e., a lens in 
which the aberrations are not corrected to the utmost perfec- 
tion. Such lenses, which lack snap and brilliancy, may show 
greater depth of focus than a first-class lens. There is less 
difference between the "sharpest" focus and the image of objects 
forward and back of it, simply because the "sharpest" focus itself 
is not really sharp. Thus the statement that one lens has a 
greater depth of focus than others of the same aperture and 
focus, must be regarded as rather detrimental to the lens, for as 
stated above, depth of focus cannot be made subject to special 

Another case may be mentioned in which one lens may really 
have an advantage over another in regard to depth of focus. 
In some camera constructions correction of astigmatism is ob- 
tained at a great sacrifice of simplicity by employing an unusual 
number of lenses separated by air spaces. There is a certain loss 
of light by reflection on a lens surface and it is easily intelligible 
that the fewer reflecting surfaces in a lens, the smaller the loss 
of light. In some constructions the number of the lens surfaces 
runs as high as ten, while the Tessar contains only six. The 
consequence is that the lens with the greater number of reflecting 
surfaces requires a longer exposure than a lens of simple con- 
struction, although both may have the same relative aperture. 



Or to express it differently : the lens with the greater number of 
reflections requires an aperture of F:6.3 with a certain time of 
exposure, while the other lens will give a negative of equal 
density with its aperture stopped down to Y\j.2 or F:7.5, which 
means a gain in depth of focus for the lens with the smaller num- 
ber of reflecting surfaces. 

Cinematograph lenses are usually made with the smallest num- 
ber of reflecting surfaces consistent with the requisite correction. 
They are also slightly faster than larger lenses of equal aperture 
because their small size makes the glass to be traversed by the 
light much thinner. 

Spherical Aberration. Owing to the fact that lenses are made 
wath spherical curves, all single collective lenses have the defect 
of imaging an object through their marginal zone at a shorter 
focus than through their central zone. Such a lens may 
give a sharp image with a small central diaphragm, and a sharp 
image as well if the center is covered with a round opaque 
stop so that only an annular zone around the margin comes into 
action. But both images will not lie in the same plane, nor will 
they be of the same size. Even if a lens is spherically corrected, 
so that the parallel rays penetrating the lens near the optical axis 
and those going through the lens near the margin come to exactly 
the same focus, there may be a slight remnant of spherical aber- 
ration in the zone between center and margin. Small remnants 
of this kind (so-called Zonal Errors) are found in almost all 
photographic lenses, especially of the cemented symmetrical type. 
The unsymmetrical combination upon which the Tessar con- 
struction is based, allows a better correction of the zonal errors 
than any other known construction. The greater the relative 
aperture (speed of the lens), the greater the task to correct the 
spherical aberration for all zones of the lens. 

Unsatisfactory spherical correction is indicated either by a 
general indistinctness of the image or by a fairly sharp image, 
which is entirely covered by halo (fog). Stopping down the 
aperture may improve the performance of a badly corrected ob- 

Coma. The spherical aberration of pencils of light going 
through the lens in oblique direction is called coma. This mani- 
fests itself in the fact that although objects in the center of the 
field appear perfectly defined, objects outside the center show a 



one-sided indistinctness which increases toward the margin of the 
field, and in the image of a point-shaped object assumes the form 
of a tail like a comet, wherefrom this aberration takes its name. 
Stopping down reduces the amount of coma. 

Astigmatism is that aberration which withstood longest the 
efforts of the opticians. A lens which is not corrected for 
astigmatism will not image sharply horizontal and vertical lines 
at the same time near the margin of the plate, although the 
center of the image may be perfect. This aberration is in- 
herent in narrow pencils of light, so that stopping down the lens 
will not decrease the amount of astigmatism to the same degree 
that it decreases other uncorrected aberrations. 


In the absence of a test chart a very simple test for astigmatism 
may be made by focusing on the joints of a brick wall. No 
matter how much the lens may be racked in or out, both horizon- 
tal and vertical lines will never be sharply defined at the same 
time near the margin of the plate. 

Curvature of Field. The ordinary lens images a flat object, 
not in a plane, but in a spheroidal surface, so that when the 
center of the image is focused sharp, the ground glass has to be 
brought nearer to the lens to obtain a sharp image of an object 
point near the margin of the plate. 

It Is only In recent years that It Is possible to correct astigma- 
tism, together with the curvature of field In lenses of high speed. 
Lenses which are free from spherical aberration for a large 



aperture and produce a flat image free from astigmatism, are 
called "Anastigmats," the prefix "an" meaning "without," hence, 
without astigmatism. 

Distortion is that fault of a lens which prevents the render- 
ing of straight lines as such. The straight lines are repro- 
duced as curves. All single lenses used with a diaphragm 
in front (landscape lenses) are subject to this defect in some 
degree. The distortion is called "cushion-shaped," when the 



curves are concave, and "barrel shaped," when the curves are 
convex toward the margin of the plate. 

Lenses which are free from distortion are called rectiUnear. 

A lens which distorts cannot be improved by using smaller 

Distortion has nothing to do with curvature of field. The 
image can be properly flat and the definition perfect, and yet 
straight lines may be distorted into curves. 

Chromatic aberration is due to the fact that in a lens, unless 
corrected from chromatic aberration, the visual rays which form 



the image seen on the ground glass do not form the images at 
the same position as the actinic or chemical rays, which aifect 
the sensitive plate. Since the image is focused with rays for 
which the eye is most sensitive, the image formed by the rays 
for which the plate is most sensitive will fall outside of the visual 
focus (focal point), and therefore must be blurred on the plate. 
Of course all photographic lenses which are of any value at all 
must, first of all, be corrected for chromatic aberration. An 
objective which has chromatic aberration is sometimes said to 
have chemical focus. 




U — Focal plane of Violet Rays 
R — Focal plane of Red Rays. 

This is not an uncommon defect in cinematograph lenses, but 
may easily be tested for by focusing upon coarse printed matter 
with other placards at varying distances before and beyond the 
one focused upon. If any of the placards film clearer than 
the one focused upon it is plain proof that the visual and chemi- 
cal foci do not coincide. 

Definition is that quality which enables a lens to produce 
sharp and crisp images, and its presence in an objective is 
a proof of exact workmanship as well as careful computation. 
The best workmanship will be wasted in a lens not well designed, 
and bad workmanship will annihilate the best computer's skill. 
If the various defects and aberrations are corrected and the work- 
man has done everything to carry out the designer's ideas, the 



lens will give at full aperture a flat and sharply cut image over 
the entire area covered. The area covered with perfection is 
sometimes called area of critical definition. Since most of the 
aberrations depend upon the opening of the lens, the definition 
may be improved in some cases by reducing the opening at the 
sacrifice of speed. 

Illumination. We speak of even illumination when the margin 
of the plate receives as much light as the center, and the negative 
shows an even density over its entire surface. A perfectly 
even illumination is only possible with small stops, especially 
when a larger plate than the lens is rated for, is used. All 
speed lenses when used with full aperture, show more or less 
drop in the illumination (vignetting) toward the margin of 
the field covered. 

This vignetting or cutting of oblique rays by the lens barrel is 
apt to show quite plainly in pictures taken at large aperture with 
extreme short focus cine lenses. To get a full exposure at the 
edges may even require a slightly larger diaphragm opening than 
is needed with a lens of longer focus where the vignetting effect 
is imperceptible within the small area of the aperture plate. 

Covering Power is expressed by the area which the evenly 
illuminated flat field covers with perfect definition. It depends 
upon the diameter of the lenses and on the degree to which the 
different aberrations are corrected and may, in some cases, be 
increased by using smaller stops. 

The greater the relative aperture and the greater the covering 
power, the more valuable the lens. 

Flare Spots. Occasionally a negative will show a nebulous 
patch of light covering shadows and high lights alike. Such 
patches are called flare spots or ghosts. They are formed by 
light reflected within the lens, at the lens surfaces bounding 
air spaces. It may be stated as a rule that every lens having an 
air space will show a flare spot under some conditions. Al- 
though it is possible to so adjust the curvature and direction of 
the lens surfaces that the flare spot is spread over nearly the 
whole plate (therefore not noticeable) this generally could be ac- 
complished only by sacrificing more important corrections. 

Before it can be said that one lens is superior to another with 
respect to flare spot formation, the two lenses must be thoroughly 



tried out under a great variety of conditions of illumination. 
Generally it will be found that if a lens shows a flare spot and 
another of different construction does not, by changing condi- 
tions, the second lens will show a flare spot and the first will not. 

Very small stops may show flare spots when larger stops do 

Flare spots are most apt to appear when photographing an 
object against a strong light and least apt to appear when the 
light is coming from back of the camera. 

A condition resembling flare is apt to occur in a dirty lens par- 
ticularly from almost imperceptible spots from oil spattered by 
the camera mechanism or from finger prints. Moral : Examine 
the lens frequently and keep it immaculately clean and well 

Flare will occur with the best of lenses if strong extraneous 
light is allowed to strike the lens. Moral number two : Use a 
lens hood. 


Chapter VI 

THE first requisite for obtaining a sharply defined image on 
cine film is focusing the lens accurately. The poorest 
lens made will make a sharper image at its focus than the 
best lens made which is out of focus. 

Most cinematographers are prone to focus each scene upon 
the ground glass or upon the film for every different set up of 
the camera and many even focus between scenes in the same set 
taken at the same distance. This is decidedly wrong and a grievous 
waste of valuable time. Often the cameraman has used from five 
to fifteen minutes of the entire producing company's valuable 
time in obtaining an accurate focus. 

This is not a criticism of the photographer who composes his 
picture on the film aperture, although many also take an unneces- 
sarily long time for that operation. 

The fact of the matter is that no man can focus as accurately 
every time as a well mounted lens can be calibrated for focus 
and the cameraman who has not taken the time to accurately 
scale his lens must be very inefficient in focusing. Many of them 
do not seem to know that the focal distance of the lens is always 
the same for any object at a given distance from the camera. 
Others are content to work with a camera so ramshackle that 
even if they were to calibrate their lens mount it would not 
work the same two days in succession. A tape line measure- 
ment from the front of the camera takes but a moment and with 
the lens properly scaled on a solid mount the photographer is 
always sure of a sharp focus. 

The scale is almost indispensable to the topical operator whose 
work must often be made on the jump. He can soon learn to 
estimate with his eyes within a few inches or feet of the distance 
of the principal figure that he is taking. A few feet away from 
the camera the depth of focus is so great that it is easy to set 
the lens quickly between fifteen or twenty feet and the infinity 
mark and be absoluely sure of a sharp focus. He must have 



very poor judgment indeed if he cannot estimate distances under 
fifteen feet within a very few inches. The more careful studio 
worker can always verify his judgment with the tape measure 
and in many cases, by a proper arrangement of his focusing de- 
vice, is able to change the focus as a figure advances toward or 
retreats from the camera. 

In this day of multitudinous effects of moving cameras on 
trucks and wheels, slide ways and moving cranes, it is essential 
that the up-to-date worker be able to change the focus while 
taking pictures. 

We shall soon have practical motor-driven cameras and gimbal 
panoramas which may be turned in any direction without the use 
of two panorama handles at once, as is now necessary to produce 
a straight diagonal panorama. These are logical conclusions and 
even today many of the effects must be produced by two and 
even three or more working simultaneously with one camera. 
Simplification of manipulation should be sought by the operator 
who wishes to keep in the front rank. 

Here are a few simple directions for scaling or calibrating a 
lens mount. 

Before starting to scale the mount give your camera a thorough 
looking over, making sure of the following points: 

First — That the film in its travel past the aperture plate or 
frame opening is always in flat contact with the opening; that 
there is no possibility of the pressure plate sliding askew in its 
seat on the gate and producing an uneven pressure against the 
film ; that the side guides are not so close together that they will, 
by pressure against the edges of the film, cause it to belly or 
buckle; that the fingers, claws, or pins, that feed the film down 
for each frame are in perfect alignment and do not wrinkle the 
film by a diagonal downward pull, caused by the pin engaging and 
dragging the film down by a pull on one side only ; that the gate 
tension is always sufficient to hold the film against the frame 
place securely but without needless friction. 

It is well to mention here also that velvet lined tracks, pressure 
plates and gates are not only an abomination when trying to 
obtain accurate results in focusing, but are also great scratch and 
static breeders and should be replaced wherever possible with 
some hard, non-corrosive metal polished to a glass smoQthness, 



as perfectly straight and flat as can be obtained, and with short 
tapers and rounded edges at all points where they receive the 
moving film. 

Second — That the parts of the camera which hold the flange 
of the lens mount should be so rigid as to eliminate any pos- 
sibility of there being the minutest change in the distance be- 
tween the frame aperture and the lens mount. Wood is far too 
liable to warp and bulge to be trusted for a lens front board and 
any wooden front board supporting the lens, should be changed 
to one of metal or other rigid material and firmly connected to 
the metal frame of the camera by metal struts or columns to 
which it may be firmly screwed or clamped. Bayonet joints are 
used for this purpose in many cameras. If they are used they 
should be frequently inspected to see that they have not worn 
and permitted play between the locking keys and the lens frame. 

Third — The backlash or play or lost motion in the focusing 
mount itself should be reduced to a minimum. In many cameras, 
especially those in which the focusing is done from the back by a 
system of rods and connections, it is impossible to eliminate a 
considerable amount of this lost motion. If it can be assured 
that this backlash is a constant factor, that is always the same, 
it may be advisable to calibrate in both directions. 

For example, suppose the camera was focused upon an object 
fifteen feet away and one wished to change the focus to ten 
feet. If the backlash were considerable the pointer might be 
moved back to the scale mark for ten feet without moving the 
lens, in which case the camera would still be focused at fifteen 
feet and to make the lens move to the right focus for ten feet, 
the points would have to be pushed on to the mark for eight 
feet, although the backlash now being in the opposite direction 
would allow it to be brought back to the ten mark without mov- 
ing the lens. As this backlash is generally a constant factor, 
the error produced by it is avoided by making two scales, one 
for the pointer when being turned in one direction and another 
for it when turned in the opposite direction. Such a focusing 
device is, of course, more sensitive to wear than any other and 
should be carefully checked for error at least once a month. 

Having thus checked up the sources of error in the camera, 
we are now ready to scale the lens mount. For this we need a 



piece of very fine ground glass the same width as the film, a good 
focusing or small magnifying glass, a tape line, and a test chart. 
Lens testing charts may be obtained from any good optician : 
Bausch & Lomb or Wollensack Optical Company, both of 
Rochester, N. Y., each publish good ones which they would prob- 
ably be glad to send for ten cents postage. For our purpose, 
however, a newspaper with some bold headlines will serve per- 
fectly well. 

Set the camera up rigidly on the tripod and pin the newspaper 
or test chart against a well lighted wall. If you can improvise 
some sort of light easel for the chart it will be much easier to move 
it accurately to the different distances, than to move the camera. 
Place a short strip of film in the gate of the camera, remove the 
front board and, with calipers, compasses, or a finely divided scale, 
make sure that the distance from the film to a steel straight edge 
held across the camera front is exactly the same as the distance 
from the straight edge to the ground surface of the ground glass 
when it is held at the aperture instead of the film. If there is any 
variation in this distance the film is either buckled or out of con- 
tact and the cause should be found and remedied. After checking 
the film in this way a second time, we may now feel reasonably 
safe in going ahead with our calibration. 

First rack the lens out as far as it will go and with the ground 
glass in place and making sure of minute sharpness move the 
chart or the camera until the chart is in focus. Now with the 
tape line, measure the distance from the front board to the chart. 
This distance will be the closest that you can bring an object to 
your camera and have it remain in focus. This distance depends 
on the range of the focusing mount and is ordinarily one to 
three feet. If you wish to make closeups of small visiting cards 
or other small objects you can do so by using a supplementary 
lens like the kodak portrait lens or have a mechanic make you an 
extension ring one side of which fits the lens flange and the other 
side the lens mount. By the use of this you can extend the 
distance between the lens and the film and thereby regulate the 

With a sharp steel point mark this as the first point on your 
scale and the distance which it represents ; then at successive 
greater distances, each carefully measured and recorded on your 



scale, complete your range of distances, i8 inches, 2 feet, 3, 4, 5, 
6, 8, TO, 12, 15, 20, 35 and infinity being a good range. Dis^- 
tances between these can be estimated easily as being proportion- 
ately between the nearest known distances on the scale. For 
objects closer than three feet, unless your scale is marked in 
differences of a few inches, it is safer to use the ground glass ; as 
the nearer the object the greater the change in the focal distance 
of the lens. 

If you have followed these directions closely you can with the 
aid of your tape measure be sure of getting your pictures in 
focus every shot. 

Besides the purely mechanical errors that are liable to occur 
in focusing a cinematographic lens, there remain others to which 
reference has not been made. 

These come chiefly under two heads : First, the inherent 
errors of the lens ; and second, errors in the method of focusing. 

Cinematograph lenses are not apochomatic, that is, corrected 
for light of all different wave lengths. If, however, they have 
been corrected for visual and actinic focus this is of no par- 
ticular importance as the ordinary brands of film are only sen- 
sitive to the actinic blue and blue-violet rays. 

Without entering too deeply into the physics of light rays and 
their wave lengths, it is still important that we take into con- 
sideration some of their better known properties and discuss them 
with relation to the subject in hand. 

We are all familiar with the brilliant band of prismatic colors 
which results from passing a ray of white light through a prism. 
The light waves may be compared to sound waves of different 
pitch and there are many light waves which are invisible to the 
human eye just as there are sound waves too low and too high 
in pitch to be audible to the human ear. The red end of the 
spectrum is the low pitch end, or long wave length end, and does 
not affect ordinary photographic emulsions except by greatly 
prolonged exposure. For this reason we illuminate dark rooms 
with red lights, to which our eyes are sensitive while the film is 

The actinic and visual rays are not two separate and distinct 
kinds of light, but are terms which are used to designate two 
different sections of the spectrum which overlap one another. 


(Photo by U. S. Signal Corps School of Photography) 

Students receiving instruction in the use of the Akeley camera. 
This ingenious instrument can be panned and tilted in any direction 
by the handle projecting at the back. It has a focal plane shutter 
and numerous other improvements found in no other make of 

cine camera. 


The visual rays are those which we discern when we make the 
spectrum with a prism as has been described — the actinic, how- 
ever, begin in the region of bluish green and extend far into the 
ultra violet, which though invisible to the eye, extend for a dis- 
tance beyond the visible several times the length of the visible 

If it were not for the fact that ordinary optical glass is prac- 
tically opaque to these ultra violet rays, we would be let in for 
a tremendous lot of complications with invisible lights, which 
could fog the film without visible knowledge on our part. Most 
of us have a hard enough time to keep from fogging the film 
as it is, without having to take precautions against an invisible 
enemy, such as the X-ray photographer has to contend with. 
The X-ray photographer or radiographer, as he prefers to be 
called, has either to keep the photographic materials at a long 
distance from his Crookes tubes or to wrap them carefully in 
sheet lead. 

The invisible rays at each end of the spectrum are intensely 
interesting subjects to study and the readers will do well in 
their spare time to get some popular books on physics, and read 
up the subject of light, where they will find fascinating facts 
that have no room here. 

By means of certain dye chemicals, it is possible to sensitize 
ordinary emulsions so that they are sensitive not only to all the 
visible colors but to the infra-red as well. Sir W. W. de Abney 
has even photographed a kettle by the infra-red rays emanating 
from boiling water contained therein. Radiant heat and infra- 
red are practically synonymous and interchangeable terms. 

Professor R. W. Wood, of Johns Hopkins University, one of 
the most distinguished of American physicists, has attracted 
much attention recently by ingeniously photographing the com- 
mon objects about us, as well as the planets, by these invisible 
rays. As has been stated, glass is opaque to ultra violet light but 
quartz and rock crystal are as transparent to them as is glass to 
ordinary light. Therefore to make photographs by ultra violet 
light, it is necessary to use a filter or screen to keep out the 
visible light just as one uses a yellow screen with orthochromatic 
plates to screen off the blue rays to which these plates are also 



Silver foil and bromine vapor confined in a rock crystal cell 
are opaque to visible rays, but transparent to ultra violet Pro- 
fessor Wood also discovered that a black dye called nitroso- 
dimethyl aniline possesses this property. 

For the infra-red or heat waves a glass lens will serve. Again 
it is necessary to screen off the visible light, which can be done 
with pitch or thin sheets of vulcanite. A number of these in- 
teresting photographs by Professor Wood were published in the 
Popular Science Monthly. 

It may puzzle some readers to know why we distinguish 
between visual and actinic rays if all the actinic rays with which 
we are concerned are also visible. The reason is this : The blue 
and violet rays which comprise the actinic rays produce the 
strongest effect on a photographic emulsion and the weakest 
effect of any of the visual rays on the retina. Therefore when 
we focus on the ground glass we are adjusting the image by the 
strongest visual or the yellow rays and we are unconsciously dis- 
regarding the actinic or blue image, because it is overpowered 
and quenched by the more visible yellow rays. Although it may 
amount to considerable when the picture is magnified on the 
screen, the difference is so slight that it requires a powerful 
focusing glass and an extremely fine-grained ground glass to per- 
ceive it with the eye. Suppose the actinic and the visual focal 
planes were 2/1000 of an inch apart, about the thickness of a 
thin cigarette paper, by theoretical calculations it would appear 
to produce a blurring more than an inch in width in any sharp 
outline on the screen with a sixteen foot picture, considering the 
lens to have been used at F 3.5. Actually, for several reasons 
which have to do with the theory of development and light dis- 
persion, it would be much more. 

Ordinarily we would consider the edge of a cigarette paper 
as defining a sharp line, and yet the visible color fringe in the 
image on the ground glass for this same amount of error in 
correction would be only six ten thousandths (6/10,000) of an 
inch or less than one third (H) as thick as the cigarette paper. 

Suppose, on the other hand, that a lens is absolutely correct and 
you are taking a scene which requires F 3.5 aperture and your 
error in focusing is two one-thousandths (2/1000) of an inch, 
or less than one-third (yi) the thickness of the film, the amount 
of blurring will be the same. 



With the lens stopped down these errors are reduced propor- 
tionately, but with a good lens, properly focused, you should 
get just as sharp a picture of objects at the same distance at 
F 3.5 as at F 16. 

Do not misinterpret this statement to mean depth of focus. 
It means that at F 3.5 and the lens focused at sixteen feet (16 ft.) 
all objects in the range of the camera and sixteen feet (16 ft) 
from it, should be just as sharp as those taken at F 16, but it 
does not mean that any object closer or farther away than 
sixteen feet (16 ft.) with the lens set for that distance will be 
as sharp at F 3.5 as at F 16. 

Instead of using a ground glass or a piece of film for focusing, 
get a piece of first quality lantern slide cover glass or better still, 
get a piece of "optical flat" from the optician and cut it to the 
correct size to fit in the film rack at the frame aperture. 

Get an optician to rule the glass in one-eighth to one-quarter 
inch squares making the lines as thin and fine as possible, and 
just deep enough to retain a spider-web line of fine black enamel 
or lampblack when rubbed over the surface of the glass. If you 
have a fine pointed glazier's diamond you can do this yourself. 
When you have finished, the cross lines should look as if they 
had been drawn with india ink and a ruling pen, but should be 
many times finer than could possibly be made with a pen. 

Now you must have a focusing glass of fairly high power, 
preferably of the type known as a focusing loup, which is an 
achromatic magnifying glass set in a short tube with a screw 
thread for adjusting the focus. Place the ruled glass against the 
lower end of the loup with the lines outward and with it turned 
to the light, adjust the focus until the black lines are the sharpest. 
Now place the ruled screen in the aperture plate with the lines 
toward the lens and with the loup against the screen, focus the 
lens. You will see the image just as in the opera glass or tele- 
scope, except that it is upside down. When the image and the 
lines are in focus at the same time and the lines look like bars 
dividing the picture, your camera lens is in focus. 

This is termed an aerial focus. As the human eye has a con- 
siderable range of focal adjustment, or "accommodation," as it 
is called, and could possibly focus on the aerial image even if it 
were not quite in the focal plane, the lines on the glass form 



a correct fixation point for the ocular focus and prevent its stray- 
ing ahead or behind the proper plane. 

If the focusing glass which you use for this is an achromat 
from a reputable maker and you can detect a prismatic fringe 
about any of the objects on which you are focusing, you may be 
sure that your photographic objective (your cinematographic 
lens) is not properly corrected. If so, return it to the maker. 
Don't try to take pictures with it. 

A microscopic focusing tube with which a needle point sharp- 
ness of focus may be obtained almost instantly is such a com- 
paratively easy device for a cameraman to make, that it is re- 
markable that more camera workers have not provided them- 
selves with such an instrument. 

Practically every cameraman carries a focusing glass or mag- 
nifying loup of some simple character, but one who has used a 
focusing glass of medium high power will never again be satis- 
fied with the rough approximation that is the best he can do with 
the ground glass and an ordinary loup. 

It is remarkable how many cameramen regard an aerial image 
as something mysterious and beyond their comprehension. When 
the camera is focused correctly the image exists at the focal plane, 
i.e., the frame opening, whether it be cast upon the film or 
ground glass or whether they be absent altogether. In focusing 
with the ordinary low power glass on the film or a piece of ground 
glass it is impossible, except by chance, to obtain a definition 
which is finer than the structure of the film or the granular struc- 
ture "'f the abraded or ground surface of the ground glass. 

The ground glass or film is an almost indispensable part of 
the cinematographer's outfit, it is true. Its use, however, should 
be for the composition of the picture and the placing of the side 
lines rather than as a necessary part of a focusing device. We 
cannot dispense with it if we have nothing more than ordinary 
focusing glass to depend on for sharpness of definition. If we 
attempt to view the aerial image with a low power glass, even 
though it be mounted in a tube at the proper focal distance for 
the eye, it cannot be relied upon unless a cross lined glass is 
interposed in the focal plane. 

The human eye is a wonderful instrument and is able by a 
muscular contraction of its flexible lens to change the focal length 



of the lens so that either near or distant objects may be brought 
automatically to focus. This is termed the accommodation of 
the eye ; that is, the eye accommodates itself within certain limits 
to more or less diverging rays of light. If we attempt to focus 
on the aerial image at the aperture plate without providing a 
cross line at the focal plane so as to focus the eye at the proper 
distance we might find that the eye had accommodated itself to 
an aerial image having a position before or behind the actual 
focal plane. With the cross line in place, however, the image 
must be in the same plane as the cross line or it will be out of 
focus, so that when focus is obtained both the cross line and 
the image are equally clear and the image will be bisected by 
the cross line as in a surveyor's transit. 

If, however, we take a step forward and increase considerably 
the power of the magnifying glass with which we examine the 
aerial image the slightest deviation of the image from the focal 
plane throws the lens system of the microscope so badly out of 
focus that it is much beyond the range of the eye's accommoda- 
tion to bring it to a focus and we are thereby enabled to dispense 
with the cross line if we wish, as we have no further use for it. 

It is imperative, however, in , using a high power glass that 
some rigid mounting be provided by which it may be made cer- 
tain that the magnifying glass be set always at the correct focal 
distance from the focal plane. 

Resolved into its lowest principles a high power focusing de- 
vice is a compound microscope mounted in a camera so that the 
image produced by the camera lens may be considerably en- 
larged. In the foregoing sentence the words "high power" are 
used merely as a term to differentiate a compound microscope 
from the magnification produced by a simple lens combination as 
found in an ordinary focusing loup. In reality, such a micro- 
scope is of very low power as compared to compound microscopes 
used for bacteriological examination. 

Probably the cheapest and quickest way to obtain such a glass 
is to buy a student's ordinary compound microscope, which may 
be had for prices as low as two dollars and fifty cents to five 
dollars. Withdraw the tube containing the eye piece and ob- 
jective and mount it directly in the camera. 

If the construction of the camera prohibits the tube's being 



mounted permanently, it is an easy matter to provide a ring 
mount into which it may be sHpped for use, taking care to pro- 
vide a stop screw or ring upon the tube of the microscope, so 
that the instrument must come to rest at the proper distance from 
the aperture plate. 

The first section of an ordinary brass draw telescope contains 
a similar lens combination and an old or second-hand telescope, 
if it can be purchased at a reasonable figure, will make an ex- 
cellent focusing lens system. 

If you are more ambitious you may purchase from one of the 
many excellent microscope makers an eye-piece and a low power 
objective and mount them yourself in a brass tube. An excellent 
set may be purchased for about fifteen dollars or even less and 
should you wish to go in for photo-micrographic motion pictures, 
you will be already provided with a lens set for photo-microg- 
raphy. It must be understood that the higher the power of the 
magnifying glass the smaller will be the field. As any lens worthy 
of being fitted with a microscopic focusing tube must be truly 
anastigmatic, all objects within its range at the same distance as 
the object focused upon will be in focus also. The image 
through the glass presents also the advantage of being right side 
up, so that you will find your camera an excellent telescope which 
you focus with your focusing device instead of the usual magnifier. 

The DeBrie camera is fitted with a focusing device admired 
by many cameramen. It gives the entire field of the aperture 
plate right side up and slightly magnified. It is always in place 
in the camera and the image may be almost instantly examined 
on the film by drawing out the eye-piece at the back and opening 
it. Such a glass may be made by using an objective of much 
longer focus than is ordinarily used in a microscopic combina- 
tion. It gives such a low power that it is not safe to use with- 
out film or ground glass in the aperture on account of the ac- 
commodation of the eye, as previously explained. 

A dodge to use in this case is to perforate the film and turn 
back until the hole is in the centre of the aperture plate, when the 
edges of the hole will serve the same purpose as a cross line. 
Unfortunately, unless the perforating device is correctly placed 
in relation to the frame line turning back will not bring it into 
correct position. 



For the ordinary sized camera one may use for a DeBrie type 
of glass, the lens combinations from two achromatic loups of 
about one inch focal length, using one for the objective and one 
for the eye-piece. 

With such a low power objective the distance from the aperture 
plate can be varied considerably, but is best determined experi- 
mentally to suit the distance from the aperture plate to the back 
of the camera. 

It is well to arrange to have the eye-piece project beyond the 
back of the camera ; otherwise it is hard to get the eye close 
enough for proper inspection. 

For the first type of glass described a ^ or ^-inch objective 
is of ample power and the eye-piece should be at the other end 
of a six or eight-inch tube or a longer one if the size of the 
camera makes it necessary. 

This will bring the objective within an inch of the aperture 
plate. To find the exact focus, cut a piece of clear glass the 
width of the film and mark it with a rub of emery cloth on one 
side ; lay this in the aperture plate with the scratched side toward 
the lens, remove the lens and with the camera turned toward the 
light and the glass in the aperture plate securely in position focus 
the microscope on ^le scratches on the glass. This is the posi- 
tion in which it must be fastened for focusing. 

With the DeBrie type of glass, place the eye-piece on a stand 
at the distance from a piece of printed paper equal to the dis- 
tance from the aperture plate in your camera to the point 
where you wish the eye-piece to project at the back. Move the 
objective back and forth in a straight line between the eye-piece 
and the printed paper. When you can bring the image of the 
type to a focus through the two lenses their separation is the 
length of the tube you will need for mounting them. 

The degree of definition required in motion picture negatives 
is far beyond that usually necessary in an ordinary photograph. 
The screens are too great for accurate work, especially where 
the source of light is not of great strength. 

A strip of glass or film the same width as the cine film, and 
two or three inches long is an almost indispensable part of the 
cameraman's outfit. It is slipped into the film track over the 
aperture opening and used in conjunction with a focusing loup 
or magnifier for obtaining an accurate focus. 



Especially fine specimens may be made by the cameraman 
himself by following these directions, which are adopted from 
methods described in The British Journal of Photography. 

Carborundum powder may be relied upon, if the finest and 
purest quality is used, to produce a first-class focusing screen in 
a very short time. With the exception of the powder, the only 
thing wanted is a "rubber," which consists of a piece of glass fixed 
with cement to a block of wood, which serves as a handle. In 
use the glass or film to be ground is wetted, a little powder is 
thrown upon it, and then the rubber is brought into play. Of 
course, the surface of the rubber becomes ground as well as that 
of the plate, and when it is in this condition it works at its best. 
The time required depends on the size of the rubber. Using one 
about 2 inches by i, a 4 x 5 screen can be completely and per- 
fectly ground in five minutes or less. It is best to grind a large 
piece and cut out the best sections for use. 

A most useful application of the "rubber" is for grinding the 
backs of lantern or stereo slides. The former are sometimes, and 
the latter nearly always, all the better for being on ground glass, 
yet transparency plates on ground glass are not always available. 
A second cover glass is the usual expedient, but this adds un- 
necessarily to the weight and thickness of the slide. In view of 
the possibilty of wet and dirt getting on the film side of the plate 
during the grinding process, it is very advisable to formalin, dry 
and varnish the slide before grinding. Put the slide in a printing 
frame, glass side out, and grind with a small rubber. Take care 
that the slide is well backed up, and that the springs are strong 
enough to hold it up against the rubber. It can easily be packed 
up with a few spare or spoiled plates, or with cardboard, and 
then there will be no fear of the plate giving from the rubber, 
and so letting wet in under the frame rebate. When ground, 
the glass is cleaned while still in the frame, and on removal the 
film side should be found to be perfectly clean. 

A series of three screens for general and special work is ob- 
tained as follows : Take three pieces of negative film and immerse 
them without any exposure at all in any non-staining developer 
free from bromide. At the end of twenty minutes remove two 
pieces from the developer, and fix and wash them in the usual 
way. At the end of twenty minutes remove the third piece from 



the developer, and fix and wash that also. Next, iodize this 
third piece together with one of the others in a solution of iodine 
in potassium iodide. When the action is complete, rinse the 
pieces and bleach them in dilute ammonia. Then wash and dry. 
Finally, take the remaining film and immerse it in a solution 
containing ten grains of potassium bichromate, and five grains 
of hydrochloric acid to every ounce. When the chlorizing action 
is complete, rinse the film and put it into a fresh plain hypo 
fixing bath for ten minutes ; then wash well and dry. You now 
have three screens of different degrees of density. 

No. I is a dense iodide screen, No. 2 a thin iodide screen, and 
No. 3 a thin "chromium" screen. No. i screen will be an ex- 
cellent substitute for the ground glass in all ordinary work. It 
can be used without a magnifier or with one, and in either case 
it will show detail that would not be visible on the s<:reen of 
ground glass. 

No. 2, the thin iodide screen, cannot well be used without a 
magnifier, but while it is too nearly transparent to permit focus- 
ing with the eye alone, it shows enough grain to render the 
use of the magnifier easy. There is no accommodation difficulty, 
and the detail visible on the screen is a revelation to those who 
have never used anything but ground glass. This screen is of 
special value for indoor work, such as architectural interiors and 

No. 3, the chromium screen, is quite useless without a mag- 
nifier, being almost transparent to the eye. But with the magni- 
fier a very fine grain becomes visible, and as it is perfectly easy to 
keep this grain and the image in focus at the same time, there is 
no accommodation difficulty. This screen is a substitute for clear 
glass, and is especially adapted for copying and for low-power 
photo-micrography. For high-power work it does not seem pos- 
sible to find any good substitute for clear glass, but with moderate 
powers the No. 3 screen seems to show almost as much detail as 
the clear glass, while it has not its disadvantages. 

The screens can be ruled in pencil or with fine cuts to give 
datum marks. A cross ruling of fine cuts made with a lancet 
may be used but this is only a matter of personal choice. The 
surface is somewhat readily abraded in the case of No. 2 and 
No. 3 screens, hence they should be used carefully. It must be 



remembered that no fine grain screen shows such a bright image 
as ground glass. In comparison the image looks dull, but this is 
a very minor matter, and the extra detail visible more than 
compensates for the loss of brightness. 

Douglas Carnegie, writing in reference to the fine focusing 
screens made according to the formulae given above, says that 
though the latter give much more detail than ground-glass screens, 
yet they labor under the disadvantage that, with the exception of 
a small portion of the image which happens to lie in the neighbor- 
hood of the line joining the eye with the optical center of the 
lens, the image as a whole is much dimmer than in the case of 
the coarser ground glass screens, and, therefore, the eyes must 
be very carefully shielded from extraneous light, in order to per- 
mit of the composition and proper centering of the picture on 
the screen. 

A novel screen is made as follows: A plate which has been 
exposed in the camera to a uniformly lighted sheet of paper is 
developed, fixed, and then placed in a bath of hydrogen peroxide 
acidulated with sulphuric acid. The bath is warmed to a tem- 
perature of about 20 degrees centigrade. In a short time the 
hydrogn peroxide removes the developed silver and concomi- 
tantly some of the gelatine in which the silver was embedded, 
leaving the remaining gelatine in a very faintly opalescent con- 
dition. The plate is now washed, treated with Farmer^s reducer 
if it still looks brown, and dried. A screen so made has just 
enough optical irregularity to prevent the image being viewed 
through it, but not enough to militate against the pre- 
sentation of a very fine detail in the focused image. There 
is sometimes failure to get a good screen by this process even 
Avhen observing the same conditions that led to satisfactory re- 
sults in previous trials. 

A method of focusing, which avoids the trouble of "accommo- 
dation," which takes place when a magnifier is used with a focus- 
ing screen containing a transparent patch, is as follows: The 
screen used is a plate of glass fairly heavily ground all over, with 
a view to a bright general image, with the exception of a small 
circular central spot, which is left transparent. Such a screen is 
made in a few minutes by sticking a small washer on the center 
of the plate and grinding round this with carborundum powder, 



using as a muller a small piece of flat glass to which a slab of 
wood has been stuck to act as a handle. A small strip of tinfoil 
cut with a razor is stuck across the transparent portion of the 
screen. On the unground surface of the glass, just over the 
region of the transparent disc, a small adjustable mag- 
nifier of about y2 inch focal length is permanently fixed. 
The magnifier actually used was constructed from a cheap 
linen tester. The magnifier is focused on the edge 
of the tin-foil slip and set It is not necessary to bestow any 
especial care on this adjustment. The lens is now racked until 
there is no apparent relative movement, parallax between the 
edge of the slip and any selected portion of the image seen 
through the magnifier when the eye is moved laterally across the 
field of view of the magnifier. This being the case, the lens 
image must of necessity lie precisely in the plane of the front 
surface of the screen. The function of the magnifier here, it will 
be noticed, is not to aid the attainment of that verv uncertain 
condition, the exact position of clearest visualization of fine de- 
tail in the image, but simply to magnify a displacement. Hence 
there can be no complications arising from unavoidable accom- 
modative changes in the eye. 

The delicacy of this method of focusing is quite surprising ; the 
most insignificant rotation of the focusing pinion from the posi- 
tion of zero parallax produces an easily perceptible relative dis- 
placement of the tin-foil edge and any selected image detail. 


Chapter VII 

MOST studios, up to a recent date, have been in the habit 
of furnishing the cameraman with all of his apparatus, 
and the best of them have maintained mechanical depart- 
ments where such apparatus could be kept tuned up to the best 
mechanical perfection. The increasing demands upon the limited 
facilities of these machine shops for the repair of factory ma- 
chinery, such as perforators and printers, coupled with a shortage 
of the necessary number of cameras, has retarded the work 
of camera repair and put into the background that primary re- 
quisite for the making of good negatives, a camera in perfect 
mechanical condition. So bad has this situation become, and the 
number of new studios which have started without even a pre- 
tense of a machine shop, that many of the more conscientious 
operators have purchased their own outfits and fitted them up at 
their own expense in order to have the facilities for turning out 
work of which they need not be ashamed. 

The cinematographer must learn to be on the job constantly, 
to be prepared always for whatever emergency may arise, to have 
his camera loaded and ready to shoot when the scene is rehearsed, 
to use judgment and tact, to keep in mind the dignity and im- 
portance of the proper photographing of the picture, and to in- 
sist, as far as consistent with holding his job, that he be furnished 
with every reasonable facility for the production of the best qual- 
ity of work. 

He should make it his business to know whether it is for the 
best interests of the company to sacrifice a small percentage of 
photographic quality and take pictures in a waning light in 
order to finish with a large cast so that it will not be necessary to 
call them a second day, or whether the improvement in better 
negative will justify the expense involved in quitting when the 
light is getting poor and hiring the large cast again the second 
day. Confer with your director at the close of work each day 
and schedule your work for the next day. It does away with the 



haphazard method; it saves money for the concern, and, if you 
train yourself to do more, you can earn more. 

Let us assume that the cameraman reports for duty on a certain 
morning. He will be assigned to a director who usually says : 
"We work on exteriors today," or "Set up in the studio," and 
will designate a certain scene. This is about all the information 
the cameraman will get. He is supposed to know exactly what 
to do. If he follows our instructions he will not be in a 
moment's doubt. Go to the office or stock- room and ask for i,6oo 
ft. of stock (negative stock), be sure it is perforated — that is to 
say either ask whether or not it is perforated or look for a mark 
on the can stating this. 

In some studios it is customary to draw enough film for several 
days or a week's supply, but this can be ascertained by judicious 

Another important matter is to be sure to ask for X-back film 
if the weather is cool. Most studios begin using X-back film 
about September ist and continue doing so through the winter 
until about May. In California, X-back is seldom used as the 
weather does not get cool enough to cause electrical markings, or 
"static" as it is called. 

X-back is film which has been coated on the back with a gum 
or resinous substance by the manufacturer. This backing tends 
to keep the celluloid base of the film from actual contact with 
the camera as it moves through and therefore prevents the fric- 
tion from acting on the celluloid and producing electrical flashes 
in the camera. It is always safer whenever there is the slightest 
doubt about the weather being cool enough for "static" to ask for 
X-back. It costs the studio no more and the emulsion is exactly 
the same and all the backing washes of? in the first few minutes 
in the developing solution. Many workers use it the whole year 

Anyone who has ever seen a fine scene utterly ruined by a 
series of fern-hke black lines — static — which magnify on the 
screen until they look like the branches of a tree — will appreciate 
the advantages of using X-back film for X-back certainly does 
prevent static. I have never been bothered with a foot of static on 
X-back although on days only slightly chilly I have had some 
wonderful criss-cross patterns on films when I did not use it. 



After getting the film, go to the dark room which you should 
also ask for and load your magazine by the light of the ruby 
lamp therein. 

Allow about a foot of film to project from the slit in the maga- 

In the Pathe magazines there are two slits. The proper method 
to load this magazine is so the ribbon of film will exit through 
the left hand slit when the magazine is laid on the table v»^ith the 
two slits at the bottom facing the operator. It must also go 
through the slit with the emulsion of the film facing the roller 
which is just inside the slit. 

In all cameras the magazines must be so loaded that the film 
will leave the magazines with the film in such position that the 
emulsion side will be TOWARD the lens IN ALL CASES. 

When you have loaded four magazines be sure you have at 
least one more empty to take-up the film you are going to expose. 
It is safer to have two empties on hand. If your work is to be 
exterior it is a good idea to pack a small changing-bag along. It 
takes up very little room and is of great value in case of a 
"buckle" or "twist" in the film inside a magazine, as sometimes 

See that the camera is properly oiled. This means that every 
part that moves or rotates on another must have a thin film of 
oil upon it at all times. The best oil to use on cameras is sperm 
oil. The old fashioned sewing-machine oil is excellent. The 
much exploited patent oils that are advertised to clean, prevent 
rust and pretty near anything from wear and tear to hook- 
worm, are useless. They contain little or no "body" and a 
camera lubricated with "4 in 5" or "6 in i" or similar oils will 
wear out in a few months. 

On the other hand heavy greasy oils tend to gum up and collect 
dust. Vaseline or cup grease should never be used on anything, 
not even gears in a camera. Graphite is dangerous as it clogs 
oil holes and prevents oil from reaching hidden bearings. 

Next be sure your still camera shutter is working and the 
holders loaded. The cameraman is expected to take "stills" of 
his scenes and it is not considered necessary to tell him to bring 
his "still" along. He always takes it along whether needed or 
not. A dozen plates or cut films are sufficient and all that will 
be required. 



Do not forget a focusing cloth. No tripod will be required 
for the "still" as they are furnished by the studios with a screw 
base to fit the motion picture cairiera-tripod. The usual size 
still cameras furnished are 8 x lo. 

Try always to be on time. If the director calls his people for 
nine o'clock be ready and waiting in the studio auto or wherever 
you know your place to be exactly at that hour. A call for nine 
o'clock does not mean that you are to come drowsily into the studio 
at that hour and then hold everybody up until you get film loaded, 
camera packed, etc. Be always ready on the job and you will 
have won nine-tenths of the battle of installing yourself as a 
valuable man in that studio. 

Most studios provide assistant cameramen to take care of the 
camerman's equipment, but he is a wise cameraman who loads and 
unloads his own magazines and sees that everything is ready 
himself. It is proper and advisable to allow the assistant to 
carry the equipment and load it in the auto but it is highly ad- 
visable for the cameraman himself to take a last look to see that 
all is there. I have repeatedly found that when an assistant re- 
ported "all is on board" some small unimportant piece like the 
camera itself was peacefully reposing in the dark room. 

A good assistant in whom the cameraman can place absolute 
trust — even to the confidence of his position — would be a boon 
indeed but, I greatly fear, "there ain't no such crittar." Long 
before an assistant becomes so perfect he has worked his way 
into a better position. But the assistant is important in his way. 
He carries the heavy pieces and the reflector, holds the reflector at 
the angle which the cameraman sets it, holds up the slate with the 
number on it to photo at the end of the scene, helps steady the 
camera in high winds, hands the plate holders for stills to the 
operator, sets up and takes down the cameras and makes himself 
useful in many ways. 

Do not hurry with your work of threading-up camera or get- 
ting set. Be sure everything is correctly and carefully done. 
Never say "ready" until you are really sure you are. 

Upon returning from "location" it is advisable to take the 
rolls of exposed film out of the magazines, can them and see that 
they go to the developing room at once. They are then out of 
your hands and you will feel better satisfied than if they lay in 



the magazines over night. If anything happens to the film then 
it is not your fault. 

When leaving your dark room for the night be sure the ruby 
and other lights are out, the camera and magazines on the table 
or shelf— NEVER ON THE FLOOR— the door locked and key 
in your pocket. 

Experience in photographic work is the best foundation for a 
cameraman's job. The ranks of the cinematogrophers of the pres- 
ent have been recruited from strange places in many instances. 
Most of the best men have worked their way up from some film 
factory position — they have worked in dark rooms, they have 
finished stills, but at the same time they were ambitious. Most 
of them had a camera or kodak of their own and they took their 
little cameras out on Sundays and made snapshots. During the 
evenings of the week they developed and printed them. They 
got books on photography from the public library and bought 
photographic periodicals and they read and studied them. While 
they were at work in the film factory they learned all they could 
from their fellow workers. They earned each promotion by 
hard work and study, and at last, after a thorough apprenticeship, 
they arrived at the position of cameraman. But if they became 
good photographers they did not stop when they had learned 
to thread the camera and turn the crank ; there were lots of things 
to be learned about lighting and about artistic composition 
and posing. There was much to learn about lenses, about trick 
work and visions, and then beside all this and just as important, 
too, as the technical knowledge is the co-operation and co-ordina- 
tion with the work of the director. It is essential to the best 
work that the photographer be able to catch and instill into his 
picture the same spirit and motive which actuates the director 
who produces it. Unless the photographer understands and ap- 
preciates what his director is endeavoring to do, he cannot pro- 
duce the best work. 

From the ranks of 'the newspaper photographers have come 
some of the best topical news cameramen. Theirs is practically 
a separate branch from the work of those who make dramatic 
pictures, and while numbers of them have gone in very success- 
fully for studio work on dramatic pictures the qualifications which 
make for the success of a topical film weekly photographer are 



mostly different from those of the photographer who works with 
a director in the production of staged stories. 

Many of the men who are now turning out productions have 
learned as camera boys or assistants to cameramen and their 
success has depended much upon the preceptors under whom they 
worked. Most of them realize the handicap imposed upon them 
by their lack of laboratory experience, and only by serious study 
from whatever sources available to them have they been able to 
overcome their lack of training. Unfortunately, there are many 
such at work taking pictures now who lack this training so neces- 
sary to the production of the best work. 

The relations between the cameraman and the director of a 
picture are rarely as intimate as they should be. The production 
of a film in a proper and fitting manner is one that requires the 
closest co-operation between every factor of the working forces 
and the cameraman and director are the two greatest factors in 
this production. When they do not understand one another; 
when they work at cross purposes, it is evident that the produc- 
tion must suffer. 

The director is at the mercy of the cameraman for the proper 
interpretation of his ideas upon the screen. Each necessarily im- 
poses all of his own limitations upon the other and it is only 
through a thorough understanding and the closest co-operation 
that these limitations are prevented from conflicting with the per- 
fection of their work. 

There are many cameramen who are jealous of allowing their 
director to learn what he ought to know about photography and 
the limitations of the camera and there are also many directors 
who are too prone to regard the cameraman as a mere mechanical 
accessory, possessing little or no brains. When these conditions 
obtain neither can respect nor have any great consideration for 
the ideas of the other, but when the director realizes that his 
cameraman is a master of his craft, understands and knows what 
he can do with the camera and when the cameraman knows and 
realizes that his director knows his business, has a concrete idea 
as to what he wishes to portray upon the screen and knows that 
what he wishes to portray can be photographed so as to interpret 
his idea to a spectator, then the cameraman and the director have 
reached an understanding under which they should be able to 
produce very nearly perfect pictures, 



Both cameraman and director should reaHze that not only are 
they being paid a salary to produce the best of which they are 
capable, but they should also have a sense of the dignity of the 
task which they are doing. Even the production of a rough-and- 
tumble slap-stick comedy has a dignity attached to its production. 
"Anything worth doing is worth doing well," although a trite 
saying, still holds a world of meaning and though well worn by 
long usage, is a motto which might well hang above every direc- 
tor's desk and in every cameraman's room. 

Too many cameramen and too many directors, as well, fail to 
understand why they do not make a greater success, when they 
are satisfied with any old thing and perform a task just sufficiently 
well to enable them to "get by." 

I have met many directors who seem to think the best training 
in stage craft and drama can be obtained from all-night poker 
parties and the infiltration of booze. I know cameramen who 
have kept their photographic eye in practice by sighting along 
the billiard cue and who get the largest part of technical training 
from the comic supplements of the Sunday newspapers. Yet 
they wonder why some cameramen are called "crank turners." 

Perhaps some of you boys think this is rather drastic stuff, 
that I slam it in too hard once in a while, but mark this — the quiet 
fellows who are drawing down the real figures on their pay 
checks on Saturday night are the boys who put brains into their 
business, who are "Jerry on the job" and "Johnnie on the spot" 
when it comes to producing the goods. What they don't know 
they learn somehow. They don't belong to the clique of those 
who know too much to learn any more. They were not too proud 
to exhibit their ignorance when it came to a question of some- 
thing they didn't know, but went and asked someone who did 
know, or spent the necessary time to dig it out for themselves 
from some text-book where they could find what they needed. 

There has been much talk recently of overcrowding the profes- 
sion of cameramen thereby bringing about a general reduction 
in salaries. The man who knows his business does not have to 
worry; the man at the top will always get the top-notch salary. 
If you have the determination and stamina to learn and apply 
what you should know, you will have little occasion to worry 
about any reduction in salary. One of the best indications of this 



is the fact that there are quite a number of cameramen today 
who are drawing larger salaries than the directors for whom 
they take pictures, and although it is dangerous to prophecy, I 
am confident enough of the dignity and worth of the profession 
which bears the commonplace name of ^'cameraman,'* to predict 
that more and more will come an equalization of the salaries of 
cameramen and directors. 

Not alone to the director belongs the distinction of creative 
ability in the production of pictures. With the raising of the 
standard of craftsmanship, ingenuity and knowledge required 
of the cameraman, comes greater regard. The worth-while 
cameraman is able to endow the director's ideas with artistic and 
pictorial worth. 


Chapter VIII 


By J. I. Crabtree 
(Research Laboratory, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y.) 

ALTHOUGH the majority of amateur photographers prefer 
to purchase photographic chemicals in a condition ready 
for use, in the case of advanced amateurs, professional 
photographers and motion picture producers who use chemicals 
on a large scale, it is customary for them to prepare the various 
photographic solutions from the component chemicals. 

In order to be able to prepare correctly any and every solution 
used in photography a knowledge of the properties of the chemi- 
cals used and of the chemical reactions involved during the mix- 
ing is essential, though by adhering strictly to printed directions 
it is usually possible for an unskilled worker to prepare the de- 
veloping and fixing solutions as generally used. However, in- 
structions for the use of various materials differ. For example, 
in the case of some developing formulae it is recommended to 
dissolve the Elon first, while according to others the sulphite 
should be dissolved first. Both methods may be right, but if a 
systematized method of mixing is followed, and especially if the 
photographer has a knowledge of the reactions involved, then he 
can proceed to mix any developing solution with confidence, and 
what is more, he will be able to locate the trouble if for any 
reason the solution does not work correctly after mixing. 

It is the purpose of the author to describe in as non-technical 
language as possible the systematized method of preparing solu- 
tions now practiced in the Research Laboratory of the Eastman 
Kodak Company. 


A solution of any kind is obtained by dissolving a solid or a 
liquid in another liquid (or solid). The substance being dis- 
solved is called the solute and the liquid in which it is dissolved 
is called the solvent. The extent to which the solute is soluble in 



the solvent is called its solubility and when the solvent will hold 
no more of the solute it is said to be saturated. 

The degree of solubility of any chemical depends on the nature 
of the solvent and on the temperature, which should always be 

If a saturated solution is cooled down to a lower temperature, 
crystals usually form which settle out until the saturation point is 
reached at that particular temperature, though in the case of a 
substance like hypo, if all dust is excluded, crystals do not sepa- 
rate out on cooling, and a so-called super-saturated solution is ob- 
tained. However, if a small crystal of hypo is added to the 
solution, crystals immediately form and continue to grow until 
the saturation point is reached. The best method of preparing 
a saturated solution therefore is to dissolve the chemical in hot 
water, cool to room temperature with shaking, allow to stand, 
and filter. 

Meaning of "Water To"' 

When a chemical is dissolved in water the volume of the solu- 
tion is usually greater than that of the water used, because the 
particles or molecules of the chemical occupy a certain space when 
in solution. In case two liquids are mixed, the final volume of 
the liquid is not necessarily equal to the sum of the volumes of 
the liquid is not necessarily equal to the sum of the volumes of 
fifty volumes of alcohol when added to fifty volumes of water at 
70° F., produce ninety-seven volumes of the mixture and not one 
hundred. Moreover, equal weights of different chemicals do not 
occupy the same volume. 

In photography we are concerned only with the weight or 
volume of each chemical in a fixed volume of the solution, so 
that when mixing, the chemical should be dissolved in an amount 
of water appreciably less than that called for in the formula and 
then water added up to the amount stated. 

The Metric System of Weights and Measures 

In photographic practice, solids are weighed and liquids are 
measured either by the metric or the avoirdupois system. 

Although a large majority of photographers use the avoir- 
dupois system of weights and measures, this system is incon- 
venient and complicated as compared with the metric system. 



The metric unit of length is the meter (which means measure). 
The meter is divided into one hundred parts called centimeters, 
abbreviated to cms. 

The unit of volume is the cubic centimeter, written cc, or ccs. 
in the plural, looo ccs. being equal to one liter or i L. The cubic 
centimeter is sometimes termed a milliliter or ml. (meaning one 
thousandth part of a liter) though the term cc. is satisfactory for 
photographic purposes. 

The unit of weight is the gram which is the weight of i cc. of 
water at 4° C, at which temperature a given volume of water 
weighs the most. The gram is written Gm. for short, the capital 
letter G being used to differentiate between Gms. (grams) and 
grs. (grains). 

For compounding photographic formulae only Gms., ccs., and 
liters are used, and fractions are always expressed as a decimal 
just as in the case of the U. S. currency which is a metric cur- 
rency. The beginner should therefore think of grams and parts 
of a gram as if they were dollars and cents. Thus 5.35 Gms. 
corresponds to $5.35 or 5 35/100 dollars. 

The Avoirdupois System 

In photography the following table is used : 

Weight Volume 

437 grains = i ounce 60 minims = i fluid drachms 

8 drachms = i ounce. 8 fluid drachms == i fluid ounce 
16 ounces = i pound 480 minims = i fluid ounce 

16 ounces = i pint 

128 ounces = i gallon 

The Conversion of Formulae 

Every photographer should be able to convert a formula given 
in avoirdupois terms into metric equivalents without reference 
to a table. It is simply necessary to remember that — 

15 grains = i Gm. 

I ounce = 30 Gms. 

I fluid ounce =: 30 ccs. 
I gallon = 4 liters 

from which it is readily deduced that — 

2 pounds (roughly) = i kilogram 

I ounce " = 450 grs. 

I pint " = 550 CCS. 

I cc " = 50 minims 

The foregoing conversion table is not strictly correct, for 
example one gram= 15,432 grs., i oz. = 28.35 Gms. and i fluid 
oz. = 29,43 CCS. In taking i Gm. as an equal to 15 grs. we are 
making an error of four parts in 154, or nearly 3%, but in 
photography an error of 5% in most cases is permissible. Thus 
if a formula called for 453^2 grs., if this were cut to an even 
450, the difference would not be detectable by photographic means, 
though if a quantity of 65/2 grains were cut to 5 grs., then the 
error (20%) would be serious. 

Uniformity in Formulae 

Formulae should always be given in both metric and avoirdu- 
pois equivalents, but in some cases the proportions are given for, 
say, 40 ozs., in one case and i L. in the other. Now, 40 
ozs. = 1,200 CCS., so that the several quantities are not equivalent. 
This leads to error in case the chemicals are weighed out with 
avoirdupois weights and the solution made up to strength in a 
liter graduate, though if these quantities are given for 32 ozs. of 
solution which are equivalent to 960 ccs., or roughly i L., no 
serious trouble will arise if the above mistake is made. 

The order in which the ingredients are given in the formulae 
is of importance. In some cases water is placed first, in other 
cases last, but since all developers are mixed with water, its posi- 
tion should be last in the formula. The ingredients should be 
given in the order in which they are dissolved, which is as fol- 
lows: (i) preservative, (2) developing agent, (3) accelerator, (4) 
restrainer, (5) water to. 

Percentage Solutions 

In photography two kinds of solutions are used as follows : 

(a) A solid in a liquid. 

(b) A liquid in a liquid. 



(a) The misunderstandings which have arisen from time to 
time regarding the correct method of preparing solutions of a 
definite percentage strength is due to the fact that there are 
three ways of doing it. For example, we can make a 5% solu- 
tion of potassium bromide as follows : 

(i) Dissolve 5 Gms. in 100 ccs. of water. 

(2) Dissolve 5 Gms. in 95 Gms. of water making 100 Gms. 
of solution. 

(3) Dissolve 5 Gms. in a liter of water and make up to 100 ccs. 
In case (l) we have about 103 ccs. of solution and in case (2) 

about 98 ccs. A chemist would use method (2), but method 
(3) is used when preparing photographic solutions. Method 
(i) is not used for the reason given above, namely, that equal 
weights of different chemicals do not occupy the same volume. 

The percentage strength of a solution therefore merely in- 
dicates how much of the chemical is dissolved in 100 ccs. of 
the solution. 

To prepare a 7% solution of potassium bromide, therefore, 
take 7 Gms. of the salt, dissolve it in a little water, and add water 
up to 100 ccs. If we now measure out 100 ccs. of the solution 
we have measured 7 Gms. of the solid. 

In the avoirdupois system a 10% solution of solid is made by 
taking I oz. and making up to 10 ozs. with water. Converting 
these figures into Gms. and ccs. we have 30 Gms. in 300 ccs., or 
a 10% solution. 

Strictly speaking this is not correct since i oz. = 28.35 Gms., 
and I fluid oz. = 29.57 cc, so that i oz. in 10 fluid ozs. is equiv- 
alent to 28.35 Gms. in 295.7 cc. or 9.6 Gms. In 100. The error 
involved, however, is less than 5% and for ordinary purposes is 
therefore negligible. 

If a photographic solution is made by any of the above 
methods, i, 2, or 3, the error involved is less than 5% and there- 
fore negligible for ordinary photographic purposes, though since 
the correct method is the easiest, it should be followed. 

Although somewhat of an anomaly, it is possible to prepare a 
100% solution of a substance like hypo by dissolving 100 Gms. 
(which do not occupy a space of 100 ccs.) and dissolving in suffi- 
cient water to make 100 ccs. of solution. 

(b) A 10% solution of a liquid in water is made by taking 
10 cc, of liquid and adding water up to 100 cc. 



The Meaning of "Parts'' 

It is often recommended to dissolve, say lo parts of a solid 
in 100 parts of water. Such a statement is meaningless because 
a solid chemical is weighed while a liquid is measured, though if 
the metric system is used (since i cc. of water weighs i Gm.) 
grams and ccs. may be considered synonymous with parts. 

In the case of liquids, parts should be taken as meaning units 
of volume, and in the case of solids as units of weight. A "part" 
may therefore mean anything from a gram to a ton, or a cc. to 
a gallon so long as the other quantities are reckoned in the same 
units of weight or volume. 

Thus : 

For use: A three parts A 300 ccs. A 15 oz. 

may mean or 

B one part B 100 ccs. B 5 oz. 

If the avoirdupois system is used and the formula contains 
both solids and liquids, if ounces (liquid) and ounces (sohd) 
are substituted for "parts," the error involved falls within per- 
missible limits. 

Problem : 

Mix one gallon of solution according to the following formula. 

Sodium sulphite 10 parts 

Pyro I parts 

Water to 100 parts 

Now, one gallon equals 4,000 ccs. Therefore, dissolve 400 
Gms. of sulphite in water, add 40 Cms. of pyro, and make up to 
I gallon. 


If a formula calls for, say 5 drops of a solution, this is a 
very uncertain quantity because drops of liquid vary considerably 
in size. The average drop from the usual dropping bottle or 
burette measures about i minim or a little less than one-tenth 
part of a cc, so that 5 drops may be considered as H cc. or 5 

The Hydrometer Test 

Many photographers are accustomed to making up their stock 
solutions of hypo, carbonate, sulphite, etc., by means of the 
hydrometer. This method has the advantage that in case the 



hypo (say) has become moist and contains an unknown amount 
of water, a definite reading on the hydrometer will give a solu- 
tion of the same strength as if perfectly dry chemicals had been 
used. When a stock solution is made from moist chemicals 
by weighing, the error caused by the presence of water may be 
as high as 25% or 50%. 

The hydrometer method has the disadvantage that the adjust- 
ment of a solution to the required strength takes considerable 
time, the hydrometer reading does not convey an idea as to the 
percentage strength of the solution, while the hydrometer read- 
ing varies with the temperature. For instance, if a stock solu- 
tion is made with hot water and this registers, say, 45 on the 
hydrometer, on cooling, the liquid may register 48 or 50. It is 
therefore absolutely necessary either to make all readings when 
the solutions have cooled to room temperature, or to prepare a 
table giving the variation of density of each solution with tem- 

Usefulness of Per Cent Solutions 

The great advantage of stating the strength of any solution 
in parts per hundred is that a definite mental picture is at once 
created of its relative strength while by means of a number of 
stock solutions it is possible to compound certain formulae by 
simply measuring out a definite volume of each solution thus 
dispensing with a balance. Supposing we have a 10% solution 
of potassium ferricyanide and of potassium bromide already 
at hand and it is desired to make up the following solution: 

Potassium ferricyanide 6 Cms. 

Potassium bromide 2.3 Gms. 

Water to 1,000 ccs. 

it is only necessary to measure out 60 ccs. of the ferricyanide 
solution, 23 ccs. of the bromide solution and add water up to 
1,000 ccs. and the solution is made. 

In the case of very concentrated solutions it is not always pos- 
sible to use this method, though in view of the time saved and 
the accuracy of the method it should be applied whenever possible. 
Suppose a formula calls for o.i Gms., it is impossible to 
weigh this amount accurately on the usual photographic scale, 
but by measuring out i cc. of a 10% solution, and adding this to 
the mixture, the problem is solved. 



Photographic Arithimetic 

It is often required to mix up a quantity of solution much 
greater than that given by the formula, in which case the photog- 
rapher must perform a very simple exercise in arithmetic in order 
to secure the desired result. The two following examples in- 
dicate the method of solution of such simple problems. 

A. Mix 6 oz. of solution according to the following formula : 

Potassium ferricyanide 4 Gms. 

Hypo 10 Gms. 

Water to 100 ccs. 

now 6 oz. = 6 x 30= 180 ccs. Therefore, we need 180/100 x 
4 = 7.2 Gms. of ferricyanide and 180/100 x 10 = 18 Gms. of 
hypo. Dissolve these in a little water and make up to 180 ccs. 

B. How would you mix i pint of a 7% solution of sodium 
sulphite ? 

To make 100 ccs. of a 7% solution we need 7 Gms. There- 
fore, to make i pint (500 ccs.) we need 5 x 7=35 Gms. To 
prepare the solution therefore, dissolve 35 Gms. of sulphite in 
water and make up to i pint. 

Dilution of Liquids 

It is often required to reduce the percentage strength of a 
solution. For example: How would you mix two gallons of 
2%^o acetic acid, from a supply of glacial acetic acid? 

To make 100 cc. of 28% acid we need 28 ccs. of glacial acid. 

To make i cc. of 28% acid, we need 28/100 ccs. of glacial acid. 

To make 8,000 ccs. of 28% acid we need 28 x 80=2,240 ccs. 
of glacial acid. 

Therefore take 2,240 ccs. of glacial acid and add water to make 
2 gallons. 

To dilute a solution three times we do not add three times 
the amount of water but twice the amount and so on. For 
example : One volume of solution plus 2 volumes of water = 3 
volumes of solution, which is three times as weak or three times 
as dilute as the original. 

Stock Solutions 

A stock solution is a concentrated solution to which water is 
added before use, In the case of simple solutions containing 



only one salt such as potassium bromide, sodium carbonate, etc., 
a io% solution is most convenient because by multiplying the 
volume of the solution in ccs. by lo we get the number of grams 
present in the solution. Thus 75 ccs. of 10% potassium bromide 
contain 7.5 Gms. 

The limiting strength of solution which it is possible to make 
in any particular case depends on the solubility of the chemical, 
and as the solubility diminishes with temperature a solution 
should not be made stronger than a saturated solution at 40° F., 
otherwise in cold weather the substance would crystallize out. 
(The reader is referred to tables of solubilities given in most 

A stock solution of sodium sulphite should be made as strong 
as possible (15% of the desiccated salt) because at such a 
strength the solution oxidizes very slowly and will therefore 
keep, whereas in weaker solution it combines with the oxygen 
in the air very readily and is then useless as a preservative. 


For quantities up to 100 Gms. a double pan balance should 
be used and a larger one for quantities up to 1,000 Gms. For 
still larger quantities a platform scale weighing in pounds may be 
used, because large metric scales are not readily procurable. 
For preparing small amounts of sample developers a small chem- 
ical balance weighing in hundredth parts of a gram is necessary. 

Mixing Vessels 

For small quantities of solution conical glass flasks are the 
most suitable. For larger quantities use enameled buckets. 
Earthenware crocks are usually unsatisfactory because when the 
glaze cracks, the solutions penetrate into the pores and thus con- 
taminate any other solutions subsequently mixed in them. 

A wooden stick or paddle is the best form of stirrer, but a 
separate one should be used for each solution so as to eliminate 
the possibility of contamination. 

The paddle may also be used to measure out a definite volume 
of solution in a tank or crock by cutting notches in the paddle to 
correspond with definite volumes when the paddle is held ver- 
tically. Such markings are only applicable, however, to the par- 


E3 WSi '^ 

■^51 hH laaiiM 


ticular tank or crock for which the paddle was graduated, so that 
a separate paddle should be used for each tank or crock unless 
they are of the same shape and capacity. 

Chemicals should be weighed out and the solutions prepared in 
a separate room, and care should be taken when handling 
such substances as hydroquinone, resublimed pyro, potassium 
ferricyanide, etc., not to shake the finer particles into the air, 
otherwise they will enter the ventilating system and settle out 
on benches, negatives, and prints, and cause no end of trouble in 
the way of spots and stains. 


Weigh out chemicals on pieces of paper and after transferring 
to the mixing vessel do not shake the paper but drop it into the 
sink and allow water to flow over it, thus dissolving the dust. 
Larger quantities are most conveniently weighed out in buckets. 


For small quantities, a glass graduate marked off in ccs. or 
ounces should be used, for larger quantities use a bucket pre- 
viously graduated, or mark oif the inside of the tank or crock 
used for mixing. When measuring a liquid in a glass graduate 
place the eye on a level with the graduation mark and pour in 
the liquid until its lower surface coincides with this level. Owing 
to capillary attraction the liquid in contact with the walls cf the 
graduate is drawn up the sides so that on viewing sideways it 
appears as if the liquid has two surfaces. All readings should 
be made from the lower surface and at room temperature because 
a warm liquid contracts on cooling. 


The rapidity with which a substance dissolves in any solvent 
depends on its solubility and degree of fineness, the temperature 
of the solvent, and the rate of stirring. Since a chemical is 
usually more soluble in hot water than in cold, the quickest way 
of mixing a solution is to powder it and dissolve in hot water 
by stirring. In the case of a few substances, like common salt, 
which are only slightly more soluble in hot than in cold water, the 
use of hot water is of no advantage. 



Since most solutions are intended for use at ordinary tempera- 
tures, if hot water is used for dissolving, the solution must be 
cooled again if it is required for immediate use. Usually the 
time taken to do this is less than the extra time which would be 
taken up in dissolving the chemical in cold water. When mixing, 
therefore, as a general rule, dissolve the chemical in as small an 
amount of hot water as possible, cool off, and dilute with cold 

After diluting with water, thoroughly shake the solution if in 
a bottle, or stir if in a tank, otherwise the water added will 
simply float on top of the heavier solution. 

When mixing a solution in a tank, never add the dry chemicals 
to the tank but always make sure that the chemicals are dissolved 
by mixing in separate buckets and filtering into the tank. 

If the water supply is not sufficiently cold, so that on diluting 
the hot solution the final liquid is not at the required temperature, 
the hot solution should be cooled by means of ice placed in a 
cloth bag to filter out the dirt. 

In the case of anhydrous (dry) salts such as desiccated sodium 
carbonate, sodium sulphite, etc., always add the chemical to the 
water and not vice versa, otherwise a hard cake will form which , 
will dissolve only with difficulty. 


The purpose of filtering is to remove suspended matter such 
as dirt, caused by the presence of dust in the chemicals used, and 
also any residue or undissolved particles which might settle on 
the plates, film or paper during development Here are several 
methods of removing such particles: 

I. Allow the solution to stand and draw off or decant the 
clear supernatent liquid. This method is particularly useful 
when the suspended matter is so fine that it will pass through a 
coarse filter. 

Since coarse particles settle quickly, the rate of settling of a 
semi-colloidal sludge can usually be hastened by mixing the solu- 
tion in hot water, because the heat tends to coagulate the sus- 
pension and causes the particles to cluster together. Thus if 
crystals of sodium sulphide, which are brown due to the presence 
of iron, are dissolved in hot water the colloidal iron sulphide 



coagulates and settles out rapidly leaving a perfectly colorless 

2. Filter the solution through fabric or filter paper. Filtering 
through paper is usually a slow process and the continual drop- 
ping of the solution exposes it to the air thus causing oxidation. 
It is usually sufficient to filter through very fine cloth or muslin 
which has been washed thoroughly, otherwise the sizing matter in 
the fabric will be washed into the solution and settle out as a 

Fig. 32 

3. As a modification of method 2, when mixing a quantity of 
solution in a tank, stretch a filter bag made of cloth over the 
tank, place the chemicals in the bag (about 6 inches deep) and 
allow hot water to flow into it. In this way the chemicals are 
dissolved and the solution filtered at the same time. A separate 
bag should be used for each solution so as to eliminate all risk 
of contamination. 

The method of supporting the bag is shown in Fig. ^2 the bag 
being stretched over the wooden frame and held in place by 
means of four iron bars passing through loops along the edges 
of the bag. For mixing hypo, such a bag is indispensable. 




In case of deep tanks such as are used for developing roll film 
and for motion picture work, the wooden frame can be dispensed 
with by adopting the arrangement shown in Fig. jj. The cloth 
bag about 6 inches deep is supported by means of iron bars pass- 
ing through seams along opposite edges of the bag, and in turn 
the bars are held in place either by means of two pieces of wood 
passing over the ends of the bars, as shown, or by metal stirrups 
fitted to the sides of the tank. 

Fig. 33 

It is important that the bag used should be shallow (6 to 9 
inches deep), otherwise it will dip into the solution and the 
chemicals will dissolve very slowly. 

4. A combination of methods i and 3 which follows is the 
best and most desirable : 

(a) For quantities of solution up to 5 gallons, filter through 
cloth into a bottle or crock fitted with a side tube and pinch cock. 
In this way the fine particles settle out but the drainage tube is 
sufficiently high so as not to disturb the sediment. (See Fig. S4-) 

(b) For motion picture work the best arrangement for mixing 
is to place the chemical room immediately above the developing 



room and to mix the solutions in large wooden vats or enameled 
tanks connected with lead piping to the developing and fixing 
tanks in the dark room underneath. The solutions can then be 
mixed in advance, allowed to settle and be tested, so that only 
perfect solutions pass into the tanks located in the dark room. 

Removing Scum 
When mixing a chemical solution, if method 4 above is not 

Fig. 34 

adopted, and especially if the solutions are not filtered, a scum 
usually rises to the surface consisting of fibers, dust, etc., which 
should be skimmed off with a towel. 

When a fixing bath has been used for some time and is allowed 
to stand undisturbed for a few days, any sulphuretted hydrogen 
gas which may be present in the atmosphere forms a metallic 
looking scum of silver sulphide at the surface of the liquid, and 
on immersing the film this scum attaches itself to the gelatine 
and prevents the action of the developer. Any such scum should 
be carefully removed, before use, with a sheet of blotting paper. 



Measuring Temperatures 

Temperatures of solutions are measured either by the Centi- 
grade or Fahrenheit thermometer. On the Centigrade scale 
water freezes at zero and boils at ioo°, and on the Fahrenheit 
scale the corresponding readings are 32° and 212°, so that 100° C. 
are equivalent to 212°— 32°=i8o° F. or 1° C. is equivalent 
to 9/5^ F. 

To convert degrees Centigrade to Fahrenheit, multiply by 9/5 
and add 32. To convert degrees Fahrenheit to Centigrade sub- 
tract 32 and divide by 9/5. 

In photography the Fahrenheit thermometer is almost univer- 
sally employed. There would be no appreciable advantage adopt- 
ing the Centigrade scale, since the precision of the Fahrenheit 
scale is greater. An error of 1° in reading the Centigrade scale 
means an error of practically 2° on the Fahrenheit scale. 

How TO Mix Developing Solutions 

A developer usually contains four solid ingredients as follows: 

A. The developing agent (Elon, hydroquinone, pyro, para- 
minophenol, etc.). 

B. The alkali (carbonates and hydroxides of lithium, sodium, 
potassium and ammonium). 

C. The preservative (sulphites, bisulphites, and metabisul- 
phites of sodium and potassium). 

D. The restrainer (bromides and iodides of sodium, potassium 
and ammonium). 

If a developing agent like hydroquinone is dissolved in water, 
the solution will either not develop at all or develop very slowly. 
On standing it will gradually turn brown due to what is known 
as oxidation or chemical combination of the hydroquinone with 
the oxygen present in the air in contact with the surface of the 
liquid. This oxidation product is of the nature of a dye and will 
stain fabrics or gelatine just like a dye solution. 

On adding a solution of an alkali such as sodium carbonate, the 
hydroquinone at once becomes a developer. At the same time 
the rate of oxidation is increased to such an extent that the solu- 
tion very rapidly turns dark brown, and if a plate is developed 
in this solution it becomes stained and fogged. Tlie subject of 
^'Chemical Fog" has been fully treated by the author in a separate 



article (Amer. Ann. Phot., 1919) to which the reader is referred. 

If we add a little sodium bisulphite to the brown colored solu- 
tion mentioned above, the brown color or stain is bleached out 
and a colorless solution is obtained. Therefore, if the preserva- 
tive is first added to the developer, on adding the accelerator the 
solution remains perfectly clear because the sulphite preserves 
or protects the developing agent from oxidation by the air. 

As a rule the preservative should be dissolved first. 

An apparent exception to this rule should be made when dis- 
solving Elon in concentrated solution. This developing sub- 
stance is insoluble in a strong solution of sodium sulphite 
while if a sulphite solution is added to a strong solution of the 
developing agent a white precipitate is formed. When once the 
Elon is dissolved, however, it takes a fairly high concentration 
of sulphite to bring it out of solution again, though only a low 
concentration is required to prevent the Elon from dissolving. 

On this account some direction sheets recommend that the Elon 
should be dissolved first, though if water containing dissolved 
air is used the Elon will oxidize and only a small amount of 
oxidation product is necessar}'^ to cause chemical fog. Therefore, 
when dissolving Elon, dissolve a portion of the sulphite sufficient 
to prevent immediate oxidation and yet not enough to prevent 
the Elon from dissolving readily. Then dissolve the Elon and 
finally add the remainder of the sulphite. 

The alkali (say carbonate) may then be added: 

(a) Dissolve the carbonate separately and add to the cooled 
Elon-sulphite solution. There is danger, however, of the Elon 
precipitating out before the carbonate is added. 

(b) After dissolving a portion of the sulphite and adding the 
Elon, dissolve the remainder of the sulphite and carbonate to- 
gether, cool and add to the Elon-sulphite mixture. 

The above procedure is necessary so that when the carbonate 
is added the solutions are cool. If a hot carbonate solution is 
added to the developing agent, even in the presence of the pre- 
servative, a substance is formed which produces chemical fog. 

In the case of developers containing no bromide, used for 
testing the quality of plates and for developing under-exposed 
negatives, it is absoluitely necessary to mix the developer with 
cold water if a minimum of fog is desired. 

In the case of some samples of paraminophenol which are dis- 



colored by the presence of oxidation products, these may be par- 
tially removed by boiling after adding to the sulphite solution. In 
this way the oxidation products are reduced by the sulphite to 
paraminophenol. The solution should be cooled again before 
adding the carbonate. If pure chemicals are used such a pro- 
cedure is, of course, entirely unnecessary. 

Bromides and iodides are added to a developer to compensate 
for any chemical fog produced by the developer, or inherent in 
the emulsion. It is immaterial at what stage during mixing the 
bromide is added. 

When mixing a developer the following rules should therefore 
be followed: 

1. Dissolve the preservative first. In the case of Elon dis- 
solve only a portion of the sulphite first, dissolve the Elon, and 
then add the remainder of the sulphite. 

2. Make sure that one chemical is dissolved before adding 
the next. If the alkali is added before the crystals of the de- 
veloping agent are dissolved, each crystal becomes oxidized at 
the surface and the resulting solution will give fog. 

3. Mix the developer at as low a temperature as possible. 

4. In the case of desiccated chemicals like sodium carbonate 
and sodium sulphite, add the chemical to the water and not vice 

Two practical methods of mixing are possible, as follows : 
(a) Dissolve all the chemicals in one bottle or vessel by adding 
the solid chemicals to the water in the correct order (in the 
formula the ingredients should be named in the order in which 
they are dissolved). For example, to mix the following formula 
proceed as follows : 

Sodium sulphite 75 Gms. 

Elon 10 Gms. 

Hydroquinone 5 Gms. 

Sodium Carbonate 50 Gms. 

Potassium Bromide 1.5 Gms. 

Water to i L. 

Dissolve about ten grams of the sulphite in about 750 cc. of 
warm water and then dissolve the Elon. Now dissolve the re- 
mainder of the sulphite and then the hydroquinone. Finally add 
the carbonate and bromide and dilute to i,cx)0 cc. 



For large quantities the filter bag method should be used, the 
chemicals being placed in the bag and dissolved in the above order. 

(b) An alternative method is to dissolve the preservative and 
developing agent in one vessel and the carbonate and bromide in 
another, cool and mix. This method is the safest and best for 
quantity production. 

For example, to mix the following motion picture developer 
proceed as follows : 

Sodium Sulphite 4 lbs. 

Hydroquinone 13 oz. 

Sodium Carbonate 4 lbs. 

Potassium Bromide 3 oz. 

Water to 10 gal. 

Dissolve the sulphite in about one gallon of hot water, then dis- 
solve the hydroquinone and filter into the tank. Then add one 
gallon of cold water to the tank, dissolve the sodium carbonate 
and bromide in one gallon of hot water and filter this into the 
tank, immediately adding cold water up to ten gallons. The 
object of adding cold water to the tank is to cool off the solution 
before the carbonate is added. 

Mixing Concentrated Developers 

The extent to which a developer may be concentrated is deter- 
mined by the solubility of the least soluble constituent, because a 
stock solution should usually withstand cooling to 40° F. without 
any of the ingredients crystallizing out. Usually, the hydro- 
quinone and Elon come ont of solution on cooling, but by adding 
alcohol (grain, wood, or denatured) up to a concentration of 
10%, the crystallization is prevented, since the developing agents 
are very soluble in alcohol. 

The addition of the alcohol does not prevent the other ingredi- 
ents, such as sodium sulphite, from crystallizing out. In fact, 
the alcohol diminishes their solubility and therefore increases the 
tendency to come out of solution. 

A paraminophenol-carbonate developer is difficult to prepare in 
concentrated form, though by adding a little caustic soda the 
solubility of the paraminophenol is increased and a stronger solu- 
tion can be thus prepared. 

When preparing concentrated developers it is important to 



observe carefully the rules of mixing. To obtain a colorless de- 
veloper take care to keep the temperature of the solution as low 
as possible. 

Two-Solution Developers 

A two-solution developer is simply a one-solution developer 
split into two parts, one containing the carbonate and bromide, 
the other containing the developing agent and preservatives so 
that the developer will oxidize less readily and therefore keep 
well. The reason it is customary to keep a developer like pyro in 
two solutions, is because pyro oxidizes much more readily than 
Elon or paraminophenol with a given amount of preservative. 

For purposes of mixing, only one solution developers need be 
considered because the same rules regarding mixing apply in both 

Developing Troubles 

In order to explain the reason for any particular developer 
trouble it is necessary to understand thoroughly what takes place 
when the ingredients are mixed in the wrong order, or if any in- 
gredient is omitted from the formula, also the effect of chemical 
impurities. It is impossible here to indicate every possible 
trouble but the more important ones may be listed as follows : 

1. The developer gives fog or chemical fog. Fog is the chief 
trouble caused by faulty mixing. It may be due to any of the 
following reasons: Violation of the rules of mixing; mixing the 
solution too hot; omission of the bromide; addition of too much 
carbonate or too little sulphite ; the use of impure chemicals ; etc. 

2. The solution is colored. As a general rule the developer 
when mixed should be colorless. If colored, the developer is 
liable to give fog. In the case of a pyro developer mixed with 
bisulphite which contains iron, the iron combines with the pyro 
to form an inky substance which imparts a dirty red color to the 

If a pyro developer is mixed as two separate solutions A and B, 
the pyro solution which usually contains only carbonate and 
bromide, should be perfectly colorless, though if carelessly mixed 
in dirty vessels it may be colored brown by the presence of a 
little pyro A. 

3. If the solution does not develop, then either the developing 
agent or the carbonate was omitted during mixing. 



How TO Mix Fixing Solutions 

Fixing baths may be divided into the following classes: 

1. Plain hypo solutions. 

2. Acid hypo solutions consisting of hypo with the addition of 
sodium bisulphite, potassium metabisulphite, or sodium sulphite 
with acid. 

3. Acid hardening hypo solutions. 

1. Usually no difficulty is experienced when mixing a plain 
hypo solution. When mixing a quantity of solution in a tank the 
filter bag method should be used and the hypo dissolved in warm 
water because the temperature drops considerably while the hypo 
is dissolving. If a scum forms on the surface of the solution 
while standing, it should be removed by drawing the edge of a 
towel across the surface. 

If a wooden cover is used for the tank, fungi often develop in 
a hypo solution and produce acid substances which tend to turn 
the solution milky. In such a case, the tank should be thoroughly 
cleaned and the cover faced with sheet lead. 

A plain fixing bath, however, is seldom used because it gradu- 
ally becomes alkaline from an accumulation of alkali carried over 
by the prints and plates from the developer. This tends to soften 
the gelatine, while the image continues to develop in the fixing 
bath. If two prints stick together, less development takes place 
at the point of contact causing uneven development. If the bath 
is acid, the acid kills or neutralizes the alkali in the developer 
carried over, thus preventing unevenness. 

2. In order to mix an acid fixing bath intelligently it is neces- 
sary to understand a little about its chemistry. 

Hypo can be made by boiling together sodium sulphite and 
flowers of sulphur until no more sulphur is dissolved. If acid 
is added to a hypo solution sulphur is again liberated, forming a 
milky solution known as milk of sulphur. If sodium sulphite is 
present, however, any sulphur which tends to come out of solution 
combines with the sulphite to form more hypo and the solution 
therefore remains clear. 

This sulphur cannot be redissolved by adding sodium sulphite 
to the milky solution except by boiling. On standing it is apt to 
settle on prints or plates as a scum All acid fixing baths there- 
fore contain either sodium bisulphite, potassium metabisulphite, 



or a mixture of sodium sulphite and some acid, and the following 
directions for mixing should be followed : 

(a) Do not add the bisulphite or acid sulphite solutions to the 
warm hypo solution. If the solutions are not perfectly cold when 
mixed the hypo will turn milky. 

Experience has shown that potassium metabisulphite has less 
tendency to produce milkiness than sodium bisulphite, though for 
practical purposes the difference is almost negligible. 

Of the common acids, sulphuric, hydrochloric, acetic, citric, 
etc., acetic, citric, and tartaric acids have less tendency to produce 
milkiness for a given degree of acidity than sulphuric, which fact 
would be expected from theoretical considerations. 

(b) On keeping, an acid hypo solution gradually becomes 
milky, so that a stock solution of the sodium bisulphite, etc., 
should be kept and added to the plain hypo stock solution as re- 
quired. For general purposes 50 cc. of a 50% sodium bisulphite 
solution are added to 1,000 cc. of a 35% hypo solution. If any 
considerable excess over this amount is added, the hypo rapidly 
turns milky owing to the liberation of sulphur, especially if the 
weather is warm. 

3. Acid hardening baths are prepared by adding to hypo an 
acid hardening solution which contains the following Ingredients : 

(a J An acid such as acetic, citric, tartaric, lactic, sulphuric, 
etc., which stops development. 

(b) A hardening agent such as alum, chrome alum or formalin. 

(c) A preservative such as sodium sulphite or sodium bi- 

The latter acts as a preservative In two ways: It prevents the 
formation of sulphur by the action of the acid on the hypo, and, 
also prevents the developer carried over into the fixing bath from 
oxidizing and turning brown. 

How TO Mix the Acid Hardener 

Prepare the acid hardening solution as a separate stock solu- 
tion and add this to the hypo solution as required 

The order of mixing is important. 

(a) When mixing In one vessel, first dissolve the alum In warm 
water, then add the acid and add the sulphite immediately ; other- 
wise, if the acid alum solution is allowed to stand, the alum will 



crystalize out again. It is sometimes recommended to reverse 
the process, namely, dissolve the sulphite first, add the acid, and 
then the alum, but unless the alum is finely powdered it does not 
readily dissolve unless the solution is warm. In this case sulphur 
dioxide gas is given off from the acid sulphite solution. 

(b) The best method is to dissolve the alum and sulphite in 
separate solutions, cool, add the acid to the sulphite and then 
add the alum solution. 

If the order of mixing is reversed and the alum first added to 
the sulphite, a white sludge of aluminum sulphite is formed 
which dissolves with difficulty when the acid is added. If after 
mixing the hardener is milky and a sludge settles out, there is a 
relative insufficiency of acid. That is the acid used was not up 
to strength, or too much alum or sulphite was added. 

With all other hardening baths the order of mixing is the same. 

Fixing Bath Troubles 

I. Milkiness of the fixing bath. 

Sometimes a fixing bath turns milky immediately on adding the 
hardener and sometimes after being in use for some time. The 
milkiness may be of two kinds : 

A. If the precipitate settles very slowly on standing, the milki- 
ness is due to sulphur caused by the following conditions : 

(a) Too much acid in the hardener, 

(b) Too little sulphite or the use of impure sulphite (in which 
case there is not sufficient present to protect the hypo from the 

(c) High temperature. The hardener should only be added 
to the hypo solution when at room temperature. If the tempera- 
ture of the acid fixing bath is over 85° F. it will not remain clear 
longer than a few days even when mixed correctly. The only 
remedy is to throw the bath away and mix fresh solution as re- 

B. If the milkiness disappears on standing for a few hours, 
and a gelatinous sludge of aluminum sulphite settles out, this is 
caused by: 

(a) Too little acid in the hardener. For example, supposing 
a formula calls for pure glacial (98%) acetic acid and 2S% acid 
is used by mistake, then we have added less than one-third the 
required amount. 



(b) Too little hardener in the fixing bath. When fixing 
prints, a relatively large proportion of the developer is carried 
over to the fixing bath. This soon neutralizes the acid and per- 
mits the formation of aluminum sulphite. A fixing bath with the 
correct proportion of hardener, when exhausted, still contains 
alum and sulphite but no acid, and these combine to form a sludge 
of aluminum sulphite. 

It is extremely important therefore to use only acid oi known 
strength. Avoid trouble by using neither more nor less acid than 
is called for in the formula. 

2. The bath does not harden. 

A frequent cause of insufficient hardening is the use of in- 
ferior alum which does not contain the correct proportion of 
aluminum sulphate. An exhausted bath which is alkaline will 
also harden very slowly. Alum hardens best in acid solution. 

Miscellaneous Solutions 

The number of miscellaneous solutions used in photography 
for intensifying, reducing, toning, etc., is so large that it is be- 
yond the scope of this book to deal with individual cases. The 
method of procedure is much the same as when mixing develop- 
ers, and the order of mixing is usually stated specifically. 

Substitution of Chemicals 

Occasion arises often when the photographer is out of stock 
of some particular chemical and he is tempted to substitute one 
chemical for another. In this chapter it will be shown how far 
substitution is possible in the case of developing and fixing baths. 
These remarks usually apply to solutions in general. 

Substitutes for Potassium Salts 

In view of the present scarcity of potassium salts and their 
greater expense as compared with sodium salts, the question 
arises as to what extent they can be replaced by salts of sodium 
or ammonium. 

As a general rule, for photographic purposes, a potassium salt 
can be replaced by a sodium salt weight for weight, the error 
caused by the difference in molecular weight of the two salts 



being usually negligible. There are many exceptions, however, 
where there is a difference in physical properties of the two salts 
for example, potassium carbonate and sodium bichromate are 
deliquescent (i.e., they attract the moisture present in the atmos- 
phere) while sodium carbonate and potassium bichromate are not. 

SuBSTiTioN IN Developing Formulae 

1. The developing Agent. 

As a general rule it is not possible to replace one developing 
agent by another and obtain a developer with identical properties, 
since each developing agent has its own characteristics as regards 
rate of development, fog, color of image produced, etc. In some 
cases, however, a close approximation can be made. For example 
substitute Elon by Kodelon (or paramidophenol) providing the 
developer is sufficiently dilute to permit of sufficient paramido- 
phenol being dissolved. This applies either to an all Elon or an 
Elon-hydroquinone formula. 

If in an Elon-hydroquinone (or E-H) formula paramidophenol 
is substituted for the Elon and the activity of the developer is in- 
creased by the addition of alkali, the effect of the alkali is pro- 
portionately greater on the hydroquinone than on the paramido- 
phenol so that a rapid hard working developer is obtained. To 
avoid this, proportionally more paramidophenol is required than 
if Elon is used. 

2. The preservative. 

It is not customary to substitute sodium bisulphite for potas- 
sium metabisulphite weight by weight, though in a plain fixing 
bath, sodium bisulphite has a slightly greater tendency to pro- 
duce sulphurization than the potassium salt. 

The question is often asked as to the difference in action 
between sodium sulphite and sodium bisulphite. Sodium bi- 
sulphite may be considered as a compound of sodium sulphite and 
sulphurous acid, and therefore reacts acid. Sodium sulphite is 
alkaHne. In the case of a two-solution pyro formula where the 
pyro A solution is preserved with oxalic acid or sodium bisulphite, 
an equal weight of sodium sulphite would not preserve as well, 
since pyro oxidizes much more readily in alkaline than in acid 

In the case of a one-solution developer containing, say, sodium 



sulphite, sodium bisulphite and sodium carbonate, the bisulphite 
is converted to sulphite by the sodium carbonate according to 
the following equation : 

Sodium Bisulphite + Sodium Carbonate = Sodium Sulphite 
+ Sodium Bicarbonate. 

So that a corresponding amount of sodium sulphite might just 
as well have been added in the first place. Sodium bisulphite 
neutralizes or destroys an equivalent amount of sodium carbonate 
thus reducing the proportion of alkali and therefore exerting an 
apparent restraining action. The developer apparently keeps 
longer because some of the carbonate has been destroyed. 

The relative amounts of different salts which produce the same 
preserving action is given in the following table : 

Sodium sulphite i.o part 

Sodium bisulphite 0,83 part 

Potassium metabisulphite 0.88 part 

For a two-solution developer therefore use sodium bisulphite. 
In the case of a single solution developer, containing alkali, use 
sodium sulphite, because in this case no advantage is gained by 
using a mixture of sulphite and bisulphite. 

3. The Alkali. 

The common alkalis are the carbonates and hydroxides of 
sodium, potassium or ammonium. Substances like acetone, tri- 
basic sodium phosphate, borax, and amines are occasionally used 
but will not be considered here. 

When sodium carbonate is dissolved in water a small propor- 
tion of it reacts with the water forming caustic soda and sodium 
bicarbonate. This process is called hydrolysis though only a small 
portion of the carbonate is hydrolyzed at any moment. As the 
caustic soda formed is used up in development, more carbonate 
hydrolyzes so we can consider that carbonate acts as a reservoir 
of caustic alkali. If, in the first place, a solution of caustic soda 
was used of the same alkalinity as the carbonate it would soon 
be used up. The use of carbonate therefore enables us to use a 
small concentration of alkali and yet keep it constant during de- 

It is rarely possible therefore to replace caustic alkalis by car- 
bonated alkalis such as sodium or potassium carbonate. 

Potassium carbonate is slightly more active than sodium car- 
bonate in solution because it hydrolyzes to a greater extent. For 


(Courtesy of the Universal Film Company) 



developing motion picture film on a reel when the developer may 
splash on the floor, potassium carbonate cannot be substituted by 
sodium carbonate. Because of the deliquescent nature of potas- 
sium carbonate, the splashes of solution remain moist thus pre- 
venting the formation of carbonate dust in the air. 

Caustic soda and caustic potash may be replaced weight for 
weight in most formulae. 

Ammonia and ammonium carbonate are seldom used in de- 
velopers on account of their odor and the fact that they tend to 
cause dichroic fog. 

Desiccated and Crystal Sodas 

Sodium carbonate and sodium sulphite are often supplied in 
two forms: Crystals and desiccated or dry, which is sometimes 
called anhydrous because it does not contain water of crystaliza- 

Desiccated sodas possess the advantage that they occupy less 
than half the bulk of the crystals, while desiccated sodium sul- 
phite is much less liable to oxidation by the air than the crystalline 

The sodas should be substituted as follows: 

One part by weight of sodium carbonate (desiccated) for three 
parts by weight of the crystals. 

One part by weight of sodium sulphite (desiccated) for two 
parts by weight of the crystals. 

4. The Restrainer. 

Potassium bromide may be substituted by an equal weight of 
sodium bromide. Ammonium bromide should not be used in a 
developer because the alkali liberates ammonia gas and this too 
tends to produce dichroic fog. 

Substitution in the Fixing Bath 

Sulphites and Bisulphites. 

The same remarks apply as to preservatives in the developer. 


An alum is a compound or double salt of aluminum sulphate or 
chromium sulphate with either sodium, potassium or ammonium 
sulphate. The hardening action is produced onl)^ by the alum- 
inum or chromium sulphate, so that equivalent weights of alum- 
inum sulphate and of sodium, potassium, or ammonium alum 
should exert the same hardening action. 



The following conclusions are the result of a series of practical 
tests made by the author. 

(a) Equivalent amounts of potash alum and aluminum sul- 
phate exert the same hardening action, two parts by weight of 
aluminum sulphate, being equivalent to three parts by weight of 
potash alum. Commercially pure aluminum sulphate is satis- 
factory if this does not contain an excess of iron. If the sample 
is acid, the solution should be neutralized with ammonia. When 
mixing the usual liquid hardener formula with commercial alum- 
inum sulphate, a slight milky suspension is formed which should 
be allowed to settle and be filtered off. 

(b) There is no appreciable difference between sodium, potas- 
sium and ammonium alum in their hardening action when sub- 
stituted weight for weight in the usual formulae. In practice, if 
any difference in hardening action occurs, it is due to the use of 
impure alums. If the impurities are harmless, an increased 
amount of the alum should be used so that the content of alum- 
inum sulphate is the same as that in the potash alum called for 
by the particular formula. 

When using ammonium alum, if the fixing bath becomes alka- 
line by virtue of a neutralization of the acid by the developer 
carried over, ammonia will be liberated causing dichroic fog and 
stain. No trouble will be experienced, however, if care is taken 
to keep the bath acid. 

Pure chrome alum may also be substituted for potash alum, as 
above, though it has a slightly greater tendency to precipitate 
sulphur than potash alum. It has this advantage, however. It 
does not form a basic sulphite as rapidly as potash alum, so that 
a chrome alum fixing bath remains clear even when appreciably 


The most commonly used acids are acetic, citric, tartaric, and 
sometimes lactic. Strong acids like sulphuric are seldom used 
because of the great tendency to liberate sulphur. Weaker acids, 
like the above, bear the same relation to a strong acid as a 
carbonated alkali to a caustic alkali, that is they act as a reservoir 
of acid. Thus only a small proportion of the acid is available 
for reaction in solution at any one time. 

Acetic acid is usually supplied in two strengths, glacial (98%) 
and 28% acid. One volume of glacial acid is equivalent to three 
and a half volumes of 28% acid. 



Citric and tartaric may be substituted weight for weight. When 
used in place of acetic, substitute in the ratio of one gram of 
citric for every 3 ccs. of 28% acetic acid. 

These acids are not quite as satisfactory as acetic because, for 
a given degree of acidity as measured by the amount of alkaline 
developer which can be added to the fixing bath before the bath 
becomes neutral, citric and tartaric acids have a greater tendency 
to precipitate sulphur from the hypo than acetic acid. 

Purity of Chemicals 
The Water Supply 

Water is the most important chemical used in photography. 
It is most important to know to what extent the impurities present 
may be harmful to the various operations and how these im- 
purities may be removed. 

Excluding distilled water, rain water, and water from melted 
ice or snow, the following impurities may be present : 

1. EHssolved salts such as bicarbonates, chlorides, and sul- 
phates of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. In case 
calcium salts are present and a developing formula is used con- 
taining sodium bisulphite or potassium metabisulphite, fine needle- 
shaped crystals of calcium sulphite are apt to separate out as a 
sludge in the developer on standing. The sludge is harmless if 
allowed to settle, though the developer is robbed of the amount of 
sulphite required to form the sludge. If the developer is agitated, 
the sludge will cause trouble by settling out on the emulsions of 
plates, films, etc. Other salts have usually little effect on a de- 
veloper although chlorides and bromides exert a restraining 

Dissolved salts often cause trouble by crystallizing on the film 
after drying. Although not always visible as crystals to the eye, 
they detract from the transparency of the film. 

2. Suspended matter in the form of dirt and iron rust, if not 
filtered or allowed to settle will cause spots. 

3. Slime, consisting of animal or vegetable colloidal matter 
and which is not removed by filtering. If slimy water is used for 
mixing solutions, the colloidal matter gradually coagulates and 
settles out in the solution as a sludge. 

4. Dissolved gases such as air, sulphuretted hydrogen, etc. 



Water dissolves about 2% of air at 70° F. When a developing 
agent, like hydroquinone, is dissolved without the addition of sul- 
phite, the oxygen present in the water combines with the develop- 
ing agent forming an oxide which will cause chemical fog. 

Sulphuretted hydrogen gas present in sulphur water will also 
cause bad chemical fog. The gas may be removed by boiling or 
by precipitation with lead acetate. 

Purification of Water 

Water may be purified as follows: 

1. By distillation: Distilled water should be used whenever 
possible for mixing solutions. 

2. By boiling: This coagulates the colloidal matter and 
changes certain lime salts to the insoluble condition which then 
settles out. Dissolved gases such as air, sulphuretted hydrogen, 
etc., are removed. Therefore, unless the water contains an ex- 
cessive amount of dissolved salts, it is usually sufficient to boil 
it and allow it to settle. 

3. By chemical treatment: If large quantities of water are 
required, chemical methods of purification must be employed, 
though it is only possible to remove lime salts, slime and col- 
loidal matter in this way. 

Excessive amounts of dissolved lime salts are very objection- 
able. After washing, if drops of water remain on the plates or 
film, when the water evaporates, the dissolved salts in the water 
become visible as a white scum. 

The following methods of chemical purification may be 
adopted : 

(a) Add alum to the water in the proportion of one gram to 
four liters. This coagulates the slime which carries down any 
suspended particles, and the solution rapidly clears. This method 
does not remove dissolved salts, while the small amount of alum 
introduced into the water has no harmful effect on the developer. 

(b) Add a solution of sodium oxalate until no further precipi- 
tate forms. This method removes the calcium and magnesium 
salts and coagulates the slime, though sodium and potassium salts 
are left in solution. 

(c) Most of the commercial methods of water softening may 
be employed though such methods do not remove sodium and 
potassium salts. 



The "Decalso" process of water softening is one which can be 
recommended. The water is passed through a tank containing 
sodium aluminum siHcate which is a Zeolite, and possesses the 
power of exchanging its sodium for the calcium and magnesium 
present in the water. When the Zeolite thus loaded with calcium 
and magnesium is washed in a strong solution of common salt 
(sodium chloride) it exchanges the calcium and magnesium again 
for sodium and is thus regenerated, and in condition for further 
softening. Full particulars may be obtained from the American 
Water Softening Company, loii Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, 

Impurities in Developing and Fixing Chemicals 

It is beyond our scope to indicate all the possible impurities 
which may be present in photographic chemicals. For a more 
detailed account the reader is referred to the paper by H. T. 
Clarke on "The Examination of Organic Developing Agents'* 
(Phot. J. Amer., Nov., 1918, p. 481), which contains a number 
of analysis of developers recently placed on the market under 
fancy names and containing such substances as starch, sugar, 
salt, borax, etc. 

We are concerned only with the impurities which are not in- 
tentionally added as adulterants, usually present in chemicals. 

Impurities may have access to photographic chemicals in three 
ways: (a) during manufacture, (b) during storage, (c) during 
mixing and storage of the solution. 

(a) If chemicals of repute are purchased, the photographer 
need not worry about impurities. 

If the Elon, hydroquinone or pyro is colored, the presence of 
fogging agent should be suspected, although some colored sam- 
ples do not give any more fog than colorless ones. 

Many metallic compounds such as salts of copper and tin, 
metallic sulphides, etc., exert a powerful fogging action even 
when present only in minute quantities and should be avoided. 
The following table indicates the nature and effect of the more 
common impurities present in the chemicals used for developing 
and fixing baths : 




Chief Impurity 

Effect of Impurities 

Pyro, hydroqui- 
none, etc. 

Oxidation products 
and adulterants 

Chemical fog 

Adulterants weaken the effect 
of the developer 

Sodium sulphite 

Sodium' sulphate 

Keeping properties of the de- 
veloper are impaired 

Sodium bisulphite 

Iron and sodium 

Iron gives a dirty red solution 
with pyro 

Caustic soda 

Sodium carbonate 

Decreases the accelerating 


Sodium sulphite 

Sodium sulphate 
and ammonium 

Ammonium sul- 
phate and sul- 
phuric acid 

Diminishes the fixing power 

Diminishes the hardening ac- 

Chrome alum 

Excess of acid tends to cause 
sulphurization of the fixing 

Acetic acid 


Deficiency of acid causes milki- 
ness of the acid fixing bath 
due to the precipitation of 
aluminum sulphite 

(b) For impurities introduced during storage see "Storage of 

(c) If during mixing the water contains dissolved air and the 
developing agent is dissolved before the sulphite, it becomes 
oxidized and the oxidation product formed causes fog. (See 
"Mixing of Developers," "Storage of Solutions" and article on 
"Chemical Fog.") 

Storage of Chemicals 

Chemicals should be stored m well corked or well stoppered 
jars in a cool, dry place. Mbst chemicals are affected by air 
which contains oxygen, carbon dioxide gas, and moisture. 

(a) Oxygen readily attacKS such substances as sodium sulphite, 
especially in the presence of moisture, converting it into sodium 
sulphate, which is useless as a preservative. With crystallized 
sodium sulphite, the sodium sulphate forms on the outside of the 
crystals as a powder; this may be washed off and the crystals 
dried. It is necessary to make chemical tests to detect sodium 
sulphate in desiccated sulphite. 



Other substances which combine with oxygen, and are there- 
fore said to be "oxidized," are sodium bisulphite and potassium 
metabisulphite and all developing agents such as pyro, hydro- 
quinone, etc., which turn more or less brown, the extent of the 
color roughly indicating the degree of oxidation. 

(b) Carbon dioxide gas combines with substances like caustic 
soda and caustic potash converting them into the corresponding 
carbonated alkalis which are less reactive. If caustic soda is 
kept in a stoppered bottle the stopper usually becomes cemented 
fast by the sodium carbonate formed, so that it should be kept in 
a waxed corked bottle. Owing to the solvent action of the 
caustic alkalis on glass the inside of the glass bottle containing 
caustic or strongly carbonated solutions becomes frosted, though 
the amount of glass thus dissolved aw^ay will usually do no harm. 

(c) Certain chemicals have a strong attraction or affinity for 
the moisture present in the atmosphere and gradually dissolve 
forming a solution in the water thus absorbed. This phenomenon 
is termed "deliquescence" and the chemicals are said to "deli- 
quesce." Familiar examples are ammonium thiocyanate, potas- 
sium carbonate, caustic soda, caustic potash, sodium sulphide, 
uranium nitrate, sodium bichromate, etc., which should be stored 
in corked bottles and the neck should be dipped in melted paraffin 

As mentioned above, it is difficult to prepare a solution of defi- 
nite percentage strength from a chemical which has deliquesced, 
though it is usually sufficient to drain ofiF the crystals, or to use 
a hydrometer, referring to a table giving the hydrometer readings 
in terms of percentage strength. 

(d) While some chemicals absorb moisture as above, others 
give up their water of crystallization to the atmosphere and there- 
fore lose their crystalline form and fall to a powder and are then 
said to have "efflorescence," the phenomenon being termed "ef- 
florenscence." Some crystals do not contain water and there- 
fore cannot effloresce. 

A very dry atmosphere is suitable therefore for storing del- 
iquescent salts but not for efflorescent salts. The only way to 
store chemicals Is to Isolate them from the air by suitably sealing. 

How TO Store Solutions 
Stock solutions and developers should be stored either in large 



bottles, earthenware crocks, wooden vats, or in tanks of resistive 
material so arranged that the liquid may be drawn off at the side 
and near the bottom. 

Large glass bottles and crocks should be fitted with a right- 
angled glass or lead tube passing through a rubber stopper wired 
to the bottle, the tube being opened and closed by means of a 
pinch cock clamping a short length of rubber tubing. 

In case a solution such as pyro has to be stored for a long 
time and withdrawn at intervals, an absorption bottle containing 
alkaline pyro may be fitted at the intake, which absorbs oxygen 
from the air as it enters the bottle after withdrawing part of the 

It is often recommended to pour a layer of refined material oil 
on the surface of a solution to protect it from the air, though 
this is very messy when the bottle has to be refilled. 

A battery O'f stock solution bottles is shown in Fig. 24 the 
bottles being arranged on lead covered shelves under which a 
large trough is placed, or, the floor may be so arranged as to 
form a sink so that in case of accidental breakage no serious 
damage is done. This precaution is of special importance in the 
case of hypo solutions which might otherwise flood an entire 
building and inoculate the various rooms with hypo dust causing 
an epidemic of spots. 


Chapter IX 

AFTER the picture has been taken, the cameraman delivers 
the film to the negative developing department, where it 
is developed and fixed in a manner very similar to that 
adopted in developing still pictures. Before proceeding with the 
development of the entire film, when the exposure and light con- 
ditions are unknown, a short piece is cut off and developed in- 
dependently, so that the proper treatment may be determined 
without endangering the entire reel. 

The exposed film is wrapped spirally around a light rectangular 
frame or rack, for convenience in handling, and is then dipped 
into a tank containing the developing solution. This arrange- 
ment enables the operator to agitate the film in the solution and 
examine it without danger of injury to the delicate sensitized 
surface. After the negative has been developed to the re- 
quired density it is placed in the fixing bath of sodium hypo- 
sulphite where it remains until all the remaining active silver 
salts in the emulsion are dissolved out leaving an image of re- 
duced metallic silver which can no longer be affected by the light. 

Fixing having been completed, the film is thoroughly washed 
in clean water to remove the last traces of hypo. The film is 
next dried upon large revolving wooden drums, usually driven 
by power. The motion of the drums throws off any small drops 
of water that may adhere to the back of the film and keeps a con- 
stant stream of warm air moving over the emulsion side. 

In some laboratories before drying, the film is given a final 
treatment in dilute solution of glycerine and water. A small 
percentage of the glycerine remains with the film even after it 
has dried and owing to the moisture absorbing properties of the 
glycerine enough moisture is retained to keep the film in a soft 
and pliable condition. When the glycerine has been lost after a 
considerable service, by evaporation or other cause, the film be- 
comes brittle and must be given another treatment in the glycerine 
bath. This is a precaution that Is not needed so much today as 
modern film is much more pliable than that used a few years ago 
when the glycerine bath was a necessity. 



Before the introduction of tank development the drum system 
was used but is now practically discarded. For convenience in 
developing long films they were often wound around large drums 
similar to the drying drums. After the film was wound on the 
drum it was suspended over the developing tank in such a way 
that the lower edge of the drum and the film dipped into the 
solution. The drum was then revolved until the negative was 
developed to the proper density, and then was transferred to the 
fixing and washing baths. 

Machine development is to some extent now superseding the 
tank method. In machine development the film is led by means 
of sprockets and pulleys successively through the developer, the 
short-stop, the wash water, and into a drying chamber and it 
comes out finished and dried upon a take-up spindle. By this 
method all the different steps in development are proceeding at 
once upon different portions of the same roll of film. The 
Pathe and Gaumont companies in this country and Europe, and 
some companies in England, have successfully used machine de- 
velopment for a number of years. Several companies finishing 
or "processing" motion picture film by machine development are 
now in operation in the United States. 

The beginner, when he handles for the first time a coil of sen- 
sitized film measuring i^ inches in width and perhaps 200 feet 
in length, might hesitate to attempt its development. He might 
prefer to dispatch it to a firm prepared to carry out this work 
for a light charge, confident that with the facilities at their com- 
mand, and with their accumulated experience, they would be 
able to bring out his work to the best advantage. 

As a matter of fact it is by no means so difficult as it appears 
at first and the rudiments of the process may be grasped readily 
by a person of average intelligence. Success, as in other handi- 
crafts, can be achieved only with practice. 

Cinematography, being a peculiar and special branch of the 
photographic art, demanding the use of new and unfamiliar tools 
has been responsible for the perfection of particular devices and 
methods to assist and facilitate development. In the early days 
the worker had to worry through the task and was compelled to 
undertake many doubtful experiments.. Today the beginner is 
able to profit from the mistakes of the pioneers and has at his 
disposal all the appliances and processes which have proved their 



worth. After one or two trials the worker will realize that the 
development of a 200-foot length of celluloid ribbon is no more 
difficult than the development of an ordinary kodak spool. 

One thing the beginner will do well to bear in mind. He should 
adopt some particular brand of film and cling to it after he has 
become acquainted with its emulsion, speed, composition and 
peculiar characteristics. There are three or four different makes 
upon the market but it is preferable to select a film which is 
easily obtainable at any time and in any part of the world. It is 
strongly urged that the beginner select the Elastman stock for 
this if for no other reason. The Eastman organization has its 
tentacles spread throughout the world. It has thousands of 
agencies in immediate touch with the different national companies. 
The result is that this film can be purchased without difficulty in 
nearly all parts of the globe. If a local dealer does not stock 
it, he can procure it to order within a day or two. Moreover the 
film will be new and in perfect condition. 

There are many other reasons why it is advisable to select and 
to adhere to this stock, which although of a technical character 
are of much importance to the user. It must be borne in mind 
that the technique and chemistry of cinematography are still in 
their infancy and the technical staff retained for the preparation 
of the various ingredients employed in the sensitizing of the film 
are striving constantly to improve and to increase the speed or 
sensitiveness of the emulsion. The result is that the worker who 
uses Eastman film keeps pace with developments. The makers 
of this ribbon were the first to discover a base and emulsion 
suited to moving picture work. This was achieved only after 
the erpesditure of enormous sums of money, after htmdreds of 
fruitless experiments and with the co-operation of the highest 
technical and chemical skill. Under these circumstances the limi- 
tations of the base and of the emulsion became thoroughly 
understood, so that the film is certain to maintain the highest 
quality. On the other hand, those firms who have embarked 
upon the manufacture of this commodity only within recent 
years, have still to face and to overcome many pitfalls which 
the older concern discovered and surmounted years ago. So the 
film marketed by younger organizations Is apt to vary In quality. 

Before the beginner attempts development he must make sure 
that his dark room and accessories are adequate. To seek suc- 



cess with makeshifts in the first instance is to court failure. 
Many of the utensils employed in the dark room can be fashioned 
by any handy man. They may lack finish but so long as they per- 
form their work properly, nothing more is necessary. 

The following small outfit which has a capacity of little more 
than 50 feet of film will go into a space about 32 by 32 inches by 
8 inches thick, including a dozen racks. Figure J5 shows the 
construction of the arms of the rack which are made of some 
hard close-grained wood like maple, the pins are made of what is 
called dowel-pin stock, small rods of hardwood used by cabinet- 
makers to pin the edges of boards together in fine cabinet work. 







000 0000 000<00 



Fig. 35 

They may be obtained from almost any lumber yard or mill. The 
ones used in the rack described were 3/16 inch in diameter and 
protrude two inches from the rack arm. Two rack arms crossed 
make a rack on which a little more than 50 feet of film may be 
wound spirally, beginning at the center. They are fastened to- 
gether with two screws so that they may be readily taken apart 
for greater convenience in transporting. 

By a little calculation, if one wished a rack of larger capacity, 
a 75 or 1 00- foot rack may be constructed in the same manner. 
A rack of 100 feet capacity is about the limit of this form of 
developing apparatus, as anything larger becomes too cumber- 
some and the swelling action of the developer causes the film to 
loosen and gives trouble, as the film seems bound to stick together. 
Still racks of larger capacity have been made with four cross 
arms instead of two. This only reduces the trouble to a slight 
extent, so that it is not advisable even in the hundred-foot racks, 
unless the film is stretched very tightly, for one is apt to exper- 







ience trouble from slack strands adhering and stopping the action 
of the developer where they stick together. 

If the maker is an amateur metal worker, he may make an 
apparatus quite a bit more compact by constructing it of square 
brass rod stock, with smaller brass pins, which on account of their 
size may be set closer together than the wooden dowels. 

A developing tray 21 inches square inside measurement and 
4 inches deep will accommodate the diagonal cross arms of the 
27-inch rack. The trays may be made of wood, but by getting 
a sheet metal worker to construct the trays of sheet iron, a 

Fig. 36 

much lighter and more compact nest of trays may be made. A 
set of three trays is necessary, one for the developer, one for 
the Hypo and one for a washing tray. Each of these in succes- 
sion is just enough larger than the one preceding so that they will 
nest together for packing. 

For those who wish to construct their own trays of wood 
Figure 36 shows a wooden developing tray which may be con- 
structed of any sort of wood which may be at hand. It is not 
advisable to try to make this tray water-tight since the action of 
the water and developing fluids will inevitably warp it so that 
it would leak too badly to use. Wooden trays are easily rendered 
water-proof by lining with rubber cloth or in the case of hypo 
and washing trays, with ordinary table oil cloth. Oil cloth cannot 
be used in a developing tray unless it is covered with a good coat 
of Probus paint, as the alkali in the developer dissolves the water- 
proof coating on the oil cloth. 




Figure 57 shows a square of rubber cloth cut for lining the de- 
veloping tray. Use surgeon's white rubber sheeting, which may 
be obtained from any drug store. This rubber cloth is impervious 
to the action of the developer and by turning the folded comer 

























Fig. 87 

as shown in Figure 38, a smooth water-proof joint can easily be 
made. Place the cloth inside the tray with the rubber surface 
up, spread it smoothly inside and turn the edges over the edge 
of the tray, a two-inch overlap being provided for in the diagram. 
Fasten lightly with tacks until the cloth is smoothly arranged, 
cutting down the corners just far enough to meet the top of the 
tray and then fasten permanently by tacking half-round beading 



along the top edge of the tray, after which the small amount of 
cloth protruding may be trimmed off, leaving a neat cloth-lined 
tray which is water- and solution-proof. The cut shows a rack 
on an empty tray ready for winding on the film. 

Metal trays should be painted thoroughly inside with a coating 
of Probus paint, which is a paint impervious to the action of 
either acids or alkalies and which may be obtained from any 
dealer in photographic supplies. Sheet-iron is better than gal- 
vanized iron or tin as the coating of tin or zinc is liable to peel 
off after short use and expose the metal underneath to the action 
of the solutions. 

Fig. 38 

If a developer is one not easily oxidized, such as Metol-Hydro- 
chonon, it may be used a good number of times by keeping it in 
an air-tight glass carboy. Films may be dried upon the racks 
after washing but as the pins cause a kinking of the film it is bet- 
ter to construct some sort of a drying drum upon which the film 
may be wound for drying and washing. 

One of the most compact outfits for the development of motion 
pictures is the Spiral Reel invented and manufactured by R. P. 
Stineman of Los Angeles, California. It consists of a metal 
spiral with a thread or groove which holds the convolutions of 
film in a loose roll, parts of which are far enough apart to allow 
the developing solutions to act upon the sensitive surface and 
yet not close enough for any of the layers of film to stick together. 
Two hundred feet of film can be wound upon a spiral twenty- 
three inches in diameter and completely immersed in two gallons 
of developer, 



These outfits are made in three sizes having respective capac- 
ities of 50, 100 and 200 feet and consisting of three round tanks 
or trays nesting within one another and having one or more spiral 
wheels for holding the film to be developed together with a spindle 
upon which the wheel may be revolved and a wire screen turn 
table upon which the film is placed for winding upon the drying 
drum or upon drying racks. For use : 

Place reel on stationary winding pin at convenient angle to 
film box so that film will slide smoothly into reel. Fasten end 
of film in slot in center of reel then revolve reel with left hand, 
using the right hand against outer edge of film to guide film into 
reel. When wound, fasten other end of film to reel with metal 
clip. Film should be firmly wound and securely attached with 
the clip. 

Immerse reel in developer and move rapidly up and down 
several times to prevent air-bells. When using Pyro repeat this 
movement several times during development. 

When development is complete, rinse, fix and wash film while 
still on reel. Water and Pyro should not exceed three inches in 

When thoroughly washed, lift reel out of water and drain for a 
few seconds. Release ends of film and place reel face down on 
screen in about four inches of water by grasping reel through 
finger-holds on reverse side. Agitate slightly and raise reel, leav- 
ing the film on the screen. Lift screen out of the water, place 
on stand with revolving top and wind film on drum to dry. Do 
not touch face of film at any time — always lift tlie reel by handle 
in center. 

Don't try to put film in reel when reel is wet. 

Don't try to take film from reel except by turning reel upside 
down in water. 

Don't try to dry the film in the reel. 

It is not necessary to use the screen with 50-foot film lengths — 
film may be rolled on core held by fingers. 


The two greatest problems of both the still and motion photog- 
rapher are correct exposure and correct development. These two 
things are shrouded in mystery even to many professionals — 



they may have learned by rule of thumb how to obtain good pic- 
tures but to save their lives they could not give the reasons for 
what they do. Also there are many false or erroneous ideas prev- 
alent about exposure and development. One of the most per- 
nicious of these false ideas is that an under-exposed negative can 
be ''brought up" by special methods of development. Another is 
that different times of exposure require different methods of de- 
velopment. The truth is that the best development for under-, 
correct, and over-exposure is the same in each case. 

The man who sets out to get a good negative every time will 
find that he has much to learn about development, and perhaps 
quite as much to unlearn. It has always been regarded as the 
critical stage in the making of the negative, an intermediate state 
where wonderful things could be done by those who knew how — 
**an art," as Bothamley said, "not reducible to a matter of figures." 
Hence the usual way of mastering development was to get this or 
that famous worker's formulae and method, and on that empirical 
foundation build one's own methods by experience. But, as Poor 
Richard told us long ago : Experience keeps a dear school. We 
are beginning to be wiser. The investigations of Hurtcr and 
Driffield plainly show that "the production of the photograph is 
governed by natural laws, and a definite effect must result from 
a definite cause. The same cause, under the same conditions, 
always produces the same effect. Only by clearly grasping and 
working in harmony with these laws can we really become masters 
of technical photography." Our first step, then is to seek that 
scientific knowledge which is a knowledge of things in their 
causes : to know, for instance, the law governing light-action. 

Let us begin. When we make a photograph, our purpose is 
simple : to secure a record of some object of interest. The posi- 
tive, then is the real end of all our photography. The negative 
is chiefly valuable or interesting as a means to the end, an inter- 
mediate step toward the positive — nothing more. Unless we get 
in the positive a record which truthfully describes the object 
photographed as the eye saw it, all our negative-making is in 

Many photographs are untruthful in their rendering of tone, 
misrepresenting the light and shade of the subject as seen by the 
eye. The reason why so many of our photographs fail to satisfy 
is here discovered ; they do not give us the natural gradations of 



light and shade which please or interest us in the subject, and 
which are essential to the illusion of Hfe and actuality. Our ap- 
preciation of truth in light and shade is not perfectly developed 
and we are not quick to recognize errors of this sort. Neverthe- 
less, the technically good photograph of an object or scene in 
nature, which gives us the natural variety of light and shade in 
the subject, is invariably recognized with praise; while the bad 
pictures are simply passed by as "poor photography." For cor- 
rectness of delineation in photography we are dependent on the 
lens and its right use. For the truthful representation of light 
and shade, we depend on the sensitive film and our use of its 
capacity to record the whole range of tones in the subject from 
highest light to deepest dark. In this discussion we leave delinea- 
tion and the lens out of the question being wholly concerned with 
the other side of the problem: how to secure in the negative a 
faithful record of the light and shade effects of our subjects. 

The consideration of light and shade, as exhibited in the objects 
we photograph, may seem for the moment to be somewhat remote 
from development of the negative. It is certainly the last thing 
thought of by the average photographer, and, even then, is usually 
considered as belonging to the pictorial rather than to the tech- 
nical side of photography. As will be seen, however, it has a 
vital influence for good or evil in negative-making, and there can 
be little real success in technique until we grasp its practical im- 
portance and learn, like the professional photographer, to regard 
our subjects unconsciously as arrangements of light and shade. 

To get at the significance of this point of view, let us consider 
the light and shade effects of any easily imagined subject simply 
as so many light-intensities — ^points reflecting light in varying 
degree at different parts of the subject, according to its illumina- 
tion. If we mentally arrange these light-intensities in order ac- 
cording to their relative brightness or visual luminosity, remem- 
bering that in all pleasing transitions from light to dark the light 
decreases in geometric rather than arithmetic progression, we 
shall get, let us suppose, a scale ranging as follows : 64, 32, 16, 8, 
4, 2, I, which expresses a geometric series. On this imaginary 
scale the light reflected from the deepest shadow in the subject 
will be represented as i, and the highest light in the subject as 64. 
Obviously, if the photograph is to give us a truthful record of 
the subject, it must include a range of tones from light to dark 



in which each tone is truly proportional to the light-intensity (or 
light reflected by that part of the subject) which it represents. 
In other words, the truthful representation of the light and shade 
of the subject demands that the tones or luminosity contrasts in 
the positive shall range from light to dark in geometrical progres- 
sion, i.e., as 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, i. 

For example : let us suppose that we are photographing three 
houses — a white one, a gray one and a black one — and that their 
light-intensity values (or relative visual luminosities) are, re- 
spectively, 5 for the black house, 20 for the gray one, and 80 for 
the white one. Here the progression of light-intensities is geo- 
metric, viz., as I 4 :i6. The truthful representation of tone in 
such a case demands that the relationship between the three 
houses in the positive shall be proportional to the relative lumin- 
osity of the three houses as seen by the eye — i.e., as i 4: 16. 

This applies in every instance. Whenever we see a photograph 
wherein the tones are true to nature, we may be sure that 
this relationship of proportionality exits. On the other hand, 
when we fail to secure this vital relationship between the light- 
intensities of the subject and the tones in the positive, our photo- 
graphs are necessarily untruthful in their representation of light 
and shade. As the gradations of tone in the photograph result 
from the opacities in the negative, it is plain that a similar pro- 
portionality between light-intensities and opacities must pre-exist 
in the negative. Here we have the key to the truthful represen- 
tation of light and shade in photgraphy. With this in mind we 
can go a step further. 

When we expose a film in the camera, the light-intensities at 
all parts of the subject begin at once to work a change in the 
sensitive film. The amount of work done (or light action) is, 
of course, determined by the intensity of the light at the same 
part of the subject. Thus, keeping aside for the moment all 
thought of the form of the thing photographed, the result of ex- 
posure is to impress on the sensitive film a latent range of grada- 
tions, distributed throughout the film and forming the latent 
picture image. On development, this latent range of gradations 
becomes a visible range of gradations, consisting of metallic silver 
deposited in the film by the reducing action of the developer. 
This is the negative. 

Here we come to the parting of the ways. Acxording to the old- 



school theories, success in negative-making depended chiefly on 
skill in development — always presupposing an exposure sufficient 
to give a developable image. The perfect negative was, of course 
the result of correct exposure and normal development. But 
the amount of control possible in development — by choice among 
developing agents, changes in the constituents of the developer, 
or modifications in the method of development — was generally 
supposed to be so large that, within wide limits, accuracy in ex- 
posure was a minor factor. Hence the widespread belief that a 
reasonably good negative could be had even though the exposure 
was much under or over the time correct for the subject. Hence 
the popularity of this or that developing agent or formula for 
which great claims were made as possessing peculiar capacities. 
The only indispensable condition of success was that one had to 
know how to choose the particular developer, how to work the 
changes required by variations in exposure, how to adjust, modify 
or control the rights and wrongs of exposure by skilful "tinker- 
ing" in development. Out of this system came all those innumer- 
able formulae which bewilder the readers of photographic liter- 

The beginner has little or no chance at such "tinkering" for 
success depends wholly on repeated trial and error. Hence the 
significant legend over the door of the dealer in photographic 
supplies : "We do developing and printing for amateurs." What- 
ever the virtues and conveniences of the typical old-school method 
— ^the tentative method of development — and despite its appeal to 
the vanity of "private judgment," there can be no doubt that it 
is based on an imperfect understanding of the functions of ex- 
posure and development. 

The fallacies of these earlier systems and their lack of a ra- 
tional basis is clearly demonstrated by the researches of Messrs. 
Hurter and Driffield. The system is not one which can be com- 
pressed into an intelligible paragraph, but, inasmuch as it forms 
basis of rational methods of development, it receives considera- 
tion here. 

Briefly, then, that portion of the Hurter and Driffield system 
which concerns us is their investigation of the law governing the 
action of light on the sensitive plate, and its bearing on the func- 
tions of exposure and development. This investigation was 
undertaken by Messrs. Hurter and Driffield, as amateurs in 



potography, to answer the question which lies at the heart of all 
negative-making: What is the law in obedience to which some 
photographs are true to nature and others are false ? As a result 
of their researches, extending over years of work, they came 
to the conclusion that the truthful representation of light and 
shade in photography demanded a technically perfect negative. 

This they define as one in which the opacities of its gradations 
are proportional to the light reflected by those parts of the sub- 
ject which they represent This all-important relationship be- 
tween the opacities in the negative and the light-intensities in the 
subject depends upon the existence of a somewhat different loga- 
rithmic relationship between the light-intensity and the amount 
of silver deposited in development. The establishment of this re- 
lationship is, in turn, dependent on correct exposure. It 
should be clearly understood, however, that the term "correct 
exposure," as here used, does not imply that there is necessarily 
one exposure, and one only, which will give us this perfect nega- 
tive. As we shall see later, most of the films used in photography 
offer considerable latitude in this respect, so that the necessity 
of accuracy in exposure does not confront us with unsur- 
mountable difficulties. 

It is important to note that, in speaking of the gradations in 
the negative, Hurter and Driffield separate the qualities of density 
and opacity as two distinctly different properties. These are 
often confused and spoken of as being identical, but this is a 
mistaken notion. By the density of the gradations in the nega- 
tive is meant the relative quantity of silver deposited per unit 
area in development. By the opacity of the gradations is 
meant the optical property of the deposit to impede the passage 
through it of light. "Transparency" is, of course, the inverse of 
opacity, and is measured by that fraction of the original light 
which the deposit transmits. These qualities belonging to the 
gradations of the negative, as we have read, have relationship 
w^th each other and to the light-intensities which produce them. 

At first sight all this may seem extremely technical and per- 
plexing, but let use see how the system was worked out and 
many things will be made plain as we go along. 

In beginning their investigations, Messrs. Hurter and Driffield 
took a thickly coated, slow plate and, using a constant source of 
light, made a series of exposures in geometrical progression — 



i.e., I, 2, 4, 8, l6, 32, 64 and so on doubling each exposure as 
Ihcy proceeded. This course enabled them to trace very rapidly 
the action of light through a large range of exposures on a single 
plate. On development, this gave a negative in which the sue- 



























o I ^ »i t lb 3x ^c UP TO s%^,^'^^ 


Fi«. 39 

cessive exposures were represented by a series of gradations. 
They then measured the densities of the gradations in their test 
negative, by means of a specially devised photometer. In this way 
they ascertained the actual weight of silver deposited correspond- 
ing to each successive exposure. 

The density values thus obtained were plotted by points on a 
chart represented in Fig, jp. These points were then joined and 



resulted in a peculiar curve which they styled the "Characteristic 
Curve" of the plate, because it differs with each different brand 
of plates tested and also affords much information concerning 
the speed, capacity as regards the range of gradation, and the 
general character of the plate. It will be noted that the vertical 
scale in Fig. jp indicates density or amount of silver deposited ; 
while the horizontal scale indicates exposure or light-density. 
It will further be noted that the horizontal scale progresses in 
geometric series, each successive exposure (equi-distant on the 
scale) being double the preceding exposure; and the vertical scale 
progresses arithmetically — i.e., as i, 2, 3. 

An examination of the characteristic curve shows that it 
consists of four distinct branches, gradually merging from one 
into the other. It commences with a strongly bent portion which 
then merges into a straight line ; this gradually assumes a curva- 
ture in the opposite direction, until it reaches a maximum density, 
when the curve takes a downward course. The four distinct 
branches of this curve correspond with the phenomena of under-, 
correct and over-exposure, and of reversal, with which the prac- 
tical photographer is familiar in his everyday work. 

These distinctive periods in the action of the light upon the 
sensitive plate are due to the fact that the work done by the light, 
at any moment of the exposure, is proportional to the amount of 
energy received at that moment by the unaltered silver bromide ; 
and 1*^ the silver bromide is gradually altered, the amount of un- 
alterJ ^ silver bromide grows gradually less and less. But for this 
fact, the density of the gradations in the negative would be, 
throughout the entire range of exposures, proportional to the 
light-intensities, and truth in photography would be an impos- 
sibility. What we require is proportionality between the opac- 
ities and the light-intensities, and this exists only when the re- 
lationship between the densities and the light intensities is loga- 
rithmic. As we shall see, this relationship results from a correct 

The significance of this growth of density in development and 
the relationship between density and light-intensity or exposure 
will perhaps be plainer if we represent it by a series of steps 
forming a peculiarly constructed staircase, as in Fig. 40, instead 
of the curve seen in Fig. jp. In this staircase we observe that 
three distinctly different conditions exist which represent the 




three periods of under-, correct and over-exposure respectively. 
The period of reversal may be neglected as of little interest in 
everyday photography. 

Having regard to the "rise" of the individual steps in this 
staircase as indicating increase in density, we note that, com- 



I f* H I Ji 92' to 

A B 


Fig. 40 

mencing at A and proceeding as far as B, the steps are marked 
by a gradually increasing rise, but that at the very beginning of 
this period this rise is proportional to the exposure or light- 
intensity. Keeping in view the definition of a perfect negative 
as given before, it will be seen that we have here a false relation- 
ship. Proportionality exists between exposure and density, in- 
stead of between exposure and opacity. A negative, the grada- 
tions of which fall within this period, will represent the shadows 
and most of the half-tones of the subject by bare glass; while 



the high-lights will be marked by relatively extreme density — in 
other words, the negative will be under-exposed. 

Next we note that from the point B, and extending to C, the 
steps in the staircase are all of equal rise; that is to say, each 
doubling of the exposure is represented by an equal increment 
of density in the negative. Thus the density grows arithmet- 
ically while the exposure progresses geometrically. As the 
mathematician calls each term of an arithmetic series the loga- 
rithm of the corresponding term of a geometric series, it will be 
apparent that any exposure which falls within this period gives 
us that logarithmic relationship between densities and light-in- 
tensities which is essential to the truthful representation of light 
and shade. The following ratios will serve as an example of 
this relationship. 

Light-intensities (exposure) 1:4:16 (geometric progression) 

Silver deposited (density) 0:0.6:1.2 (arithmetic progression) 

Opacity i '.4:16 (geometric progression) 
Thus we see that the photographic plate is capable of giving a 
range of opacities truly proportional to the light-intensities of 
our subjects, but only on condition that all its gradations fall 
within that portion of the staircase (Fig. 40) in which the steps 
are of equal rise ; or, in the case of the "characteristic curve," 
within that portion represented by a straight line. 

Referring again to the staircase, the period of over-exposure 
begins at C and continues till the highest step is reached, when 
the period of reversal sets in. In this period, the growth of 
density is marked by a gradually decreasing rise in the steps, 
which finally becomes imperceptible. A negative, the gradations 
of which fall within this period, would be as false in its represen- 
tation of light and shade, but in an opposite direction, as if its 
gradations fell within the period of under-exposure. The char- 
acteristic of under-exposure is too great contrast between the 
tones ; in the period of over-exposure the contrasts are too small. 
The tendency of the gradations in cases of over-exposure is (as 
we see in the steps) to approach one uniform density; hence the 
flatness and lack of contrast in over-exposed negatives, in which 
the high-lights and half-tones are represented by almost similar 
opacities. Obviously, if the negative is to yield a positive true 
to nature, it must include no steps in the under- and over-ex- 
posure portions of the staircase, but its densities must fall within 



the straight portion of the "characteristic curve." This is se- 
cured by a correct exposure. 

Having by means of a correct exposure estabUshed a true 
relationship between the latent gradations of the negative and 
the light-intensities, the function of development is to reduce the 
latent image to metallic silver. The average photographer would 
describe the process by saying that, as development proceeds, 
the negative becomes denser. Something more than this is in- 
volved, however, as the duration of development materially in- 
fluences the result. 

By conclusive experiment, Hurter and Driffield have demon- 
strated that, although the total amount of density increases as 
development is prolonged, the relationship between the densities, 
as established by exposure, remains identical and unchanged, 
whether the development be long or short. In other words, the 
density ratios are constant and independent of the time occupied 
by development. Thus, if we give three plates or films identical 
(correct) exposures and develop them respectively for two, four 
and six minutes, the total density throughout the gradations of 
the three plates or films will increase correspondingly with the 
time of development, but the relationship between the densities 
in each negative will remain unchanged. This lead to their recog- 
nition of the law of "Constant Density Ratios,'* which, once 
grasped, does away with the old-time misconceptions regarding 
the possibilities of control or modifications in development, either 
by changes in the developing solution, choice of developing agent 
or method. 

But, though the density ratios are constant, the opacities which 
appeal to the eye do alter, both in amount and ratio, as the time 
of development Is prolonged. Hence the range of light-Inten- 
sities transmitted by the correctly exposed negative developed for 
four minutes will be far greater than the range transmitted by 
another correctly exposed negative developed for two minutes. 
The alteration in opacity ratios Is not, however, variable or con- 
trollable at the will of the photographer, but they alter according 
to fixed laws; just as, by the same laws, we have seen that the 
density ratios are Invariable. * 

From these explanations the reader will perceive that density 
forms the connecting link between exposure and opacity. In 
order to make the relationship between density and opacity, and 



again, between transparency and opacity, as clear as possible, we 
insert here a table prepared by Mr. Julius Martin, to illustrate 
this triple relationship. 

The relation of density to opacity is numerically shown by the 
figures in column 2 of the table. Incidentally, a study of columns 
I and 2 will serve to illustrate the wide variation between density 
and opacity, and the growth of opacity as compared with the 
growth of density during development. The general belief that 
density and opacity are one and the same thing is here seen to 
be based upon a misconception. The relation of transparency to 
opacity from the corresponding values of density and opacity in 
columns i and 2 is seen in column 3 of the table. 


Showing the comparative values of density, opacity, and trans- 
parency, according to the Hurter and DriflField System of Speed 
Determination by Julius Martin. 























































































1 0000. 


















1 00000. 









3 1 63 TO. 











The practical conclusions to be drawn from this discussion of 
the somewhat involved relationships between light-intensities, 
densities and opacities may be summarized as follows : 

1. The truthful representation of light and shade in the photo- 
graph demands that the opacities in the negative shall be pro- 
portional to the light intensities in the subject. 

2. This truthful relationship between the opacities and the 
light-intensities depends on the existence of a truthful (loga- 
rithmic) relationship between the densities of the negative and 
the light-intensities which can be established only by giving the 
film or plate a correct exposure. 

3. It is the function of exposure to determine the relation- 
ship which shall exist between the densities and the light-in- 
tensities they represent. As established by exposure, and whether 
true or false, this relationship is unalterable by any modification 
in the developer or in development. If the exposure is correct, 
the densities will bear a truthful (logarithmic) relationship to 
the light-intensities and the opacities will yield a visible image 
(the positive) true to nature in its gradations. If, on the other 



hand, the exposure is incorrect, the relationship established be- 
tween densities and light-intensities will be false, and no modifica- 
tions of the developer or changes in development can give opac 
ities capable of yielding a positive true to nature in its gradations- . 
Hence correct exposure is imperative as a fundamental condi- 
tion for the production of a photograph true to nature. 

4. It is the function of development to reduce the latent image 
(given by exposure) to metallic silver, and to determine, by its 
duration, the extreme range of opacities which the positive will 

. In other words, success in negative-making plainly depends on 
exposure and not on any special skill in development. It is 
worth a great deal to know this, and to know further that our 
belief is based on scientific fact. Obviously, this knowledge im- 
mensely simplifies all photography, making plain what we must 
work for and how to attain our end most simply and most surely. 

Our first concern, then, must be to learn how to give our film 
a correct exposure every time. Having accomplished this, the 
only difiiculty presented in development is to know when to stop, 
i.e., when the opacities exactly represent the ratio of the light- 
intensities in the subject. The necessity of a correct exposure, 
as already hinted at, need not unduly disturb the reader. For 
every plate or film there is a range of exposures during which 
the relation between the densities and the light-intensities is so 
nearly logarithmic that we may neglect the difference between 
truth and its approximation. The more richly coated the film, 
the wider is this range, and the more extended is the scale of 
gradations (or light-intensites) which the film can render truth- 
fully. Thus this range expresses what we call the latitude of the 
film as far as exposure is concerned, i.e., the limits of exposure 
within which the negative w^ill give a truthful record of the light 
and shade of the subject. This capacity of the film is obtained 
from the characteristic curve of the film and comprises the 
straight portion of the curve (see Fig. ^p) or the period of correct 
exposure (see Fig. 40). Its extent varies with different brands 
of film; usually it is dependent on the amount of silver haloid in 
the film and is greater in slow than in fast films. Obviously, too, 
the latitude of exposure, in any film, is influenced by the range 
of light-intensities in the subject, and also by the degree of truth 
with which the contrasts of the subject are to be presented in the 



In Fig. 41, we have the characteristic curve of a film the range 
of which may be taken as i to 60. Any exposure which will 
include the range of light-intensities in the subject within these 
limits will be a correct exposure. As the total density of the 
negative increases with the exposure, however, the photographer 
will always aim at an exposure which will cause the gradations 

jjOBSMttop* m 


j^-^— "-"^ ^ . ■ f . ',. . I j* I ; I , I |-nTT. 
01 2 3 -• « 7 I t a 4. A 7 ib 

^ _ y y ff> 

^ r»i4i>u ijs 

- 20 50 a»3o too 

Fig. 41 

I r I i i 'iiM 

of his negative to begin at the lowest portion of the straight line 
representing the correct period. The best possible negative is, 
of course, one which combines truthful representation of the sub- 
ject with minimum density ; but, owing to the practical difficulty 
of attaining absolute accuracy in exposure with widely different 
conditions, we can well content ourselves if we so manage that 
we get the gradations of the negative anywhere within the limits 
of the period of correct representation. This can usually be 
done with the aid of an exposure meter or reliable set of tables. 
It should always be remembered, however, that these give the 
shortest possible exposures under given conditions, so that expo- 
sures slightly in excess of the figures in the tables or indicated by 
the meter used will be advisable. 

The range of light-intensities reflected by different classes of 



subjects is a matter about which many photographers are poorly 
informed. Messrs. Hurter and Driffield give the range of a 
subject including white cardboard in sunlight and black velvet in 
shade as 1 130. The latitude of the film shown in Fig. 41 for such 
a range would be 1 13, that is the exposure could vary from 1 13. 
In interior photography the range will be less, allowing a cor- 
respondingly greater latitude in exposure. In portraiture the 
range of light-intensities is usually very limited, say i :io, giving 
a still greater latitude in exposure without loss of truth in rep- 
resentation. Dealing with this Mr. F. Dundas Todd, a portrait 
photographer, has made a series of practically identical positives 
from negatives including exposures varying as i :i6. This may 
be taken as an exceptional instance, a safe range with the aver- 
age plate or film being 1 14 or 1 15. 

This must conclude our glance at the Hurter and Driffield 
system and its bearing on exposure and development. All men- 
tion of their advocacy of a numerical system for the expression 
of development factors and their methods of determining the 
speed and other qualities of plates or films must be omitted, to 
give room for the practical application of the principles herein 
discussed. The interested student will doubtless refer to the de- 
tailed information in more extended treatises on development 
which will be found listed in the chapter on bibliography. 

With this knowledge of the Hurter and Driffield system and its 
basis, we can now begin to apply it in practical work. Since ex- 
posure is, as we have shown, the prime factor in negative-making, 
which determines once and for all its truth or falsity as a record 
of the subject photographed, it is plain that development is enor- 
mously simplified, being in fact merely a process which reduces 
the latent image to metallic silver, the truth or falsity of the 
record being determined by the exposure. In the following 
method of development worked out by Professor W. H. Wallace, 
development is reduced to its simplest terms. It gives us all that 
we can obtain by any other method, and at the same time gives 
us perfect control over the total range of opacities to be included 
in the negative. 

This method is based on the principles of time and temperature 
development indicated in the Hurter and Driffield system, and 
also resembles somewhat the well-known system devised by ^lr. 
Alfred Watkins, the "time of appearance" being omitted from 



consideration. It gives without unnecessary detail, and in the 
fewest possible words, a method and formulae which will enable 
the beginner as well as the expert worker to get the utmost from 
his exposures with the least possible trouble or chance of failure. 

It should be noted that as no two brands of emulsion will 
work at just the same speed with any given developer, a trial 
or two may be necessary to get just the right degree of contrast 
with the film used. In this it is only necessary to remember 
that the range of opacities (or contrasts) is determined solely 
by the duration of development : the higher the factor, the greater 
the opacity or contrast. Once the correct contrast factor for a 
normal subject has been ascertained, it will not be necessary to 
change the factor except for some special purpose or for a dif- 
ferent class of subject, according to the preference of the in- 
dividual worker. Obviously changes in temperature, the only 
condition at all difficult to control in this system, may to a certain 
extent be compensated for by slight variations in the length of 

For the preparation of the developer the student is referred 
to the chapter on How to Prepare Photographic Solutions, and 
for development formulae, to the appendix. 

As the developing formulae given elsewhere in this book are 
not calculated with reference to this table it will be necessary 
to do one of two things in order to use the table. The simplest 
method is to test the developer with strips cut from a roll cor- 
rectly exposed, and, using a small sample of concentrated solu- 
tion at 70° Fahrenheit determine the proportion of water to add 
to make an average negative in three and one-half minutes de- 
velopment time. 

When the proportion of water necessary is found — ^though it 
may be more or less in quantity than that given in the formula — 
this becomes the standard for use with the table. 

The other method is to change the table instead of the de- 
veloper. To change the table for your favorite developer make 
a test at 70° and note the development time. Suppose it is seven 
minutes instead of three and one-half. Then make a new table 
in which all the time values are multiplied by two (seven divided 
by three and one-half equals two). In a similar manner the 
multiplying factor for any other developer may be found by 
dividing the development time by three and one-half. 



The tanks and solutions used for developing should be kept 
in the same room where the work is to be done, so that they will 
all be at approximately the same temperature. Naturally, in this 
system uniformity in results depends largely on this factor of 
uniform temperature. It is also necessary to observe reason- 
able accuracy in making up the developing solutions. If the 
thermometer in the dark room hangs clear of its support, and 
there has been no recent * severe change, the atmospheric tem- 
perature may be relied upon, otherwise the solutions should be 
tested just before beginning work. 

Keep the solutions moving gently during development. The 
method of using the tables is as follows : Having prepared the 
developer and taken care to have the various solutions at ap- 
proximately the same temperature, the temperature is first noted. 
Now find this degree of temperature in the first column at the 
left-hand side of the table and at the intersection of the horizon- 
tal line with the vertical line leading to the contrast factor de- 
sired, will be found in minutes and seconds the length of time 
to develop at this temperature. To illustrate: Suppose we are 
using the factor of 6 as giving us the desired range of contrasts, 
and that the temperature is 73° Fahr. At the intersection of 
the lines 73 and 6 will be found the figures 2 and 55, indicating 
the time of development as 2 minutes and 55 seconds. Simi- 
larly, if the temperature is 6S° Fahr. and the factor 5 gives us 
the required range of contrasts, at the intersection of the two 
lines 68 and 5 will be found the figures 3 and 10, indicating that 
the time of development should be 3 minutes and 10 seconds. 
This is all we need to know. The film rack is immersed in the 
developing solution, agitated from time to time and at the end 
of the indicated time is taken out of the developer, rinsed in 
the short stop and placed in the fixing solution. 

With regard to the choice of the contrast factor among those 
given at the head of the table, this must be determined by the 
personal preference of the individual as to the general character 
of the negative desired. Naturally this preference will be con- 
siderably influenced by the amount of contrast in the subject, 
this depending on the character of the subject and its illumina- 
tion. In a normal subject such as a sunlit landscape, softness 
will be gained by choosing a low contrast factor, and crispness 
with a decided relief can be secured by the choice of a somewhat 




higher factor. In portraiture, where the range of contrasts is 
often small and softness is generally desirable, a low contrast 
factor is usually necessary. Contrariwise, in photographs of 
carvings in bas-relief, where the contrasts in the subject usually 
require emphasis, a somewhat higher contrast factor should be 

Time and Temperature Table for Use with the Wallace Method 
of Development, the Time Being Given in Minutes and 































9 Min. 













45 Sec. 














8 Min. 













55 Sec. 














8 Min. 













15 Sec, 














7 Min. 













35 Sec. 














6 Min. 













55 Sec. 














6 Min. 













15 Sec. 














5 Min. 













50 Sec. 














5 Min. 













25 Sec. 

Temperature should be kept as near 70° as possible. 

As rack follows rack in the bath it gradually loses its strength 
so that after a certain number of racks have passed through the 
solution the next higher contrast number must be used to attain 
the same results as with the fresher bath. On account of the 
variation in the capacity of film developing tanks the number of 
racks which can be put through before increasing the develop- 
ment time can be determined only by experience. This of 
course should be plainly noted on the table which should be 



placed close to a red light in the dark room where it can be seen 


Developer standing in the tanks unused over considerable 
periods of time also deteriorates and allowance must be made 
for time deterioration the same as for amount of film developed. 

Difficulties Commonly Met With in Negative Film 


EXPOSURE, With negative film the latitude of exposure is 
considerable. That is to say, if f-ii were normal exposure, the 
film would stand an exposure of f-8 or f-i6 without being too 
much over- or under-exposed. 

Light varies in intensity from hour to hour during the day and 
from month to month during the year. In winter, exposure dur- 
ing the middle of the day should be from two to four times longer 
than at the same hour of the day in midsummer. Exposures 
made near sunset at any season of the year would be from live 
to ten times longer than at noon of the same day. 

Correct exposure gives a well balanced image in which the 
detail of the shadows is fully brought out before the high lights 
are over developed. 

Over-exposure produces lack of contrast. If development is 
carried too far, negatives will have too much density and shadows 
and half-tones will be clogged. Such negatives will be dense 
printers and the resulting prints will lack brilliancy. 

In an under-exposed film there is no detail in the shadows and 
if development is carried too far, high lights will become chalky, 
resulting in a black and white print having no graduation or 
middle tones. 

The best remedy for too much over- or under-exposure is to 
make new negatives, timing same correctly. Where this is not 
possible, intensification or reduction will help to a certain extent, 
but the best results cannot be expected unless exposures are ap- 
proximately correct. 

Where there is any doubt as regards safety of developing light, 
same can be tested easily. Take a piece of film, cover half of 
it, expose to the developing light for two minutes and develop. 
If the exposed half is perfectly clear and shows no fog, the dark 
room light may be considered safe. If, however, exposed sec- 
tion develops fog, the dark room light should be covered with one 
or two thicknesses of post office paper or orange glass. 



FOG. Fog is sometimes caused by oil, dust or a hazy atmos- 
pheric deposit on the lens. This would give a flat hazy image, 
which on forced development would produce fog. 

A uniform blackening of the film when developed, is due to 
fog. There are various kinds of fog and many different ways 
in which it may be produced. If film is exposed to an unsuit- 
able dark room light during process of development, or when 
loading into magazines or winding on the racks, it will become 
fogged. Actinic light in the dark room is a most frequent cause 
of trouble and photographers sometimes blame the film when the 
difficulty is due to dark room not being light-tight, or developing 
light not being safe. Too much alkali or too warm developer 
will cause fog also. A leaky camera or magazine frequently 
cause fog. 

The reversal of values whereby a negative is changed to a 
partial positive is not very generally understood. The most fre- 
quent cause for reversal of the photographic image is the expo- 
sure of the film to an unsafe dark room light during the process 
of development. The amount of reversal varies with the relation 
between the preliminary and subsequent development and length 
of exposure to actinic light after development has begun. Re- 
versal occurs only when negative is fogged after being partially 
developed. Fog previous to development merely blackens the 
film all over. 

Other causes for reversal are extreme over-exposure or a 
trace of Hypo in the developer. These latter causes are, how- 
ever, infrequent. Reversal due to an unsafe dark room light is 
quite common and photographers not understanding the true 
cause, are usually inclined to blame the film. 

HALATION occurs when strong lights are brought opposite 
dense shadows. It is frequently seen in the case of white draper- 
ies on a dark background. It occurs also when dark objects are 
photographed against a bright sky. When photographing in- 
teriors, halation shows as a spreading of the light from the win- 
dows. Another cause is reflection of light from the lens by some 
bright metal part of the mechanism or of the lens mount. All 
the interior metal parts of the camera, especially those near the 
lens and the aperture plate, should have a dull black finish. 

THIN AND WEAK NEGATIVES lacking density may be 
due to under-exposure, developer used at too low a temperature, 



or on account of developer not acting with sufficient energy. 
Thin, flat negatives are due also to insufficient development. Too 
much diffusion of light on the subject will produce flat negatives 

The remedy would be to light with more contrast, giving more 
roundness and relief, give correct exposure and keep temperature 
of developer and dark room at the proper point. If, after having 
taken every precaution, negatives are still weak and lacking in 
brilliancy, it is possible that better negatives can be obtained by 
increasing the proportion of carbonate of soda in the developer. 
Impure sodas are responsible for many thin negatives. 

FRILLING AND SOFTENING of the film is due to using 
developer or other solutions at too high a temperature. This 
causes the emulsion to soften and sometimes to lift from the 
support. Violent changes in temperature in the various solu- 
tions are liable to cause frilling. Frilling is, however, most 
frequently encountered in the summer time or in warm climates. 
The use of ice to keep the temperature at the proper point is 
recommended. Use fresh Hypo or an Acid Hypo Bath. Do not 
wash for too long a time and when drying, place negatives where 
there is a free circulation of air, so as to dry rapidly. 

Negatives dried in warm, close atmosphere will increase in 
density and clog up the half-tones. The best way to dry nega- 
tives is before an electric fan, but under no circumstances should 
drying be hastened by the application of heat. Drying negatives 
in too warm a place will melt the emulsion, causing same to run, 
giving a grotesque appearance to the image. 

GRANULAR IDENTATIONS in the emulsion are due to 
slow drying. If negatives are dried too slowly the gelatine will 
swell and separate, causing transparent blotches and spots apd 
a pitted appearance all over the surface of the film. 

MOTTLED AND WRINKLED FILM is another kind of 
frilling. This is due to prolonged development, causing film to 
become soft, and then washing in water that is too warm. 
Wrinkling or reticulation of the film is most frequently due to 
its being left for a long time in solutions of too high a tempera- 

A very common cause of blisters is not thoroughly rinsing 
film after removing from the developer and before placing in the 
Acid Fixing Bath. The developer being alkaline, transferring 



the film to an Acid Fixing Bath without sufficiently washing 
same, causes effervescence, and the gas forming under the emul- 
sion, lifts the film and produces innumerable small blisters all 
over the surface of the film. The remedy would be to remove 
the alkali by rinsing before placing it in the fixing bath. 

Negatives may be stained from a variety of causes. Brown 
or yellow stains, causing film to become discolored either entire 
or in sections, are usually due to imperfect fixing or incomplete 
washing after fixing. The use of decomposed Hypo or oxidized 
Pyro Developer will cause stains also. 

to insufficient fixing and sometimes to insufficient washing. 

The subject of spots is an endless one, and when this difficulty 
occurs it is usually necessary to consider each case individually. 
Some of the most frequent causes for spots are, however, as 
follows : 

TRANSPARENT SPOTS may be due to an oily substance 
on the surface of the film which would repel the developer and 
prevent its action. 

ROUND TRANSPARENT SPOTS with sharply defined 
edges are due to air bells in the developer which adhere to the 
surface of the film. This may occur either in tank or drum de- 

development are usually due to effervescence in the water on 
account of high pressure. This causes minute air bells to adhere 
to the surface of the film during the preliminary stages of de- 
velopment, giving what some consider a mildewed appearance, 
but if spots are examined under a microscope, it can readily be 
seen that same are due to minute air bells, as above stated. The 
remedy would be to draw off sufficient water for developing bath, 
allowing same to stand long enough for the air to escape. The 
racks should be moved up and down during development to dis- 
lodge any bubbles that may form, and the top of the rack gone 
over with a large camel's hair brush saturated with developer. 

produced by scum on the surface of the developer. This occurs 
when using developer which has been allowed to stand and be- 
come oxidized. Irregular transparent spots are sometimes due 
to film having been injured on account of rough handling. In 



this case the emulsion will be found broken and dug through to 
the celluloid. 

due to the decomposition of the film, the result of slow drying 
in a close, heated atmosphere. 

dust on the plate and fogging caused by light shining in from a 
leak in the camera or magazine. Particles of dust resting on 
the film, if shiny or semi-luminous, have the effect of reflecting 
and concentrating the light on that portion of plate which is im- 
mediately in front of or beneath the particles, and then casting 
a shadow just behind the grains of dust. This produces the 
effect of opaque spots with transparent tails receding from them. 

PIT MARKS, causing small transparent spots, may be due 
to sulphurous precipitation from the fixing bath. If there was 
an excess of alum used when making up fixing bath, and solu- 
tion was not filtered or decanted off, precipitate would adhere to 
the surface of the emulsion and cause irregularity of surface if 
film were softened during subsequent washing. 

PURPLISH OPAQUE SPOTS may be due to decomposed 
pyro or other chemical impurities in the wash water, or from dirty 
trays or tanks. Purplish black spots are due to particles of iron 
from the supply pipes settling on the surface of the negative. 
The remedy would be to filter the water, be sure that trays are 
clean and that no chemical impurity comes in contact with the 
surface of the film. 

FINGER OR THUMB MARKS on the celluloid side of the 
film against which the emulsion side of the next convolution of 
film in the roll comes in contact, would cause spots, particularly 
if there was perspiration or a chemical impurity, such as Hypo, 
on the hands. These impurities would offset on the sensitized 
side coating and cause irregular masses of spots. 

pearing on film have been found to be due to colonies of bacteria. 
This has occurred when negatives were left in a damp, fetid 
atmosphere when placed on the rack to dry. 

OPAQUE STREAKS may be produced by rubbing or other 
physical action on the film before developing. Opaque streaks 
are sometimes caused by tightening or "cinching up" a roll of 
film. If there were any particles of dust or organic matter rest- 



ing between the surfaces, "cinching up" together would produce 
an opaque marking. 

SEMI-TRANSPARENT STREAKS with sharply defined 
edges are due to not pouring developer over the entire surface of 
the film when developing in the tray. 

TRANSPARENT MOTTLING is due to negative having par- 
tially stuck to the celluloid side of another turn of film during 
washing, and when pulling apart caused the emulsion to par- 
tially lift. 

been caused in the dark room when allowing water to run from 
the faucet. The surface of the film became spattered either with 
clear water or by impurities from the bottom of the sink, and 
was afterward dried while awaiting development. This causes 
spots varying in size, character and intensity. 

Numerous parallel vertical lines are produced by using decom- 
posed pyro developer and acid in an old fixing bath, cutting the 
pyro stains out in streaks when precipitating. The remedy would 
be to use fresh developer and a new acid hypo bath. 


{Photograph by the Signal Corps .^c :1 of Photography, U. S. A.) 

Chapter X 

HAVING described the methods of making the negative 
record picture in the motion picture camera, we come 
now to the processes involved in making the positive 
print. Many persons, who have not given any thought to the 
matter, have an idea that the film which comes from the camera 
is the same film which is run through the projection machine. 
If one stops to think for a moment, however, he will readily see 
that the developed film from the camera is a negative, and while 
it is possible to run it through a projection machine for examina- 
tion, it has a peculiar appearance on the screen, showing light 
objects as black and black objects as white. 

In order to show the proper relation of light values, it is neces- 
sary to make a print from this negative just as it is necessary to 
make a paper print or positive from a kodak negative. It is 
generally desirable also to make a number of duplicate copies 
from a single negative, so that the same picture may be shown at 
the same time in various places. 

There are methods of making a positive direct in the camera, 
but these methods are only practical in certain isolated instances, 
which will be described more fully in another portion of this 

Printing from a motion picture, negative is not as simple a 
process as printing from a still picture negative, since the exact 
relation of distance of one picture to another must be preserved 
throughout the many feet of film. Most cameramen will not 
have the time or the Inclination to make prints from their own 
films, but it is very desirable that the camera operator be con- 
versant with all of the processes of finishing. 

Since motion pictures are shown in a projection machine by 
means of light projected through the picture, it is necessary that 
the prints be made upon transparent film instead of upon paper 
as is the ordinary print. To make these prints as accurately as 
is required, a printing machine is necessary. There are quite a 
number of different machines for this purpose, all of which are 



constructed on the same general principle. They may, however, 
be classified under the two general heads: 

Step printers and Continuous printers. 

The mechanism of the step printer is essentially the same as 
the mechanism of the camera, except that instead of the lens, it 
has a light-proof box containing a printing light for impressing 
the negative image upon the positive, the negative and positive 
film being fed through the gate at the same time. The negative 
and positive films are placed in rolls upon spools or spindles 
above the gate and are fed down by means of a tooth sprocket 
which engages the perforations. The negative film is placed 
nearer the light with the emulsion side away from the light and 
the positive film with the emulsion toward the light, so that the 
two emulsion surfaces come in contact face to face. A loop is 
left between the gate and the feed sprocket as in the camera — 
the positive film having a slightly larger loop than the negative 
so as not to interfere with it as the films are drawn down in 
contact. A pair of pins or claws draw the two films down to 
go into the gate and pass the aperture through which the print- 
ing light shines. As in the camera, a shutter cuts off the print- 
ing light during the time that the film is being drawn down and 
then opens and permits the printing light to impress the negative 
image upon the sensitive positive film. 

There are several reasons for this. We are not always able 
to control the amount of light which we need for taking a pic- 
ture, but in the printing machine we have a light which wc can 
make any desired strength. 

We can impress the image from the negative upon the positive 
emulsion easily and quickly without having it nearly so sensitive 
as the negative stock so can use much stronger red light in our 
printing and positive developing room. Therefore positive stock 
is handled with much greater ease and certainty and by employees 
of less skill and training than is required for negative. The less 
sensitive positive stock is also much less liable to fog and gives 
a much clearer and more transparent print than would be pos- 
sible upon the more sensitive negative emulsion. 

A printing machine is run much slower than a camera. The 
printing rate has nothing to do with the rate with which the 
positive film is run through the projection machine, so gives time 
to conduct the operation of printing carefully and with due re- 



gard for the preservation of the precious negative film which 
may have cost large sums to produce. 

The operation of printing machines is conducted in a photo- 
graphic dark room where many of these machines may be in 
operation at the same time. The pressure plate over the print- 
ing aperture is generally made of ruby glass, so that the opera- 
tion of printing may be inspected while it is going on without 
allowing any of the actinic light from the printing lamp to pene- 
trate into the dark room. In most cameras, the pressure plate 
on the gate is held in continuous tension against the film by means 
of springs, but this cannot be done in a printing machine, as the 
continuous friction of the pressure plate upon the negative, after 
it had been run for a number of prints would surely scratch and 
scar the negative, and these imperfections would in turn be 
printed upon the positive film. For this reason, a mechanism is 
provided in the printing machine for releasing the tension upon 
the pressure plate while the film is being drawn down, but which 
allows the pressure plate to come back into contact during the 
time of the printing; that is, during the time that the film is at 
rest. This is done to insure perfect contact between the negative 
and positive film, otherwise, if they were not in perfect contact, 
the light from the printing lamp after passing through the nega- 
tive would be diffused before it reached the positive and would 
not produce a perfectly sharp clear picture upon the positive 

The two films after passing through the printing gate, again 
form two loops and pass over the teeth of the take-up sprocket, 
and are wound upon two separate take-up rollers. The negative 
film is re-wound for passing again through the printer and the 
printed positive is sent to the positive developing room for de- 

As the tension of the take-up on the negative film has a ten- 
dency to produce wear and abrasion, especially when dust or 
dirt settle upon the film, it is a common practice in some labora- 
tories to dispense with the negative take-up and feed the nega- 
tive film as it comes from the printer into a cloth-lined box or 
bag, from which it is carefully re-wound by hand. In other 
places, both take-ups are dispensed with and the positive film is 
also run into a separate receptacle before being wound up for 
transmission to the positive developing room. 



Step printers are commonly operated at a speed of from three 
to four frames per second, which is as fast as is consistent with 
high-grade work. The steadiest positives are produced by step 
printers as the claws draw the film down exactly the same dis- 
tance each time. Step printers are especially valuable where 
some slight difference exists between the perforations upon the 
positive and the negative film, since any slight difference is being 
constantly compensated for between the printing of each frame. 

Take a concrete example : 

vVe might have a piece of negative film which had so shrunk 
during the process of development that there were sixty-five per- 
forations per lineal foot, whereas the undeveloped positive which 
might have been perforated upon the same machine contains 
sixty-four perforations to the foot. The claws of the printing 
machine would still enter every fourth perforation of both the 
positive and negative, and as each frame was printed the positive 
film would be drawn down one-sixty-fifth of the distance between 
two perforations further than the negative film. In other words, 
64 feet of negative film would be printed upon 65 feet of positive 
film and yet each piece of film would have the same number of 
pictures and the same number of perforations, and the pictures 
upon both films would be equi-distant from one another, and 
each frame would have been in perfect contact while being 

Continuous printers do not have pins or claws to pull the film 
down one picture at a time, but the two films are fed past a slit 
at a steady even speed by means of a sprocket. It can readily be 
understood that unless the negative and positive in a continuous 
printer have exactly the same number of perforations per foot 
that there will be a small but constant shift between the surfaces 
of the two films causing a slight blurr in the film. 

As negatives are of different densities and printing machines 
run at a uniform speed, it is necessary to have some means of 
changing the strength of the light to correspond with the density 
of the negative and give an even positive print. There are dif- 
ferent methods of accomplishing this in different printing ma- 

The methods are as follows : 

The first is by varying the distance of the light from the 
printing aperture, which is accomplished from outside the lamp 
house by some mechanical device. 



The second is by varying the strength of the electric current 
supplying the printing lamp. This is done by a rheostat, or 
variable resistance placed in series of the lamp circuit. 

A third way is by varying the arc of exposure opening in the 

A fourth is by means of a condensing lens placed between the 
lamp and the printing aperture and moving the lens system in- 
stead of the lamp. This permits of a smaller lamp house than 
the first method of moving a lamp, as a very small movement of 
the condensing lens will produce the same amount of change as 
moving the lamp for a considerable distance. 

A fifth way is one which can only be used in the continuous 
printer. It is varying the width of the slot past which the film 
passes as it is printed. 

When a new negative comes in to be printed, it is necessary 
to find just what strength of light is needed to print each scene. 
In large laboratories, this work is in charge of a man called a 
timer. Some of these timers become so expert through long ex- 
perience that by mere inspection of a negative, looking at it 
toward a light covered with a ground glass, they can tell exactly 
how to set the printing lamp to produce a good positive. Some 
of them have a test chart which consists of negatives of all dif- 
ferent densities mounted upon a sheet of ground or opal glass, 
and comparing these known samples with the negative brought in, 
can ascertain the correct printing time. "Correct printing time" 
is the term used, although it is not accurate as all of the machines 
in a factory run at the same speed or time. What it really means 
is the strength of the printing light. 

None of these methods, however, can be absolutely accurate. 
An almost imperceptible change in the color of the negative de- 
posit will need quite a different printing light from that of another 
negative of the same apparent density, but of slightly different 

These methods, however, work very well in places which do 
all of their own developing where the negatives are apt to be of 
uniform color. 

In commercial laboratories, negatives are developed under 
many different conditions with many different formulae and with 
deposits of different colors. A brownish pyro-developed nega- 
tive, or one developed in an old developer which has left a slight 



brownish or yellowish stain, requires a considerably stronger light 
than a blue-black negative developed say — in a fresh metol hydro- 
quinonine bath. 

If the timer is in doubt as to the exact strength of light to use, 
he prints a test film about a foot long, using a range of lights 
from stronger to weaker than the one he judges will be correct. 
He then develops this test strip and determines from it the exact 
strength of light to use. Most printers are now equipped with 
what is called an automatic light change ; that is, a mechanical or 
electrical device for automatically changing the light for each 

The automatic light change is actuated by an electrical con- 
tact on the machine which bears upon the edge of the negative 
film. By means of a special punch, a very slight nick or indenta- 
tion is made in the edge of the negative film where a light change 
occurs. A small wheel connected with a delicate electric switch 
bears upon the edge of the film. As long as the negative film has 
no indentation upon its edge the light strength remains the same. 
When a light change is to occur, the small wheel depresses itself 
into the indentation by means of a spring and closes the electric 
circuit causing the light shift to advance one step. At each step 
the light will be shifted according to a hole punched in a control 
card. Each of these control cards has enough steps to shift the 
light for all of the different scenes which might occur in a two 
hundred foot roll of negative. 

As the developing racks hold approximately two hundred feet 
of film, negatives' to be printed are joined as nearly as possible 
to produce rolls of about two hundred feet. These control cards 
are punched by the timer or head printer so that each successive 
scene will be printed by the proper strength light. 

On each roll of negative to be printed, a piece of leader is 
cemented, marked in india ink with the numbers or other identi- 
fication marks showing what is contained in the roll, also marks 
showing the frame line, so that the printing may be started in 
correct register. 

Negatives taken with different cameras often have different 
frame lines, that is, the line separating the frame in one film oc- 
curs in a different relation to the perforation on the edge, than 
it does in others. Printing machines are equipped with a fram- 
ing device ; that is, the distance between the claws and the print- 


ing frame may be altered so that each frame comes in exact 
register with the printing aperture. This framing must be done 
in all step printers, otherwise the line between the printed frames 
would come across the picture in the frame. The identification 
marks upon the negative leader are thus printed upon the ends 
of the positive film and remain there for its identification until 
it is ready to be assembled into a reel. The control card for each 
negative roll is marked with the same identification number as 
that on the negative roll and is filed away with it, or in a card- 
index drawer where it can be found readily when more prints are 
to be made from that negative. As seventy-five to one hundred 
duplicate prints are frequently made from an original negative 
and reprints may be called for at any time, it will be seen that 
such a system is very important and necessary. 

Of the two types of printing machines just referred to the ones 
most used in this country are the Duplex, a step printer, and the 
Bell and Howell, a continuous printer. Since they are repre- 
sentative of designs of these types and most commonly met with 
in film laboratories, brief directions for their use are appended 
to the chapter. 


The threading is simple. The positive stock is placed on the 
front disc and the negative on the rear disc. The ends of both 
films are led under a roller above the feed sprocket then over 
the feed sprocket and under the tension roller which maintains 
the film in position on the sprocket. A four-inch loop is left in 
the negative strip and a five-inch loop in the positive strip, the 
latter being nearer the operator. The difference in loop size is 
to prevent scratching from friction of one surface upon the other. 

The films next pass through the tension box which is a continua- 
tion of the aperture plate and is located just above the gate. A 
spring contact attached to the track at one side of the tension 
box bears against the edge of the negative as it passes this point 
and serves to operate the light-changing mechanism by making 
contact through notches cut into the film near points where 
changes of scene occur. The wndth of the film track in the ten- 
sion box is adjustable, thus making it possible to operate the 
light-changing device even though the n^ative be considerably 



After passing through the aperture plate another pair of loops 
are formed, this time the positive being four inches and the nega- 
tive five inches. The films after being passed under the tension 
rollers adjacent to each sprocket are run over the sprockets and 
then attached to the take-up spindles. 

A highly perfected type of "automatic" now accomplishes the 
work of altering the printing light to suit the densities of the 
various scenes of the negatives being printed. 

The light-changing movement consists of an accurate escape- 
ment which is operated by an electro-magnet very accurately 
wound so as to operate the escapement instantaneously when a 
contact is made at the breaker-box. The intensity of the printing 
light is controlled by a light bar which is so operated that it 
comes successively into contact with a series of plugs on the 
front of the automatic corresponding to the various scenes on 
the negative strip. E^ch of these contacts puts the requisite 
amount of resistance in series with the printer light, and it is 
thus that the printing intensities are governed. This automatic 
has a capacity of i8 different light intensities and will also change 
the light for i8 successive scenes at one sitting. 

When the proper printing intensities have been ascertained 
for each scene of a given roll of negative, a card is punched with 
a series of holes corresponding to these light values. The card 
is then mounted on the front face of the automatic and plugs are 
inserted through the holes in the card, which is only used as a 
guide to the insertion of the bronze plugs, and may be removed 
before printing is commenced. 

With the older types, the light-bar was in contact all the way 
across the front of the contact panel, but with the present model 
only one of the contact buttons on the inner side of the light-bar 
is in contact with one contact plug at any time. This allows the 
bar to drop so easily, when the automatic is operated, that a 
greater pressure can be supplied to its buttons, which assures 
excellent contact between them and the plugs through which the 
light changes are accomplished, and also eliminates any possibility 
of arcing when the light-bar drops from one position to the next. 
Electric current is supplied to the magnet which operates the 
escapement and light-bar of the automatic by the starting clutch 
of the printer, and is cut off, when the printer is stopped, through 
the medium of a switch which operates in unison with the clutch 



handle. If the machine is run without a negative film in place, 
the breaker-box will supply a continuous current to the magnet 
which might cause it to burn out, but this is avoided by discon- 
necting the flexible wire cord and plug through which the current 
reaches the automatic. The current is cut off from the printing 
lamps when the light-bar is opened for the insertion of the card 
and the contact plugs, while the current is in turn cut off from 
the light-bar by opening the switch shown at the bottom of each 
automatic. If the current is left flowing through the light-bar 
a shock can be sustained if the hands of the operator come into 
contact with it when arranging the contact plugs. In former 
models the light-bar was exclusively shifted by electricity^ through 
the medium of the contact in the breaker-box above the machine 
gate, but the perfected escapement of the new automatic ter- 
minates in a handle at the top by which the light-bar can be 
raised or lowered by hand to any desired position. 

A film-notching device supplied with the printer is used to cut 
notches in the edge of the film at any point where a change in 
the printing light is required. This notching device is provided 
with a gauge which indicates the exact point at which the film 
should be notched, in order that the change of light shall occur 
exactly at the dividing line between scenes, and the rapidity with 
which the new automatic operates, insures freedom from long 
sections of improper density following changes of scene in the 
finished prints. 


The essential factors necessary to the effectual realization of 
the continuous printing are : 

First — Ability to maintain correct registration on the unde- 
veloped positive stock, regardless of age or amount of shrinkage 
of the negative. 

Second — ^A movement that will facilitate the continuous pas- 
sage of the films over the light aperture without undue friction 
or abrasion. 

Third — The flexibility of the volume of light used for printing 
scenes of different density and the rapidity of the changes from 
one intensity to another. 

Fourth — The speed of operation or the actual capacity per 
working day, which is the most striking feature of this machine 
in comparison with other types. 



Referring to the first problem relative to correct registration 
of the films regardless of shrinkage due to development: In 
order to bring the sprocket holes of the negative and positive 
stock in proper alignment and to offset the difference in length of 
the developed and undeveloped films it was necessary to construct 
the path followed by the two films past the exposing aperture to 
conform to the arc of a circle whose diameter is such that when 
the positive and negative are in position upon it, with the unde- 
veloped or positive on the outside, the shorter length of the 
shrunken negative is counter-balanced by the decreased length 
of its arc over that of the positive. The perforations are there- 
fore made to coincide and all creepage due to longitudinal shrink- 
age is overcome. 

Now to take up the matter of lateral shrinkage or the shrink- 
age in width of the negative. It is obvious that guide rails along 
the film path are absolutely useless as the width of the positive 
film keeps these rails from bringing pressure to bear on both 
margins of the negative and hold it parallel with the positive 
stock. Therefore, some means had to be devised to bring about 
this condition without contact with the moving film other than 
through the medium of the driving sprocket teeth. With this 
end in view a sprocket was designed whose teeth on one side are 
built to conform with the standard perforation hole, being less 
than two thousandths of an inch smaller in widtji so as to com- 
pletely occupy the opening, while the teeth that engage with the 
other margin of the film are slightly smaller in width in order to 
compensate for lateral shrinkage. Thus it will be seen that when 
two films are superimposed on this sprocket the perforations of 
the positive are held directly over and made to coincide with 
those of the negative, side movement being eliminated by the 
absolute filling of the sprocket holes along one margin of the en- 
tire length of the films by the sprocket teeth. 

In taking up the second clause relative to a film movement 
permitting a constant pressure to hold the films in proper con- 
tact at the instant of exposure, it is obvious that any device with 
such a small area bearing on the continuous moving film, and 
of a sufficient tension to insure perfect contact, would produce 
the much loved enemy of the producer, namely scratches. There- 
fore, some means had to be evolved to overcome this difficulty, 
and the only available solution was to recess the aperture shuttle 



segment a point of contact with film and also to use, virtually, a 
cushion of compressed air, which was previously strained through 
silk mesh to remove dust particles. 

By use in the light chamber, of a constant pressure of air 
whose only means of exit is through the exposing aperture and 
against the negative holding it in perfect contact with the posi- 
tive, the question of scratches was entirely eliminated. 

By careful consideration of the third problem mentioned rela- 
tive to the varying strengths of light needed for consecutive 
scenes of different densities, it was found impractical to use an 
electrical resistance to diminish or increase the volume of light, 
owing to the fact that a slight decrease in the current supplied 
to the lamp greatly changes the quality of the light rays ema- 
nated, namely, from one of a pure white on full voltage to one 
consisting mostly of yellow rays on inserting a resistance. It 
is seen that very little latitude is available by using this method 
of changing and one of a mechanical nature had to be adopted 
instead of electrically controlled. Practical results were ob- 
tained by maintaining a constant radiation from the lamp and 
by increasing or decreasing the actual width of the exposing 
aperture similar to a focal plane shutter, which is the equivalent 
to varying the length of the exposure rather than the intensity 
of the light used. 

In the printer in question, one side of the light aperture is 
composed of a revolving segment whose movement is calibrated 
into twenty-two points and controlled by an index hand and dial 
mounted on the front of the machine. By placing the hand on 
point No. I, the aperture is set for the smallest opening or an 
exposure by a strip of light yi inch wide reaching across the film. 
Each consecutive point from No. i up, gives a ten per cent in- 
crease in exposure over the preceding one, consequently the wide 
latitude available for negatives of varying densities that this ar- 
rangement permits is very apparent. After setting the index 
hand at the desired light intensity (previously ascertained by con- 
sulting the original test pieces made of each scene), the actual 
change of aperture opening is automatically affected by means of 
a radial notch in the margin of the film between scenes allowing 
an electrical circuit to be completed which in turn shifts the 
movable element of the aperture to the desired position. 

The light changes are accompanied by an audible signal in- 



corporated in the mechanism, thus permitting the operator to 
properly follow the various scene changes listed on a card and 
placed on the machine for this purpose. 

The advantage covered by the fourth clause referring to speed 
of operations, is maintained by constructing and adjusting the 
different controls that each can properly perform its duty at a 
rate of speed of approximately one foot per second of printed 
positive film or for an average eight-hour day with due allowance 
for changes, rethreading and other adjustments, twenty-two 
thousand feet, which is the normal rate of speed and in no way 

The operation of the machine is controlled by a combination 
switch handle and valve whose movement is limited to ^ of a 
revolution and in making development tests it is easy to start and 
stop the machine quickly enough to allow of only a few images to 
be printed of each scene. 

The air compressor is supplied in two sizes, the smaller being 
built to accommodate from- one to three machines and the larger 
from one to twelve machines. The compressors supply a con- 
stant stream of air which is filtered through a silk bag mounted 
on a metal frame and attached directly to the intake pipe. The 
machines now being furnished require no auxiliary electrical 
equipment, all local circuits being operated from one source of 


Chapter XI 


Based on the methods worked out by the Eastman Kodak 
Research Laboratories 

MANY practical methods have been worked out from time 
to time for the toning of lantern slides and photographic 
papers. When these are applied to the toning of motion 
picture film, the toned film obtained in most cases although ap- 
parently satisfactory when viewed in the hand, appears sub- 
stantially black on projection. Generally speaking, the color of 
the image as seen in the hand is no criterion whatever of its ap- 
pearance on the screen, so that in judging any particular tone it 
is essential to view the projected image. 

The importance of producing toned images of the maximum 
degree of transparency is therefore at once apparent. The ex- 
cellence of any formula may be estimated by its capacity for 
producing a transparent image which on projection shall retain 
the necessary vigor and snap. 

While other methods have been suggested for producing a 
colored image, the method almost universally employed is to 
replace the silver by a colored metallic compound — usually a 
ferrocyanide of a metal of which, 

Iron (ferric) ferrocyanide is blue 
Copper ferrocyanide is red 
Uranium ferrocyanide is reddish brown 
Vanadium ferrocyanide is greenish yellow. 
Silver Sulphide ferrocyanide is warm brown. 
The object in toning is to replace the metallic silver compos- 
ing the image by one of the above compounds, or by a mixture 
of the same whereby intermediate tones are obtained. This 
toning may be effected either by a two-solution process or by a 
single-solution process. 

The two-solution process consists of first converting the silver 
image into silver ferrocyanide by means of a suitable bleaching 
bath, thoroughly washing and acting upon the ferrocyanide image 



with a metallic salt, usually in presence of an acid. Thus the 
metallic ferrocyanide is produced by double decomposition. The 
reaction, however, is never complete, so that the image is mixed 
with undecomposed silver ferrocyanide which tends to add "body" 
to the latter. If allowance is made in the original positive for 
this intensification, good tones are obtained. 

Single-solution process : Instead of the two separate baths used 
above, a single solution may be employed consisting usually of 
the metallic ferrocyanide dissolved in a suitable solvent (say an 
alkali salt of citric, tartaric, or oxalic acids) in presence of an 
acid and certain other salts. 

On immersion of the positive film in this solution the silver 
image is converted to silver ferrocyanide, whilst the colored 
ferrocyanide is formed simultaneously and in its proper place. 

In view of the fact that the metallic ferrocyanide is deposited 
in a colloidal condition in presence of the gelatine of the film, its 
state of division, and therefore the nature of the tone, is usually 
affected by the presence of certain salts, changes of temperature, 
concentration of the baths and other factors which must be main- 
tained constant in order to produce uniform' results. With such 
single baths it is possible to secure tones which are unobtainable 
by a two-solution process. As these single solutions are sensitive 
to light and rapidly attack foreign metals, such as faucets, they 
are comparatively unstable and require care in their use. 

Two-solution methods are reliable, economical, and are not 
so prone to influence of disturbing factors. The total time re- 
quired for toning, however, is invariably double that taken up 
by a single-solution process, so that, from an economic stand- 
point, two-solution methods are especially recommended for the 
worker who tones occasionally. 

In the above case if the toned image be treated with acid hypo 
to remove the opaque silver ferrocyanide, an almost pure colored 
image remains. The intensity of the toned image is, however, 
considerably diminished and, previous to toning due allowance 
must be made in choosing the positive in order that the final image 
shall be of the correct density for projection. 

Since most toning processes either intensify or reduce the 
original image, it is most important to commence toning with 
positive film of the correct density, so as to obtain uniform 



Any good metol-hydroquinone formula will produce good 
tones, although a straight hydroquinone developer will produce 
excellent tones in all cases except with certain vanadium and 
iron formulas for green tones. A metol-hydroquinone developer 
is essential in these cases in order that the rich olive-green color 
may be obtained, and the proportion of metol in the developer 
should be about twice the usual quantity. 

Before toning it is necessary that the developed film should be 
entirely free from fog, since a thin veil becomes intensified in 
most of the toning processes. Fog may be caused by : 

(a) Oxidization of the developer, noticeable by the brown 
coloration produced after continued use. The remedy is obvious. 
Do not use exhausted or badly oxidized developer. 

(b) Carelessness in compounding the developer. The usual 
mistake consists in adding the carbonate to the metol and hydro- 
quinone without previously adding some sulphite in order to pre- 
vent oxidation. It is not advisable, however, to add the whole 
of the sulphite to the metol and hydroquinone in the first place, 
otherwise the metol may precipitate. 

(c) The presence of metals such as copper, brass and tin, and 
fumes from sodium sulphide, etc., in the developing baths are 
to be strictly avoided. A salt of copper if present only to the 
extent of one part in 10,000 will produce fog immediately on 
cine positive film. 

It is advisable that all metallic parts such as pins on develop- 
ing racks, etc., should be enamelled or replaced with hard rubber, 
or silver plated, in order to eliminate any source of danger. 

Exposure and development are of great importance. In such 
a case as sulphide or copper toning, the best results can be ob- 
tained only on full development. 

Fixing should be complete and, if possible, carried out in two 
consecutive baths followed by thorough washing, otherwise un- 
even coloring will result. 

The toned deposits obtained by the processes recommended are 
as transparent as is consistent with "pluckiness," and only those 
formulae have been recommended which by virtue of their rapid- 
ity of action, long life, and cheapness, can be employed com- 

Permanency of the tone produced in every case depends largely 
on the thoroughness and care exercised during the various chemi- 
cal operations, 



The silver sulphide image may be considered permanent, and 
likewise the blue tones in those cases where the film is finally 
fixed after toning. In the other cases, however, where more or 
less silver ferrocyanide still remains in the toned image, the film 
is not absolutely permanent (blue and green tones being affected 
by excessive heat). In no case, where instructions are carefully 
followed, will the toned image deteriorate during the active life 
of the film. Moreover, so far as can be ascertained, the wear 
and tear of film which has been toned by the methods recom- 
mended is in no way impaired. By virtue of the hardening 
action of most of the toning baths on the gelatine it is advisable, 
especially during the winter months, to immerse the film for 
three or four minutes in the usual 3 per cent, glycerine bath after 

In case film has to be stored for long periods of time it is in- 
advisable to tone the same, nor is it advisable to tone valuable 
film unless duplicates of the same are available. 

The life of the toning bath has been carefully investigated in 
each case. The term "life" is considered as the total length 
of film capable of being toned by a given volume of fresh solu- 
tion when toning is conducted continuously and without inter- 

In all cases it is false economy to exhaust a toning bath to 
the limit and thereby obtain inferior tones. The cost of the 
chemicals employed is insignificant compared with the value of 
the film being treated, being about one per cent per twenty-five 
feet of film toned. (This calculation was made when chemicals 
were not so high as at present.) 

The figures given represent the capacity of the baths for ton- 
ing under the best conditions. They apply only providing the 
baths are kept covered to exclude light when not in use and pro- 
viding no foreign metallic surface, however, small, is allowed to 
come into contact with the solution. 

As previously mentioned, single-solution baths are not intended 
for use at very infrequent intervals. In such cases, two-solution 
methods should be employed, although it is possible only to 
recommend the latter for the production of green and blue-green 

Copper Red Tone. Red chalk color. Use a snappy, • rather 
dark positive with this bath. After immersing the well-washed 
film in water for one minute, place in the following: 



Potassium Citrate 6 lbs. 4 ozs. 

Copper Sulphate i lb. 

Potassium Ferricyanide i lb. 

Ammonium Carbonate 8 ozs. 

Water to 10 gals. 

Dissolve each ingredient separately in as little water as pos- 
sible, mix the filtered solutions so obtained in the order given, 
and dilute to the required volume. The ammonium carbonate 
should be almost transparent, and free from white powder. 

To obtain the best results the bath should be employed at 70® 
F. At higher temperatures inferior results are obtained and at 
80° F. the bath is useless. 

Tone for twenty to thirty minutes. 

Washing should be continued until the high lights are per- 
fectly clear, which usually requires from ten to fifteen minutes. 

With use, the bath precipitates a brown sludge of copi>er f erro- 
cyanide, and in consequence becomes weaker by virtue of the 
loss of copper. Ten gallons of the solution will tone about 1,000 
feet of film without revival. As soon as the bath shows signs 
of weakness it should be revived by adding separately one-quarter 
the above amounts of copper sulphate, ferricyanide, and am- 
monium carbonate, dissolved in as little water as possible — omit- 
ting the potassium citrate. 

The bath will not keep more than a few days even after being 
so revived. In view of the relative instability of this bath, it 
is more economical to employ a wooden drum immersed in a 
shallow tank (using fresh solution as soon as exhausted in place 
of the usual "tank and racks.") 

Uranium Red Tone. Brownish red color. 

Use a rather thin positive as this bath intensifies slightly. 
Immerse the well-washed film in the following: 


Uranium Nitrate (Neutral) 3 ozs. 150 Grs. 

Potassium Oxalate (Neutral).... 3 ozs. 150 Grs. 

Potassium Ferricyanide i oz. 150 Grs. 

Ammonium Alum 8 ozs. 

Hydrochloric Acid 10 per cent. . . 6 ozs. 
Water to 10 gals. 

Since the nature of the tone is influenced largely by the acid 



content, it is very important that the uranium nitrate should 
contain no free acid. This may be assured by neutrahzing a 
solution of the same with dilute ammonia until a slight permanent 
precipitate is obtained. 

It is most convenient to keep stock solutions of the above (say 
io% solution) wherewith a new bath may be expeditiously com- 
pounded. A io% hydrochloric acid solution is one containing 
10 parts by volume of the acid per lOO volumes of the final 

Slight variations of temperature around 70° F. produce no 
apparent effect. 

Tone for ten minutes. Since this and the following single solu- 
tion methods of toning produce a marked intensification of the 
silver image — which intensification increases with the time of 
toning — it follows that the nature of the tone changes with the 

The composition of the bath has been so adjusted that the 
maximum effect is produced in about 10 minutes, the tone pass- 
ing through a series of changes from brown to red during this 

Although it is possible to obtain intermediate tones by with- 
drawing the film from the bath at shorter intervals, the tones 
so obtained are not so "plucky," and it is almost impossible to 
duplicate them. Experience has shown that modifications of 
tone are best obtained by keeping the time of toning constant 
and varying the nature of the toning bath and that of the positive 
film employed. 

Wash from ten to fifteen minutes. 

Usually the high lights will become clear in the above time, 
although a thin yellowish brown veil invariably remains in the 
clear gelatine as a result of the intensification of minute traces 
of fog. This is of no account, however, in projection. If the 
bath is working correctly this yellowish veil is only just per- 
ceptible. Should it be at all marked, then either the film was 
fogged during development, or the bath was not compounded 
correctly. Washing should not be carried out for too long a 
period, especially with water inclined to be alkaline, because the 
toned image is soluble in alkali. 

Ten gallons of solution will tone about 1,000 feet of film with- 
out any appreciable change in the tone, aft^r which the rich tone 



tends to become flat as a result of a deficiency of acid in the bath. 
At this point the bath may be revived by the further addition of 
acid to the extent of the original amount employed, when a fur- 
ther i,oco feet may be toned. After this stage the richness of 
tone falls off rapidly and the bath should be thrown away. In 
view of the sensitiveness of the bath to acid, the importance of 
the neutrality of the ingredients is at once apparent. 

Used intermittently over a period of several days, the life of 
the bath is approximately the same. 

With continued use a slight brownish flocculent precipitate may 
form in the bath, but this should be only slight, otherwise it is 
caused by incorrect mixing, the action of light, or by contact with 
a metallic surface. 

Uranium Red Brown. Reddish Sepia Color. Use a positive 
that is a full shade lighter than a normal black and white. The 
formula employed is the same as for Uranium Red tone, but 
contains only half the amount of hydrochloric acid. The pro- 
cedure is the same as that for Uranium Red Tone. 

In view of the less energetic nature of this bath the life is 
slightly longer than that for Uranium Red. If after i,ooo feet 
of film have been toned the bath is renewed with acid to the 
extent of 

6 ozs io% acid per lo gals. 

Then lo gals, of solution will tone 3,ocx) feet of film. 

Sepia Tone by Uranium and Iron. This particular tone is 
obtained by suitable admixture of red and blue toning, solutions. 
By varying the proportions of these baths, tones from red sepia 
to brown may be obtained. 

The following is only one of the many tones to be obtained 
by this method. Increase in the proportion of the iron baths 
makes the tone colder and vice versa. 

Use a positive that is a full shade lighter than normal. 

Immerse well-washed film in 

Solution for Uranium Red Brown 9 vols. 

Solution for Iron Blue I vol. 

The instructions regarding method of procedure, life of bath, 
-etc., are exactly the same as for Uranium Red Brown. 

Sulphide Yellow Brown for Tinting. This tone is seen to ad- 
vantage only when subsequently tinted, as when used without 
tinting it gives a very unpleasing brindle brown. 



Use a normal print for this tone as it reduces just about the 
correct amount for tinting. 

A. Potass. Ferricyanide 3 lbs. 

Potass. Bromide I lb. 

Water to 10 gals. 

B. Sodium Sulphide crystal 3 oz. 

Hypo crystal 8 oz. 

Water to 10 gals. 

It is convenient to keep solutions of hypo and sodium sulphide 
(say 20%) and measure these out by volume as required. A 
trace of iron in the sodium sulphide is of no moment providing 
the stock solution is boiled and the precipitated iron sulphide al- 
lowed to settle before use. 

The well-washed positive is thoroughly bleached in A, washed 
for five minutes, and immersed in solution B, until the film is 
thoroughly toned. This bath appears to "ripen" slightly with age 
so that a small amount of used bath should be added when com- 
pounding fresh solution or a waste piece of film should be toned 
in the new bath to secure the same eifect. 

The effect of temperature on the solution A is simply to hasten 
the bleaching. With bath B, on immersion of the bleached film 
two reactions occur: 

(a) Solution of the silver bromide in hypo. 

(b) Conversion of the silver bromide to silver sulphide. 
Normally, good results are obtained at 70° F. Owing to the 

increased solvent power of hypo for silver bromide at high tem- 
perature, the tone becomes warmer and the image has less con- 
trast at a limit of 75° F., beyond which it is inadvisable to go. 

Hence, if the tone is too cold and the film too opaque, the tem- 
perature should be increased one or two degrees from 70° F. and 
vice versa. 

Tone about five minutes and wash fifteen minutes. 

The bleaching bath A will keep until exhausted. Ten gallons 
of bath B will tone about 2,000 feet of film, after which there is 
a tendency for a dichroic fog-like deposit to form on the surface 
of the film during toning owing to the hypo becoming saturated 
vnth silver bromide. As soon as this happens, the bath should be 

Green tones by Vanadium and Iron. Use a normal black and 
white positive for this formula. 



Tone in the bath prepared as follows : 


A. Oxalic acid i lb. 4 oz. 

Vanadium stock solution 40 oz. 

Water to 5 gals. 


B. Potass, ferricyanide 3 ozs. 145 grains 

Water to 20 gals. 

C. Ferric Alum 8 oz. 145 grains 

(Ferric Ammonium Sulphate) 

Potass. Bichromate y2 grains 

Oxalic acid 7 oz. 

Potass, ferricyanide 3 oz. 

Water to 15 gals. 

EHssolve each of the chemicals separately and mix the solu- 
tions obtained strictly in the order given. 


D. Ammonitmi Alum 2 lb. i oz. no gr. 

Hydrochloric acid 10% 133^ oz. 

Water to 10 gals. 

Total Volume 50 gals. 

Add B to A with stirring; then add C, and finally add D to 
the mixture. The solution is then ready for use. 

The syrupy variety of Vanadium Chloride sold by Merck is 
recommended although its nature appears to vary with different 
batches, certain samples being very difficult to incorporate with 
the toning bath without giving rise to precipitation. 
Vanadium Stock Solution : 


Vanadium chloride (syrup) 3^ tl. oz. 

Oxalic acid 3 oz. 200 gr. 

Water to y^ gal. 

Any sludge which may have been deposited from the vanadium 
chloride should be included also and the whole heated in a glass 
or enamelled vessel until a clear blue solution is obtained. 

The method of mixing the various solutions A, B, C and D is 
of the greatest importance. They should be mixed only in the 
concentrations recommended and strictly in the order given. Un- 
less this is done, the vanadium will precipitate out as a green 



Variations of temperature around 70° F. have little or no effect. 

Tone ten to fifteen minutes and wash for the same length of 
time. Washing should be thorough as it is only during washing 
that the rich green tone develops. 

Ten gallons of solution will tone about 1,400 feet of film 
without any appreciable deterioration of tone, and if at this 
point, and after each 1,000 feet, the bath is revived by the addi- 
tion of hydrochloric acid equivalent to the amount originally 
employed: i.e. 

2j4 ozs., 10% Hydrochloric Acid per 10 gals. 
3,000 feet may be toned. As the bath becomes exhausted it may 
be found necessary to increase the time of toning to fifteen 
minutes. It is not permissible to add further amounts of vana- 
dium chloride in order to revive the bath, as the vanadium would 
then be precipitated. The vanadium may be incorporated with 
the bath only at the time of mixing. 

Used intermittently the life is approximately the same. 

Greenish Blue Tone With Vanadium And Iron. Use normal 
black and white positive for the formula. 

The formula employed and instructions are exactly the same 
as for Green tones by Vanadium and Iron, except that the pro- 
portion of Vanadium chloride is as follows : 

Vanadium Chloride Stock Solution. 
Per 10 gal. of bath, 4 ozs. 

and only half the amount of hydrochloric acid should be em- 
ployed. It is not permissible to convert this bath to the pre- 
ceding by the addition of further amounts of vanadium chloride, 
in which case the latter would be precipitated. 

Positives for this bath should be a full shade or even two 
shades lighter than normal and should be developed in metol- 
hydroquinone developer as a plain hydroquinone formula does not 
give good results with this bath. 


A. Potassium Ferricyanide 4 lbs. 43^ ozs. 

Ammonia .880 13 ozs. 

Water to 10 gals. 

Bleach for two to ten minutes, then wash for ten or fifteen 
minutes, tone in the following : 



B. Ferric alum (crystal) Avoirdupois 

(Ferric ammonium sulphate) ... .13 ozs. 2 drams 
Vanadium chloride (stock sol.). -.25 fl. ozs. 

Potassium bromide 6 ozs. 5 drams 

Hydrochloric acid (concentrated) . 23^ ozs. 
Water to 10 gals. 

Refer to green tones by Vanadium and Iron for composition of 
vanadium stock solution. 

Temperature of toning should be around 70° F. and the time 
of toning ten to fifteen minutes. 

Wash for ten minutes after toning. 

Providing bath A is screened from the light and kept covered 
in order to prevent the undue escape of ammonia, the bath keeps 
fairly well. Should it show any signs of weakening it should 
be revived by the addition of a further quantity of ammonia 
equal in amount to that originally used. If so revived at in- 
tervals, 10 gallons will bleach 8,000 feet of film before exhaustion. 

Ten gallons of solution B will tone 6,000 feet of film without 
further addition of acid, after which it should be thrown away. 

Olive green tones with iron (two solutions). 

This tone is almost indistinguishable from those obtained with 
vanadium. Use a thin metol-hydroquinone developed positive 
with this formula, plain hydroquinone does not give very satis- 
factory results. 

Bleach in solution A as for green tones by vanadium and iron, 
and after washing for ten to fifteen minutes tone in: 


Ferric Alum 13 oz. 2 drams 

Potassium bromide 6 oz. 5 drams 

Hydrochloric acid (concentrated) . 2j^ oz. 
Water to 10 gals. 

The time of toning, washing, life of bath, etc., are the same 
as for green tone by Vanadium and Iron. Should the high lights 
of the toned image be stained blue, this is due to insufficient 
washing after bleaching: 

Iron Blue Tone. Use normal or slightly thin positive. Tone 
in the following; 




Potassium bichromate 15 grains 

Ferric Alum i oz. 250 grs. 

Oxalic acid 4 oz. 

Potassium ferricyanide i oz. 146 grs. 

Ammonium alum 6 oz. 5 drams 

Hydrochloric acid 10% i oz. 2 drams 

Water to 10 gals. 

The method of compounding this bath is very important. Each 
of the solid chemicals should be dissolved separately in a small 
quantity of warm water and the solutions allowed to cool. Then 
the latter should be filtered into the tank strictly in the order 
given, and the whole diluted to the required volume. If these in- 
structions are adhered to, the bath will be free from any sign of 
precipitate and will remain so for a considerable period. 

Tone for ten to fifteen minutes and wash ten to fifteen minutes 
until the high lights are clear. A very slight permanent yellow 
coloration of the clear gelatine will usually occur, but should be 
only just perceptible. It is of no moment in projection. Should 
any sign of blue stain occur, it is an indication of a stale bath 
or incorrect mixing of the same. These remarks regarding stains 
apply in all cases where single toning solutions are employed. 

If the acid is replaced to the extent of the original amount 
after toning each 1,000 feet, the bath will on the whole tone 
3,000 feet per ten gallons of solution. 

If even after revival, the tone remains flat, the bath is exhausted 
and should be thrown away. As the bath becomes exhausted, 
the time of toning should be extended a little longer than ten 
minutes in order to obtain the necessary contrast. 

After continued use, a slight bluish sludge will collect in the 
bath, but this is of no moment. Should this form, however, to 
an appreciable extent, it is due either to incorrect mixing, the 
action of light, or to contact with metallic surfaces. 

Two-Solution Iron Blue Toning Bath. Starting with a light, 
normal positive, this is toned according to instructions given for 
olive-green tones with iron. 

The tone image is then immersed in the following fixing bath 
for three minutes; 



Hypo (crystal) 8 lbs. 5 ozs. 

Sodium bisulphite (EKCo) 2 lbs. 1% ozs. 

Water to 10 gals. 

After fixing, the film is washed for ten to fifteen minutes. If 
the resultant image is too thin, the toning solution should be al- 
lowed to act for fifteen minutes, or positive film of greater con- 
trast should be employed. 

Violet Tone With Iron and Ammonia. Iron blue tones may be 
converted to violet or dark blue by immersion for one to two 
minutes in the following bath. 


Ammonia Pure .880 3 to 5 ozs. 

Water to 10 gals. 

Wash for one or two minutes and dry. 

After some time the film will turn blue again but the violet 
tone can be restored by treatment with ammonia. 

In many cases pleasing effects may be obtained by tinting film 
which has already been toned. The result is that the clear por- 
tions of high lights assume the color of the dye, whilst the 
shadows and half-tones project a tint intermediate between that 
of the dye and the toned deposit 

Considerable judgment is necessary in choosing suitable tints 
to blend with any given tone. 

The most successful combination of toning with tinting is in 
the production of sunset and moonlight effects over water. First 
tone blue and subsequently tint "orange" or "red." 

The following combinations will cover most cases required : 

Yellow Brown tone with pink tint. 

Green and Blue tones with light yellow tint. 

Blue and Violet with almost any delicate shade. 

It is considered unnecessary to illustrate every combination 
of tone and tint. Only typical examples have been given. It 
must be noted that toned film except copper and sulphide toned, 
dyes more quickly than untoned film in any given dye bath. In 
order to obtain the exact tints above, the dye bath should be 
diluted with about an equal quantity of water. 

Dye for five to ten minutes, according to shade desired. 

The equipment necessary for systematic toning and tinting is 
essentially the same as that required for development, consisting 



of the usual tanks and racks or small drums. It is highly de- 
sirable to use the same for this purpose exclusively and if pos- 
sible keep in a separate room thus excluding any possibility of 
contamination either by the copper or sulphiding bath, which 
would cause development fog immediately. 

The "drum" system, on account of the great expense involved 
in apparatus and the larger space required for manipulation, is 
not to be recommended for toning and tinting operations. For 
the worker on a small scale, who desires only to produce short 
lengths of film occasionally, a small wooden drum revolving in 
a shallow wooden tank is most efficient and economical. The 
tanks employed should be of slate or other resistive materials, and 
have in an outlet at the bottom a hard-rubber stopcock or a 
wooden plug. 

Wooden tanks may be used but when once used for one color 
cannot be used for any complementary color. 

The tank containing the sulphiding bath should be enclosed in 
an outer tank through which hot or cold water may be circulated 
in order to control the temperature. The racks or drums 
may be of wood, but if metal pegs are employed they 
should be coated with an acid-resisting paint such as asphalt. 
The presence of any metalic surface in the toning baths will 
cause contamination of the same and effect a precipation of 
sludge. Neither toning nor tinting frames should be interchanged 
but should be kept separate in order to prevent contamination 
of one bath by frames employed in another. This also applies 
to the small drum system. A pink tint would be ruined by using 
a rack which had been immersed in a deep blue dye bath unless 
the rack had been washed thoroughly. 

In the case of delicate tinting, however, no harm is done pro- 
viding the racks have been coated with the following waterproof 
varnish : 


Hard Paraffin i lb. 5 ozs. 

Syrian asphalt i lb. 5 ozs. 

Benzol 4 gals. 

Carbon tetrachloride 3 gals. 

Before varnishing it is preferable to immerse the racks in a 
1% solution of hydrochloric acid for two or three minutes and 



wash for fifteen minutes. Dry thoroughly. Then dip the well- 
dried racks in the above solution and drain off the excess liquid. 
The varnish dries almost immediately. 

The varnishing should be repeated at intervals. 

Developers, toning solutions and dyes should be mixed in 
crocks of glazed earthenware. Use warm water when possible 
and ensure thorough solution by stirring with a wooden paddle, 
which should be thoroughly washed after each operation. Hav- 
ing dissolved the chemicals in as small a quantity of hot water as 
possible, the solution should be cooled so that on dilution the final 
solution will be at approximately the correct temperature. 

The chemicals employed should be pure. When a good water 
supply is not available, distilled water only should be employed. 

In "tinting" the following factors must be taken into con- 
sideration : 

Dyestuffs are chemically of two different types, acid and basic ; 
so-called acid dyestuffs are the alkali — usually sodium salts of 
organic acids — whilst basic dyestuffs are the chlorides, sulphates, 
etc., of organic bases. 

For the tinting of film only "acid" dyestuffs should be con- 
sidered, since "basic" dyestuffs usually enter the gelatine so 
rapidly that satisfactory control of the dyeing is impossible. 
Moreover, it is not possible to make a complete selection from 
basic dyestuffs alone. Such a selection would necessitate the use 
of acid and basic dyestuffs in admixture — a procedure highly un- 
desirable and, in many cases, impossible. 

Any dyestuffs suitable for admixture to produce intermediate 
tints should possess the following properties : 

The dye should be inert and not attack the gelatine or support. 
This is of fundamental importance as the gelatine coating of dyed 
film in many cases has a tendency to lose its flexibility, causing 
what is known in the trade as "brittleness." 

Several dyestuffs when employed at a concentration of i%, at- 
tack gelatine readily at 70° F. and vigorously at 80° F., especially 
in presence of small amounts of acids, producing a marked 
softening and often partial solution of the film. The effect is 
roughly proportionate to the concentration of the dye and to the 
temperature, and varies with each individual dyestuff. Exper- 
ience shows that the gelatine coating of film which has been 
softened in this way by the dyestuffs becomes "brittle" on sub- 
sequent projection. 



The actual factors in the production of brittleness are : 

1. The hydrolysis of the acid which, in many cases, is added 
to assist dyeing. If a solid acid has been employed the heat en- 
countered during projection will greatly accelerate this hydrolysis. 

2. The corrosion of the dye itself. Dyes vary considerably 
in this respect according to their particular composition. So far, 
it has not been possible to make any general classification of dye- 
stuffs in this connection, though nitro compounds appear to be 
particularly corrosive in their action. 

3. The presence of impurities in the dyestuff. These take 
the form of excessive amounts of loading material, such as sodium 
sulphate or chloride, or small traces of iron, the latter having a 
tendency to harden the film considerably. 

In all the above cases, the nature of the gelatine is altered. It 
loses its property of remaining resilient under normal conditions 
of temperature and humidity and becomes "brittle." 

A suitable test as to whether a dyestuff has any propensity 
to produce brittleness is to incubate a sample of film, half of 
which has been dyed, for about 48 hours at 100° degrees C. If 
any difference in brittleness is noticeable between the dyed and 
undyed portions so treated, the dye is unsuitable for tinting. 

On the contrary most dyestuffs, when used at a concentration 
of 1% and at 80° F., produce more or less softening of the gela- 
tine. This may be prevented by : 

(a) Use of dilute solutions only. Except in special cases, a 
dye solution stronger than 0.5% is seldom required. The usual 
strength employed is about 0.2%, at which concentration no 
softening usually occurs.. 

(b) Omission of acid from the dye bath. 

(c) By working at temperatures not higher than 70° F. 

(d) By slight hardening of the film before dyeing and sub- 
sequent softening by glycerine, as described below : 

The dye should not "bleed" to any considerable extent when 
the film is washed ; in other words, the rate of removal of the dye 
should be slow and be almost imperceptible in a period of say, five 

Generally speaking, basic dyestuffs which are absorbed readily 
by gelatine do not bleed whilst most acid dyestuffs which dye 
gelatine much more slowly bleed considerably. The rate of bleed- 
ing appears to vary inversely as the affinity between the dye and 
the gelatine. 



In tinting, bleeding is of considerable importance. 

During the period between rinsing after dyeing and the placing 
of the film on the drying rack, any drops of water on the surface 
of the film become more or less saturated with dye. These, after 
drying, remain as spots and irregular markings which are very 
apparent on the screen. 

It is possible only in very few cases to modify this bleeding 
by an acid "stop bath," and it may be considered a general rule 
that the bleeding of a dyestuff is a property peculiar to itself. 
In making a selection of dyes therefore, it is necessary to choose 
only those which have a minimum propensity to bleed. 

The rate of dyeing should be only slightly affected by the addi- 
tion of acid to the dye bath. 

In some instances it has been recommended to add a small 
amount of acid to the dye bath to obtain more transparent re- 
sults and to increase the rate of dyeing, but we do not recommend 
the use of acid for the following reasons : 

(a) Acid magnifies the eflPect of temperature both on the rate 
of dyeing and on the softening of the gelatine. 

(b) Acidified dye baths usually dye too quickly and often pro- 
duce uneven dyeing around the perforations. Moreover, in 
many cases the degree of dyeing is very sensitive to changes in 
acidity. Since the acidity of the bath falls ofif with use, just as 
in toning, it is almost impossible to duplicate results systematic- 

If acid is used it should be a volatile acid such as acetic acid, 
as any solid acid is retained in the film after dyeing. In all cases 
the eflFect varies with the particular dyestuff employed, and may 
be considerable even w^hen the acid (acetic) is present only to 
the extent of .02%. 

The dyes should be stable to light and not be "dichroic" or 
change color on dilution. 

Moreover, the wear and tear of the film should not be impaired 
in any way after dyeing. Even after incubating for 48 hours at 
100° C, no difference should be discernible between dyed and 
undyed films. 

The dyestuff should not be affected by "hypo" since any fixing 
solution left in the film, or accidentally splashed thereon, would 
destroy the dye immediately. 

Examination shows that most dyes fail on the "bleeding" test, 



whilst others, which might otherwise appear entirely suitable, at- 
tack the gelatine at higher temperatures or cause "brittleness." 

In view of the large number of tints required in commercial 
work, it is undesirable to keep a separate dye-powder for the 
preparation of each particular bath. Prepare the same by ad- 
mixture of three or more dyestuffs. If three only are employed, 
mixing must be conducted with great precision in order to re- 
produce any given tint. This difficulty is overcome by the use 
of intermediate colors. 

The following five standard dyes have been chosen as fulfilling 
the above conditions as nearly as possible. By suitably mixing 
solutions of these as indicated in the specimen chart, almost any 
desired tint may be obtained : 

Name used in Formula Commercial Name Mamufacturer 

Cine Red Chromotrop FB Hoechst 

Cine Orange Orange GRX Badische 

Cine Yellow Quinoline Yellow Badische 

(Hoechst, Agfa.) 
Cine Blue-Green Brilliant Patent Blue Hoechst 
Cine Blue Naphthaline Blue 12B Hoechst 



Hoechst is Farbwerke Hoechst Co., 122 Hudson St., New 
York City. 

Badische, Badische Co., 128 Duane St., New York City. 

Agfa, Berlin Anilin Works, 213-215 Water St., New York City. 

Kalle, Kalle and Co., 530 Canal St., New York City. 

These dyes are the commercial grades as supplied by the 
various dye makers. As a rule, they contain about 20% 
of loading material in the form of sodium chloride or sodium 
sulphate which in no way injures the film. 

The relative cost of pure dyestuffs compared with commercial 
samples prohibits their employment commercially. 

The amount of impurity in the dyes may vary slightly from 
batch to batch. This variation is usually so small as not to affect 
materially the nature of the tint obtained from any particular 
formula. Moreover, dye samples of the same name supplied by 
different makers may differ considerably in their properties, par- 
ticularly with respect to ^'bleeding," 



All tints we have described were obtained with dye samples 
from the makers indicated. Should dyes of other makers be em- 
ployed, the proportions stated may require slight modifications 

Match any given color under artificial light only. 

Tint No, Formulae for Tinting Avoirdupois 

1. Cine Red 2 lbs. 

Water 50 gals. 

2. Cine Red 8 oz. 145 grains 

Cine Yellow 8 oz. 145 grains 

Water 50 gals. 

3. Cine Red 5 oz. 220 grains 

Cine Yellow 5 oz. 220 grains 

Water 50 gals. 

4. Cine Red 3 oz. 350 grains 

Cine Yellow 3 oz. 350 grains 

Cine Blue-green 320 grains 

Water 50 gals. 

5. Cine Red 5 oz. 260 grains 

Cine Orange i lb. 11 oz. 175 grains 

Water 50 gals. 

6. Cine Red i oz. 175 grains 

Cine Orange 6 oz. 350 grains 

Water 50 gals. 

7. Cine Orange 11 oz. 45 grains 

Water 50 gals. 

8. Cine Orange 16 oz. 300 grains 

Cine Yellow 16 oz. 300 grains 

Water 50 gals. 

9. Cine Orange 4 oz. 75 grains 

Cine Yellow 4 oz. 75 grains 

Water 50 gals. 

10. Cine Yellow 2 lbs. 

Water 50 gals. 

1 1. Cine Yellow 8 oz. 

Water 50 gals. 

12. Cine Yellow i lb. 4 oz. 

Cine Blue-green 2 oz. 

Water 50 gals. 

13. Cine Yellow 14 oz. 

Cine Blue-green 2 oz. 350 grains 



Tint No. Formulae for Tinting Avoirdupois 

Water 50 gals. 

14. Cine Yellow 7 oz. 

Cine Blue-green i oz. 175 grains 

Water 50 gals. 

15. Cine Yellow 9 oz. 130 grains 

Cine Blue-green 7 oz. 175 grains 

Water 50 gals. 

16. Cine Blue-green i lb. 

Water 50 gals. 

17. Cine Blue-green 4 oz. 

Water 50 gals. 

18. Cine Red 250 grains 

Cine Blue-green 12 oz. 30 grains 

Water 50 gals. 

19. Cine Blue 4 oz. 

Water 50 gals. 

20. Cine Red 6 oz. 145 grains 

Cine Blue-green 4 oz. 350 grains 

Water 50 gals. 

21. Cine Red 3 oz. 85 grains 

Cine Blue-green 2 oz. 175 grains 

Water 50 gals. 

22. Cine Red 5 oz. 175 grains 

Cine Blue-green I oz. 260 grains 

Cine Yellow i oz. 150 grains 

Water 50 gals. 

23. Cine Red 3 oz. 90 grains 

Cine Yellow 380 grains 

Cine Blue-green i oz. 30 grains 

Water 50 gals. 

24. Cine Red 10 oz. 

Cine Blue i oz. 

Water 50 gals. 

The solid dyestuffs are thoroughly dissolved in as small an 
amount of hot water as possible and filtered through fine muslin. 
Hot water should be poured over any residue, which should be 
slight, in order to ensure thorough solution of the dye. Then 
the dye solution should be diluted in the tank to the required 
volume at 70 "^ F. 



Except in special cases, such as fire scenes, sunset and moon- 
light effects, it is very undesirable to employ strong tints. Apart 
from the displeasing effect and irritation to the eye, the dye- 
stuffs produce a slight softening of the gelatine film when used at 
80° F. in I % solution. 

Should it be necessary to employ such concentrated baths in 
summer, it is necessary either to cool the dye bath or use a suit- 
able hardener. No trouble will be encountered if formalin 
(40%) be added to the dye bath to the extent of i volume to 400 
volumes of dye solution. This is unnecessary if hardener was 
employed in the fixing bath after development. 

During the winter months it is advisable to treat all film after 
developing and fixing with glycerine. The latter may be in- 
corporated with the dye bath thereby eliminating an extra opera- 
tion. The strength of the glycerine should be 2%, or two volumes 
per one hundred volumes of dye solution. However, in most 
cases the addition of glycerine considerably retards the rate of 
dyeing. Therefore, in order to obtain the same degree of tinting 
within a period of ten minutes the concentration of the dye bath 
should be increased accordingly. 

The use of delicate tints both removes the contrasting black 
and white effect and adds a touch of warmth to the black de- 
posit of silver, even in cases where the high lights are insuffi- 
ciently stained to be noticeable. In many cases the result is 
equal to that obtained by partial toning. 

Although temperat!ure has little effect on the rate of dyeing 
with the dyes recommended, it is advisable in all cases to work at 
70° F. in order to produce uniform results and avoid any danger 
of softening the film. 

Only good ''plucky" positive film may be successfully tinted. 
As tinting tends to reduce contrasts, the positive should be of nor- 
mal density but slightly on the hard side. 

Time of dyeing depends somewhat on the previous handling 
of the film. Film which has been fixed in a bath containing or- 
dinary, or chrome, alum dyes more quickly than that treated 
with plain hypo and hardened with formalin. It is probable, 
therefore, that small traces of alum are left in the film even after 
prolonged washing. The alum serves as a mordant for the dye. 

The film for dyeing should be fixed in hypo containing sodium 
bisulphite only (25% hypo with 2.5% sodium bisulphite — the 
cooled bisulphite being added to the cooled hypo). In case an 


Motion picture photograph y 

alum fixing bath is employed or if, for any other reason, the tints 
indicated are not obtained in the time given below, either the 
time of dyeing or the dilujtion of the dye bath must be altered. 

The concentration of the dye bath has in each case been so ad- 
justed that dyeing is complete in ten minutes — which time is con- 
sidered a minimum for the production of uniform' results, and 
for complete control of the dyeing operations. Shorter time of 
immersion will produce lighter tints. As is the case of toning, 
experience has shown that in order to produce uniform results 
it is advisable to keep the time of dyeing constant, and obtain 
varying effects by changing the composition of the dye baths. 

Should the film for any reason be over-dyed, a small portion 
of the dye may be removed by washing from lo to 15 minutes, 
though the particular fastness of the dyes allows only slight mis- 
takes to be rectified in this manner. 

Life of the dye bath averages about 40,ocx> feet per 50 gallons 
dye bath. The bath may be revived at intervals by the addition 
of more dye, though this procedure is uncertain. It is generally 
advisable to mix fresh solution. 

Either the *'drum" or "tank" method may be employed. In 
either case after dyeing for ten minutes (during which time the 
rack should be agitated in order to ensure even dyeing and 
prevent accumulation of air bubbles) the film should be given a 
thorough rinsing in plain water. 

Before drying film on racks it is advisable to set the rack at 
a slight angle for a few minutes, so enabling the surplus water 
to drain off through the perforations. If drums are used for 
drying it is advisable to remove the surplus water by whirling 
the drum previous to drying. 

Patchy and streaked film results from insufficient washing of 
the positive after fixing and before dyeing, insufficient agitation 
of the rack when in the dye bath, and the use of dyes which 
"bleed" too freely. 

In general, almost any tint, if delicate, may be employed with 
advantage. For general use those ranging through pink, rose, 
orange, yellow, pale green and pale blue, are recommended — 
others are for special purposes. The nature of the tint as seen 
in the hands is no criterion of its appearance on the projected 
image, though by a little practice and by viewing only by arti- 
ficial light, it is possible to preconceive the appearance of any 
sample on projection. 


Chapter XII 

WITH the gratifying general progress of events toward a 
higher standard in motion picture art comes the neces- 
sity for scrcpulous and painstaking care in every detail 
and department of production and finishing. Methods that were 
the result of a naive scramble for wealth in an "easy money" 
market are obsolete. The old timers are almost relegated to 
the background. The old order is fast changing, giving place to 
new methods, new systems and new men. And in the great 
struggle for the survival of the fittest success depends upon the 
perfection of every detail. 

It is gratifying to note that titling, that most important detail 
in the making of a picture, is receiving more and more attention 
from producers. They realize that more effectiveness as well 
as considerable saving in expensive crowds and settings can be 
gained by collaboration with a titler who is an expert literary 

One of the first indications of an awakening consciousness of 
the value of titles was seen in the mechanical end of their making. 
A more elaborate style of letter was introduced and later this was 
elaborated by the introduction of silhouettes or allegorical figures. 
Rarely indeed, were these good, in many instances they were 
laughable. Nevertheless they were welcome, for they were in- 
dications of improvement. This pseudo-artistic decorative work 
had a long run and is still in vogue to a considerable extent. It 
has not the qualities to make it a joy forever; folk tire of it. 
Gradually it must meet the exactions of art. 

A more important question is : How improve the literary value 
of the writing of the titles? Here is a field as wide as the in- 
dustry itself. The old-style running commentary on the picture, 
with its crudities, barn-storming heroics, cheap platitudes and 
abortive attempts at fine phrasing, is doomed. It cannot with- 
stand the ever-increasing pressure of an elevating competition. 
Those who write these titles must either mend their ways or find 
other occupation in keeping with their limitations. 



In the pictures of certain producers a great advancement in 
titling may be noted. These concerns apparently take a wider 
view of their mission in life than merely to earn dividends. As 
soon as a producer's aspirations are limited by the boundary line 
of "profits," the quality and grade of his work suffers. He tries 
to "get by" with cheap effects — including inferior titling — and 
immediately the discerning eye can read the writing on the wall. 

Titles, to stand the test, must set forth the very spirit of the 
play — they must fill the blank that invariably exists between 
picturization and drama. The most intelligent audience would 
fail to get the significance of an author's intention without titling. 
Upon it largely depends the success of the picture. That being 
the case, why not insist upon good titles? 

Good titles should be felt rather than seen. That is to say the 
subconscious appeal of the words should be such that the audience 
actually lives the part with the actor and literally feels the emo- 
tions portrayed on the screen. This is worthy work for the 
word-artist. Further, the style of the title should be such that 
the words flow easily, there must be no jarring note nor dis- 
cordance. The words must open the door into the mind of the 
audience with graceful and powerful tact. 

Successful titling calls for highly specialized ability. It is a 
profession, one that by its very nature will never be overcrowded. 
The process of elimination is becoming more severe as the public 
becomes more educated and better able to appreciate the merit of 
a picture and its accessories. Adequately to convey a world of 
sentiment, pathos or enthusiasm in a few short words, calls for 
skill. Many who attempt it never rise above the succinct phrase- 
ology of the "ad" man — their work is cold, staccato, and feel- 
ingless. The able title writer is worthily in a foremost place 
among those who make movies. In his hands lies the making or 
marring of a picture. 

It has been argued that the public is no judge of the literary 
value of titles, and therefore anything readable will "get by." 
Nothing could be more inaccurate. If the public doesn't think, it 
feels. The unerring instinct of an audience invariably pays a 
tribute to good work, whether titling, or directing, or acting. All 
of these points must be carefully considered by producers who 
wish to turn out worth-while work; and they will be well ad- 
vised to get the best obtainable in the brain-market to safeguard 
their titling. 



The profession of writing titles has all the dignity of a literary- 
career — the audience is vast enough to appeal to the ambitions 
of any writer. The work calls for inherent as well as acquired 
culture and it may be recommended as a career to the young men 
from our universities. Even with their academic training, they 
will find it difficult to keep pace with the ever-increasing require- 
ments of the craft. Yet they will have the satisfaction of know- 
ing that their vocation is one that takes its place among the con- 
structive works of the world. 

The word sub-title is a rather loose term, commonly used to 
designate all reading matter, except the main or lead title, which 
appears on the screen. A more correct designation divides the 
term into two sub-headings : Captions, meaning all explanatory 
reading matter, and Spoken Titles, meaning all words put into 
the mouths of the characters and indicated by quotation marks. 

When, where and why are sub-titles necessary or desirable? 
Some of the reasons for their use are : 

1. To explain the purpose or indicate the main theme of the 

2. To give the picture coherency. They are links which join 
the scenes and help to carry the thread of the story. 

3. To name and characterize the principle roles portrayed ; to 
identify setting or location, and sometimes to fix the time of the 
story or any of its parts. 

4. To illuminate and interpret the picture or any of its situa- 
tions by conveying ideas which the action does not or cannot 

5. To inject comedy, pathos, or other sentiments which may 
be entirely arbitrary, into the picture. 

6. To indicate lapses of time, or cover jumps in the continuity- 

7. To economize footage or save production costs by sub- 
stituting for scenes not shown. 

Some of these uses, may appear to be similar and some of them 
may overlap. One sub-title may serve two or more of these pur- 
poses. On the other hand, a sub-title may be required for only 
one of these definite reasons. 

There are as many ways of wording or phrasing a given sub- 
title of moderate length as there are individuals who may write 
it. Perhaps each one would consider his style and wording the 
best. It is certain that no two would write it exactly the same. 



There is and can be no set rules to govern its composition and 
no definite standard by which it may be measured. Its final 
form must be dictated by the intelligence, judgment and experi- 
ence of the writer. 

There is wide diversity of opinion as to what constitutes a 
good and sufficient sub-title. Some people favor a florid or high- 
sounding style, while others advocate a condensed, almost ab- 
breviated form. As a matter of fact, each kind may have its 
" proper uses, depending upon the character of the story and its 
interpretation in the picture. The sub-title writer should en- 
deavor to sense the atmosphere and characterizations of the pic- 
ture as they are shown on the screen. He must make the titles 
fit the scenes as played, not as he thinks they should have or 
wishes they might have been portrayed. 

Sub-titles should be fitted into a picture so that, instead of 
interrupting or irritating, they help the natural flow of the story 
and add to its interest. If they are too few or too short and 
abrupt they may defeat this purpose as effectually as when they 
are too numerous or too long. Everybody knows how interest- 
ing a spoken or written story may be when told by a master and 
how flat or insipid the same tale is when related by an unskilled 

It is often much more difficult and takes more time and study 
to decide not to insert a sub-title than to write one. If a sub- 
title will not help a scene, or if one is not actually needed, it is 
safe to leave it out. It is not always as simple and easy to 
write a suitable sub-title to fit a given scene as it might seem 
to one who views the finished picture. It is much easier to 
write a long and flowery sub-title than one which is terse and 
expressive. A caption of moderate length, designed to cover 
several points, is often revised and rewritten a dozen times 
before it assumes satisfactory form. Sub-title writing has its 
nuisances as well as music and art. Words that may express 
the desired thought must sometimes be discarded because they 
are too long or unfamiliar to the average motion picture patron. 
The best captions and the most difficult to formulate are ex- 
pressed in a few words of simple, correct English devoid of 
technical or uncommon terms. 

Captions covering a considerable lapse of time should not be 
too short. There is a psychological reason for this. It may 



seem sufficient to cover a lapse of time by simply flashing "A 
Year Later" on the screen. If this short caption follows intense 
action or suspense, the audience should be given a little longer 
time in which to relax and to grasp the new thought before the 
next scene is shown. Therefore a caption containing from six 
to ten words may sway the trend of thought smoothly and 
pleasantly and without the mental wrench that the shorter caption 
might give the average person. Of course this does not apply 
when surprise is desired. 

Often spoken titles present many difficulties. Witness the 
mushy, inane speeches put into the mouths of some characters in 
love scenes — speeches such as one would never make. The 
effort should be to write spoken titles that will seem natural and 
at the same time be in keeping with the character. A speech that 
may sound all right when actually spoken, with the advantage of 
inflection and emphasis, may seem very flat when thrown upon 
the screen. 

Dialect-spoken titles are tricky and should be used sparingly. 
They are usually difficult to read and often fail to impress. Very 
few people can write any dialect with great success, especially 
for pictures. Probably no one can write all dialects satisfactorily. 

Long spoken titles should be avoided as much as possible. 
Better to have two or three short ones than a single long speech, 
provided the scene will carry more than one. As a rule it is better 
to have one sentence, worded, punctuated, and spaced to read as 
smoothly as possible. Many spoken titles containing two or more 
sentences could be condensed into one by a little thought and 
study. But brevity may be overdone. It is often easier to catch 
the sense of a well-rounded sentence than one which has been 
clipped too short. 

Title cards should be edited carefully by the title writer before 
they are photographed. The idea contained in a sub-title is often 
obscured by crowding, bad spacing, incorrect or unnecessary divi- 
sion of a word at the end of a line, (due to poor judgment on 
the part of the man who letters the cards), making the words 
hard to read or difficult to interpret readily. 

Spoken titles should not be cut into long shots if it can be 
avoided because it is often difficult to be sure which person is 
speaking. If possible, flash to a close-up of the person talking, 
cut in the title, another flash of the close-up and then back to 




the long shot. A very short piece before and after the spoken 
title will accomplish this purpose and add very little to the foot- 
age. If a close-up is not available and the spoken title is essential 
to the scene then write it so that the audience may be sure which 
person speaks. 

In writing sub-titles and also in cutting a picture keep the 
audience constantly in mind. Try to work from the point of 
view of the person who is going to look at your picture. Re- 
member that the people seeing the picture but once will not be 
as familiar with it as those who have run it over and over while 
working on it, and that the public may not catch the fine points 
that have become quite familiar or obvious to you. 

While a certain amount of latitude in language is allowable in 
spoken titles, captions should be written in good English and be 
correct grammatically. Study, analysis, judgment and experi- 
ence are as necessary in writing good sub-titles as in any other 
department of picture production. Ability to write stories, adr 
vertising copy, letters or other forms of composition does noc 
necessarily imply qualification to write satisfactory sub-titles. 

ASSEMBLING — The most difficult part of the producing of 
a motion picture is the cutting and assemhling of the print. 
Hundreds of directors are producing pictures which are really 
made in the cutting departments. If a director is a good film 
cutter and can follow the action of his picture on a pair of re- 
winders, the producer has something to be thankful for. 

Directors who can cut their own pictures are few and far 
between. D. W. Griffith, Thomas Ince, Edwin Carew, George 
Tucker and Edgar Lewis are a few great directors who cut their 
own pictures, but it has taken them years to master this art. 

The majority of directors make a child or a pet of pictures. 
To them the eliminating of this episode or that unnecessary 
scene is like cutting off the fingers or arms of a child. 

If only directors would realize that a comedy situation is over 
after the laugh and a dramatic situation, after the suspense, and 
would bring the scene to a close, pictures would be easier to cut. 

The use of close-ups in the midst of dramatic action is a mis- 
take made by many directors. 

In a certain picture a woman was roughly thrown to the floor 
and as the man's hand grasped her, the director cut to a close-up 
of the woman, thereby losing all the dramatic value and suspense 
of the scene. 




Close-ups are effective when used to depict emotion or thoughts 
and as introductions. They are necessary for switchbacks or 
suspense but should never be used when they break into dramatic 

There are few film cutters who try to cut and edit a picture 
while watching it on the screen in a projecting room dictating to 
a stenographer. Eliminating this scene, shortening that, trans- 
posing this scene or that title, they think they are cutting the 
picture properly. No man can cut a picture properly unless he 
looks at it once or twice in the projection room and then per- 
sonally goes over the entire film by hand, on a pair of re winders. 
Then when he comes to an unnecessary scene he can eliminate 
it but first he must be sure that the next scene or title will not 
break the continuity of action. If a scene drags or is too long, he 
must ponder over that scene, sometimes imaging himself one of 
the characters in order to think of a proper title. He personally 
must insert the title so that it will seem to come from the correct 
character when projected on a screen. 

Dramatic switchbacks are a physical impossibility unless a 
cutter personally arranges the scenes. If his assistant does this, 
he is the real cutter and it is mere luck if he gets the title inserted 

A film cutter must be able to write and originate comic and 
dramatic titles. He must also know the proper color schemes for 
each scene in order to cut the negatives properly when the posi- 
tive print is ready for the laboratory. 


Chapter XIII 

WHEREVER a camera has to be taken out for photograph- 
ing at a distance, great care must be taken to make 
sure no essential part of the kit is left behind. Make 
a list beforehand of everything which will be required. A good 
way of recollecting minor items of kit in danger of being over- 
looked is to act over to yourself each stage of the work before 
you, asking of every accessory : "Have I that on my list ?" Thus : 

I am going to make scenic pictures. I pack the camera in 
its case, strap up the tripod, and start. I take a taxi to the 
railroad station. (Note : Have I money to pay the taxi, and buy 
my ticket?) At my journey's end I select a good view and set the 
camera up by erecting the tripod, screwing on camera, and at- 
taching camera, tilting, and panoram handles, (Have I all three?) 
Next I focus. That means focusing celluloid. I thread up film, 
for which I require film and take-up boxes and as many spring 
clip hubs for the take-up spindles as there are charged film boxes. 
I find the exposure with my exposure meter. Now to take the 
picture. I place my hand on the camera handle, look through the 
view Under (Have I this, too?) and the filming is done. 

Write out a full list of usually required accessories and keep 
it where it can be referred to easily. The inside of camera door, 
and the top of camera case are both good places for it : Camera, 
camera handle, camera tripod, film boxes, take-up boxes, ex- 
posure meter, view finder, focusing celluloid, extra lenses, tripod 
handles, film clip hubs for take-ups, soft rag and camel-hair mop 
brush for dusting camera and lens, emery for cleaning gate, etc., 

Though good, correctly managed, lighting is a necessity of 
high quality negative making, it becomes a distinct art in scenic 
work, therefore I shall deal with it more particularly under this 
head. Three fundamental rules of lighting to bear in mind when 
photographing any subject are that the light must be sufficient, 
its quality must be actinic (it must be rich in the photographically 
active blue and violet rays) and the source of light must on no 



account shine directly in at the camera lens. Whether or not 
the first two of these rules is fulfilled can best be decided by the 
aid of an exposure meter. Decide the third j>oint by common 
sense. If the light source, usually the sun, is beating directly 
into the front glass of the lens, the lens must be shaded by 
means of a dark hood. If that is not practicable without cutting 
off a portion of the picture, the camera's position must be shifted. 
Where this also is impracticable or undesirable, and the subject 
is one which can be photographed at more than one time of day, 
select a time when the direction of the sun will have altered and 
postpone filming till then. 

To focus a dead sharp image of those objects which must be 
sharp upon the film, and to make the focusing accord with a 
near approximation of correct exposure, is a real stumbling 
block to a great number of would-be camera operators. A man 
who knows how to make focusing help exposure and exposure 
help focusing must possess both considerable practical experi- 
ence and a quantity of judgment. 

To focus correctly: 

Open the camera gate, remove film from film track and lay in 
its place a length of three or four inches of matt celluloid. 

Matt celluloid can be made from any clipping of old cinemato- 
graph film. Soak the film in warm washing soda solution till the 
emulsion softens. Qean off, and dry the cleaned base. Make 
a paste of knife powder and water, smear it on a piece of glass, 
lay the transparent celluloid down upon the paste and rub the 
film in the emery by placing your fingers on the back and rubbing 
with a circular motion. After a short while the celluloid will no 
longer be transparent on the side that has been scratched. It is 
then suitable for a focusing screen. 

Next close gate firmly upon the matt celluloid, adjust focusing 
tube and magnifier tight up in place, open light shutter of focus- 
ing tube, place your eye to the end of it and, unless the rotary 
camera shutter is cutting the light from gate, you will see a more 
or less clear image thrown by the lens. If no trace of an image 
is visible a slight turning of the camera handle will make it so. 

Turn the lens focusing flange, or rack, till the image becomes 
quite sharp and then begins to become less sharp again. Then 
reverse turning direction of the focusing adjustment till the 
image once more sharpens up to its best. In this way, the point 



of critical sharpness for the particular object focused upon is 
found. If at first you have difficulty in deciding the critical 
point, get a large white card and stick upon it criss-cross strips 
of dead black paper. Stand the card up against the object you 
are focusing. Black bars on a white ground are easiest of all 
things to focus clearly. 

Always do your focusing with the lens diaphragm open at its 
widest aperture. Take careful note of the apparent brightness 
of the picture produced, as practice in this will help you a little 
in judging exposure should you ever be called upon to do so 
when you have not your meter with you. 

Notice that objects nearer to, and probably also objects farther 
from, the lens than the one focused upon are not sharp on the 
celluloid but are fuzzy. 

To focus other objects with the principal object: 
' The object is not merely to focus a single subject sharp but 
to adjust the lens at the same time so as to get reasonable sharp- 
ness of objects both before and behind it. 

The method is the same whether we want subsidiary sharp- 
ness in objects nearer or farther off than the principal one. 

To focus a good compromise between principal and nearer 
objects, first get principal object critically sharp, then rack out 
the lens very slightly until a barely perceptible falling off in the 
principal object is seen. 

To focus principal and farther objects get principal sharp and 
rack lens slightly in. 

The amount of racking out or in to make correct compensa- 
tion for depth of stage is very slight. Where possible follow it 
by substantially reducing lens aperture. Always compensate for 
depth first and reduce aperture afterwards. 

One of the greatest difficulties encountered by the photog- 
rapher, whether he wields a still camera or turns the crank of a 
motion picture box, is that of exposure. 

Gelatine emulsions are of different speeds and latitudes and 
subject to deterioration. The celluloid base from which motion 
picture film is made and which is also extensively used for film 
cartridges, film packs and as cut films, reacts upon the emulsion 
and causes it to gradually lose its sensitive qualities in much more 
rapid ratio than that of emulsions coated upon glass. 

An emulsion records the amount of light which acts upon it 



in a definite mathematical ratio, but one emulsion may be ** faster" 
than another. For example, if two plates or pieces of film are 
taken, one of which is twice as fast as the other, and both are 
exposed for a short time at equal distance from a standard 
candle, the faster emulsion will show a much greater density on 
development than the slower one. If, however, the slower one 
is exposed twice as long the two pieces will have equal density. 

It is highly important in making tests of any character in 
photography that every factor in making relative tests be re- 
produced exactly or the results obtained will be false. 

Development, time and temperature must be controlled exactly, 
fresh standard developer being used for each test as it dete- 
riorates with use ; fixing, washing and drying times and tempera- 
tures must also be the same. A test made in cold developer and 
another in warm easily give rise to false conclusions in regard 
to the speed of a film or plate. Many photographers have been 
grievously misled in their conclusions in regard to materials by 
inaccurate tests. 

Inasmuch as different emulsions require different developing 
times to record gradations of light in their true ratio, it is 
necessary to make preliminary tests to ascertain the development 
time where it is not given by the maker. 

Where photometric instruments are not at hand for accurate 
tests the simplest method of arriving at the proper development 
time is to expose a strip of film giving relative exposures of 1,2 
and 4. Cut the film lengthwise in three strips. If you think five 
minutes to be about the normal development time, develop the 
three strips 4, 5 and 6 minutes respectively. If you have been 
lucky in your assumptions as to the speed and time, one of the 
nine permutations obtained will be correctly exposed and de- 
veloped, giving a basis for farther experiment. If the nine per- 
mutations are all too dense, the exposures have been too long. 
Try again with shorter exposures; if there is much fog or stain, 
the development may have been too long. Try again with 
shorter development. If the strongest exposure and longest de- 
velopment is the best of the nine, try again with longer exposure 
and longer development times. 

Many methods have been worked out for determining proper 
exposure. The following data is largely taken from material 
collected by A. Horsley Hinton, formerly editor of the Amateur 



The principal factors governing exposure are: (i) the speed 
of the plate; (2) the actinic power of the sun's light for the 
time of year in a given latitude and its position at the particular 
time of the day; (3) the effective diaphragm aperture of the 
lens; (4) the nature of the subject and its illumination as affected 
by local and atmospheric conditions. With others these data are 
supplemented by, and practically based upon, actino-metric ob- 
servations of the action of the light upon sensitive paper exposed 
near the camera or the subject at the time. Both methods are 
in many cases of undoubted use, but the information given by 
instruments of this kind can only be considered as approximate, 
and much is left to the judgment of the operator, whose surest 
guide will be an intelligent study of the principles on which these 
instruments are based, together with carefully recorded ob- 
servations of the combined working of his lenses, shutters, plates 
and methods of development under the varying conditions of 
practical work. Before using any of these instruments it is 
necessary to know approximately the relative sensitiveness or 
"speed" of the plate or film in use. In the early days of gelatine 
dry plates their rapidities were stated as so many times those 
of wet plates, or (as they are still) "ordinary," "instantaneous," 
"rapid," or "extra-rapid," terms which, though suitable for one 
make of plate, may not be so for others. 

In 1890, F. Hurter and V. C. Driffield introduced an entirely 
new system of calculating the sensitiveness of plates of different 
rapidities. They make a series of exposures in seconds on dif- 
ferent parts of the plate in geometrical progression with a stand- 
ard candle at one meter distance. After development for a 
certain fixed period with a standard developer, fixing, washing 
and drying, the "densities" or logarithms of the opacities of the 
different parts are measured by a special photometer and plotted 
on a skeleton diagram, producing a curve, one portion of which 
will be practically a straight line. (See the chapter on Negative 
Development). The position of this line with reference to a 
scale of exposures given on the diagram decides the rapidity 
of the plate, while its length indicates the "capacity" of the plate 
for truthful rendering of tone. 

It is to be deplored that no universally recognized system of 
speed numbers has been brought into use, nearly every maker 
of films and plates having some system of his own which bears 
no relation to that used by other manufacturers. 



The H. and D. system is probably the most scientific one. 

The sensitiveness shown on the H. and D, scale is directly 
proportional to the speed number given. The method has been 
adopted by several dry-plate makers in denoting the sensitive- 
ness of their different brands, and is more or less the basis on 
which the plate-speeds for the modern dry-plate actinometers 
and exposure meters are calculated. 

Variation in daylight without clouds from morning until 
evening (for latitude of Northern United States) : 





January 3^ 4 5 12 

February 2 2J/^ 3 4 10 

March iH 13^ iH 2 3 6 

April VA IH IH 1^ 2 3 

May 1 1 1 V4 VA lA 

June 1 1 1 1 V4 2 

July 1 1 1 1% lA 2A 

August 1% lA lA iy2 2 3 

September lA lA 1^ 2 3 6 

October 2 2A 3 4 10 

November 3^ 4 5 12 

December 4A 5 6 







The next important factor is the actinic power of the light. 
It depends normally on the height of the sun for the latitude of 
the place at the time when the photograph is taken, and exposures 
in bright sunlight are found to vary approximately as the con- 
secant of the sun's altitude above the horizon. The light of 
the sun itself is practically the same at any given time and place 
year after year, but is liable to more or less local and temporary 
diminution by the amount of cloud, haze, dust, etc., present in the 
atmosphere at the time. It is also affected by the time of day, 
increasing from sunrise to noon, and then decreasing to sunset. 
The remaining factor is the effective diaphragm aperture of the 
lens in relation to its focal length. In most cases of ordinary 
out-door exposures this can be taken at its normal value, but 



becomes smaller and increases exposure if the focal length is 
much increased for photographing- near objects. Besides these 
principal factors, the nature and color of the objects, their 
distance and the amount of light received and reflected by them 
under various atmospheric conditions, have a great influence on 
the exposure required. 





rcRc/^Y CLASSES or subjects. 





iUS^2pM2 25 4 8 16 32 64 

^ fmyks 



5^ 6-3 8 11 IB 71 32 

n I M I 




( MJ_J_ 

I »r< I I I I I 


l« I I 


( [..[' !*l..K II I I I 1 

(^ 1*^1 I I I I I I I i | 

( '.!JJ..iJ.. ' L-Li.Jj | 

C*.LiJ..J._i .1.1..!. ' 4 





iro RACCS AT too 
' I rCCT 

■ RC ' 


RNS , 





^-^i^l-M®**^ *""•• "" «CONO 








WITH a TIMCS riLTCfl use t-tAROCN 
STOP. * 



STOPS GiwrN --' 


' *WD I 







. OUL C 

Fig. 42 

The American Photography Exposure Tables are the most 
convenient and practical help in determining the correct exposure 
for any subject, in any part of the world. An edition has been 
carefully revised to include all the films and plates on the Ameri- 
can market. In every instance the speed has been determined 
by scientific tests by a renowned expert. The tables assign to 
each factor concerned in exposure — subject, stop, light, hour 
and plate — a number. These are found in the tables and added. 
No multiplication is necessary. The sum is then looked out on 



a final table, and opposite this number is found the exposure in 
fractions of a second, minutes or hours. 

Based on the same principle as these exposure tables, various 
portable exposure meters have been brought out, in which scales 
representing the coefficients for plate-speed, light and diaphragm 
are arranged as in a slide rule, so that, when properly set, the 
normal exposure required can be found by inspection, and in- 
creased or diminished according to circumstances. 

The Harvey meter and the Burroughs & Wellcome meter and 
handbook are for sale by every photographic supply house. 

The Watkin's Kinematograph meter is fitted with a pendulum 
for counting half seconds and crank turns. It is made especially 
for motion picture operators and is about the size of a small 
watch. It gives a direct reading showing either the shutter 
opening or diaphragm number required under the given condi- 
tions. It is sold by Burke & James, Chicago, as are the Wynne 
meters described below. 

G. F. Wynne's "Infallible" exposure meter is also in dial form, 
but the sensitive paper is exposed directly, no pendulum is used, 
and the scales are open on the dial. In use, the glass carrying 
the movable scale is turned until the actinometer time in seconds 
upon the exposure scale is opposite the diaphragm number of 
the plate, as given in the list of plate speeds ; the correct ex- 
posure will then be found against each stop given on the scale. 
There are practically only two scales ; the scale of diaphragms 
representing the diaphragm or f numbers, the speed of plate 
and the variation of exposure due to subject; and 
the time scale, representing the actinometer time and 
the exposure. The actinometer is protected by a yel- 
low glass screen when not in use. In a smaller form the scales 
are on the circumference of a locket, and the actinometer at 
the back. An "Infallible" Printmeter is also made for showing 
exposures in contact printing on sensitive papers, but can also 
be used for testing speeds of plates and papers. Beck's 
"Zambex" Exposure Meter gives the exposure and stop to be 
used, also the depth of focus to be obtained with different 
diaphragm apertures. The required exposure is set to the 
"speed" number on the next scale of the meter. The third 
scale corresponds tb the times of darkening the sensitive paper 
in the actinometer attached to the meter, and shows the dia- 



phragm aperture suitable for the given exposure. Other scales 
show the distances that will be in focus with the different stops 
used, arranged so that the focal depth of four different lenses 
can be found. Several other exposure meters are made on the 
principle of the slide rule, with scale corresponding to the factors 
of "plate speed," "diaphragm number," "light," "exposure," and 
the exposure is found by simple inspection without an actino- 
meter. They are designed for use with particular brands of 
plates, but can be used for others of similar speeds. 

The last types of meters described depend for their light 
measurement upon matching a tint or shade, a rather difficult 
matter for most persons. A new instrument based on the same 
principle, but which does not require the tint to be matched, is 
the Steadman Aabameter. It may be obtained from any photo 
supply dealer. It consists of a series of graduated openings 
which give a ratio of exposure upon a strip of sensitized paper 
in the progression of i, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16. The number of grada- 
tions recorded in a given time gives the light strength and refer- 
ence to a simple chart tabulated on a card, and gives the proper 
exposure at a glance. 

Another class of exposure meters comprises those in which the 
intensity of the light is estimated visually by extinction through a 
semi-transparent medium of increasing intensity, such as J. 
Decoudin's, in which the exposure is judged by the disappearance 
of a series of small clear openings on a graduated scale of den- 
sities when laid on the most important part of the image as seen 
on the ground-glass. Its indications are not very definite, and 
the proper scale changes in density after a time. A better form 
is "E. Degen's Normal Photometer," consisting of two sliding 
violet glass prisms, one adjusted for the diaphragm ap^ertures, 
the other for the actinic illumination of the object. They are 
mounted with their outer faces parallel. 

In use the upper slide with prism is drawn out so that the 
pointer coincides with the division indicating the diaphragm aper- 
ture to be used: the object to be photographed is then viewed 
directly through openings at one end of the instrument, and the 
lower slide is drawn out and pushed back slowly till the object 
viewed is almost obscured. The attached pointer will then in- 
dicate the exposure required, or, reversing the order, the dia- 
phragm aperture for a given exposure can be found. Auxiliary 



scales are attached for very short or very long exposures. The 
principle of construction is that the logarithms of the times of 
exposure are proportional to the thickness of the colored prisms. 
"G. Heyde's Actino- Photometer" is on a somewhat similar prin- 
cipal, and consists of a circular metal box with dark violet glass 
viewing screens in the center of both sides, with obscuring iris 
inside the case worked by revolving the back of the box. On 
the front of the instrument exposure tables are given for plates 
of every rapidity, and for diaphragm apertures from f/3 to f/45. 
Exposure meters of this type are specially applicable for open- 
air work where there is sufficient light for ready measurement. 

Practically all of the commercially sold meters give the ex- 
posure in a manner suitable for still camera work, which is 
seldom convenient for the cinematographer. 

The following table gives the diaphragm number and shutter 
opening graduated from the exposures usually given for still 
camera work. Where longer exposures are recorded for still 
cameras it is not possible to get full exposure with the motion 
camera. It is understood that the calculation originally made 
with the meter is for a still camera using plates of the same 
relative speed as cine emulsion, which is as fast as the fastest 
plates ordinarily used in stand cameras, the only exception being 
the ultra-fast plates sometimes used for Graflex work. 

Table of Comparative Exposures for Still and Motion Cameras. 

sec. sec. sec. sec. sec. sec sec. 

Still camera at fl6 1 1/2 1/4 1/8 1/16 1/32 1/48 

Motion camera : 

5^ opening shutter F3.5 F4 F5.6 F8 Fll FI6 F22 

^ opening shutter F3.5 F4 F5.6 FS Fll FI6 

H opening shutter F3.5 F4 F 5.6 FS Fll 

for ys opening shutter the diaphragm should be set half way 
between the reading for the ,J^ opening and the reading for 
J4 opening. 

With a little calculation almost any reliable exposure tables 
may be usfed for the motion picture camera. As the shutter re- 
volves sixteen times per second it requires one-sixteenth second 
for the shutter to turn once ; if it has an opening which is one- 
half of the circumference the exposure given is one-half of 



one-sixteenth or one-thirty-second; a one-third opening, one- 
forty-eighth, etc. Now the diaphragm numbers on a lens, 
whether they be U. S. or F system, are arranged so that each 
higher number gives just half the exposure of the one below it. 
Also, U. S. i6 and F i6 are equal. Now let us figure: Suppose 

An exposure chart for motion picture work is given here. 
F system is used. 

Month and Weather 











Nov., Dec. 

Bright Sun 

Hazy Sun 

Diffused light . . . 










Very Dull 

Feb., Oct. 

Bright Sun 

Hazy Sun 

Diffused light . . . 













Very Dull 

Mar., Apr., 
Aug., Sept. 

Bright Sum 

Hazy Sun 

Diffused light . . . 

















Very Dull 

May, June, 

Bright Sun 

Hazy Sun 

Diffused light . . . 

















Very Dull 

our table of exposure says that under the conditions that obtain 
where we wish to work that the normal exposure is one-fourth 
second at U. S. thirty-two. The next lower stop is U. S. i6, 
which is twice as fast, therefore, at U. S. i6 we can expose in 
one-eighth second. Now our cinematograph lens is perhaps 
marked in the F system. F ii is next below F i6 with an ex- 
pMDsure of one-sixteenth second. The most we can give is one- 
thirty-two second with our shutter as far open as we can use it, 
we must open our diaphragm still further in order to get enough 
light through our lens to make the picture in one-thirty-two 



seconds. F 8 is the next diaphragm number giving an exposure 
in half the time as F ii ; one-half of one-sixteenth is one-thirty- 
two, therefore, if we set the diaphragm at F 8 and turn at normal 
speed we will have a correctly exposed negative. 

In regard to exposure in back lighting : In calculating exposure 
for back lighting it is usual to calculate the exposure for the 
lower tones in the picture, as the high lights where the sun 
strikes are always over-exposed. It is practically always neces- 
sary to use a lens hood or some sort of shield to protect the lens 
from the direct rays of the sun. When the sun sets low enough 
to be included in the picture it is then usually too dark for back 
lighting, and the effect then becomes either silhouette or moon- 
light effect. It is customary in most back lighting effects to 
light up the shadows by an inclined reflector placed between the 
foreground and the camera. Back lighting generally takes two 
to four times the exposure necessary in the same light when 
used in direct lighting. 

This chart is calculated to give full shadow detail, at sea level, 
42° North Latitude. 

For altitudes up to 5,ocx) feet no change need be made. From 
5,000 to 8,000 feet take ^ of the time in the table. From 8,000 
to 12,000 feet use }^ of the exposures in the table. 

Exposure for average landscapes with light foreground, river 
scenes, light colored buildings, monuments, snow scenes with 
trees in foreground. The data compiled for use with Eastman's 
standard motion picture film and cemeras with 50 per cent 
shutter opening. 

The exposures given are approximately correct, but usable 
negatives can be obtained with 3^ and Y^ less time where it is 
not possible to give more on account of small apertured lens or 
34 opening shutter. Allowance should be made, however, for 
smaller shutter opening whenever possible. 

Forty-two degrees North Latitude is that of New York and 
the Northern States. For Southern Canada use next larger 
sized stop and in the winter months perhaps two sizes larger. 
For Southern California, Florida and the Southern States, the 
next size smaller will be sufficient generally except in the early 
morning and late evening hours, when the opening shall be ac- 
cording to the chart or even increased. When the light is red 
or yellow where the indicated stop numbers are underlined, the 



diaphragm opening must be increased to the next or even to 
the second or third opening beyond that indicated by the chart. 

The numbers given in the chart indicate the diaphragm open- 
ing necessary under the F system, which is the system used in 
marking the diaphragm opening on nearly all cinematograph 
lenses. They are F 3.5, F 4, F5.6, F 8, F 11, F 16, F22, F 32 — 
each succeeding number in this series giving one-half the expos- 
ure of the one preceding. Other intermediate numbers are some- 
times given, but not often, and may be disregarded practically 
when using this chart. In the following clas.sifica'tion of subjects, 
the diaphragm opening should be modified from the one given in 
the chart according to the direction given after each class. 

For example, we wish to make a picture in June, at four 
o'clock in the afternoon, of some red brick building on a hazy 
day. Under June we look in the hazy sun column and opposite 
the time we find the exposure to be F 16. For this classification 
the increase is two points, or F 8. 

Subjects — For other subjects modify the exposure for an 
average landscape as given for the class of subject. 

Class A — Studies of sky and white clouds. Decrease opening 
three points. 

Class B — Open views of sea and sky ; very distant landscapes ; 
studies of rather heavy clouds ; sunset and sunrise studies. De- 
crease opening two points. 

Class C — ^Open landscapes without foreground; open beach, 
harbor and shipping scenes ; yachts under sail ; very light colored 
objects; studies of dark clouds; snow scenes with no dark ob- 
jects ; most tele-photo-subjects outdoors ; wooded hills not far dis- 
tant from lens. Decrease opening one point. 

Class D — Landscapes with medium foreground ; landscapes in 
fog or mist ; buildings showing both sunny and shady sides ; well 
lighted street scenes; persons, animals and moving objects at 
least thirty feet away from the camera. Increase opening one 

Class E — Landscapes with heavy foreground; buildings or 
trees occupying most of the picture; brook scenes with heavy 
foliage ; shipping about the docks ; red brick buildings and other 
dark objects; group outdoors in the shade. Increase opening 
two points. 



Class F — Portraits outdoors in the shade; very dark near 
objects, particularly when the image of the object nearly fills 
the film and full-shadow detail is required. Increase opening 
three points. 

Class G — Badly lighted river banks, ravines, glades and under 
the trees. Wood interiors not open to the sky. Increase open- 
ing four to five points. For back lighting and Rembrandt ef- 
fects, give an additional increase of one more point than indicated 
by the classification. 

Subjects which require openings much greater than afforded 
by the lens used should not be attempted or the film is only 


Chapter XIV 

TWELVE years ago there were probably only five studios 
for the production of films where there are now more than 
one hundred. The large amount of money which has 
been made in this industry and the possibilities of future profits 
have drawn capital for the formation of new enterprises from 
various sources, and with the creation of so many new companies, 
competition has become keen, and the cost of producing films has 
become an important factor. 

In the making of a picture the costs may roughly be divided 
into: cost of raw film; interest and depreciation charges on 
buildings and equipment; salaries of directors, actors and me- 
chanics ; cost of developing and printing, and the cost of lighting. 

Just what relation these various costs bear to one another is 
doubtful, but it has been stated that completed films cost to 
make anywhere from 50c. to $5.00 a foot, the average being 
approximately $2.00 per foot. 

The raw film itself costs about 33/2 cents per foot 
for the negative and 3 cents per foot for the positive. 
Naturally the highest cost is for labor, and in this respect the 
moving picture industry does not differ materially from many 
other manufacturing processes. Any manner in which labor 
costs can be kept down and labor utilized to its fullest capacity, 
is bound to decrease the cost of the film and increase the profits 
of the manufacturer. 

One item which tends to help utilize labor to its fullest extent 
is proper light. The first maxim in the studio is that "no picture 
can be made without proper light and plenty of it." Sufficient 
light has to be provided, whether it be daylight or artificial light, 
to take clear pictures in approximately 1/50 of a second. They 
must be taken with detail, as they are projected to a magnifica- 
tion of about 150 diameters on the screen, and the public is be- 
coming more and more critical regarding proper definition of the 
subject projected. 

The stop used is generally about f 4.5 with a 2-inch lens, and 



if there is not an abundance of light, the picture will not be satis- 
factory when the camera is working at the required speed. 

The indoor studios depended on daylight for their lighting 
by the use of glass skylights ; later, studios were constructed not 
only with overhead lighting, but with the sides also of glass. 
Even under these conditions, on rainy or cloudy days, or about 
three o'clock in the afternoon during the autumn and winter 
months, the daylight available was insufficient to produce good 

At about this period the Cooper-Hewitt Lamp had been de- 
veloped, and its high actinic values were justly appreciated by 
the few studio managers who were then in the business, and an 
installation of these lamps was made in 1905 at the Biograph 
Company's original studio on 14th Street, New York City. 
From this installation has come the practical development of the 
Cooper-Hewitt Lamps for the moving picture stage. 

Few people who see the films on the screen appreciate what 
has to be done to take even the simplest scene, after a scenario 
has been accepted by a company and turned over to the director 
who is the successor of the stage manager. The actors must 
be selected for the various parts and given instructions ; scenery 
must be found for the setting, or if necessary, new flats, etc., 
painted, and erected on the stage. The necessary "props" must 
be obtained, and after rehearsing the scene time and again until 
the producer is satisfied, he calls for "Lights" and then for 
"Camera," and the picture is taken. Fifty or sixty feet of film, 
which require about one minute to photograph, may have taken 
two or three hours to rehearse. All scenes occurring in the 
same set are generally taken one after another irrespective of 
how they occur in the scenario, and after developing, the sec- 
tions of the films are jointed together in their proper places. 

The importance of light is emphasized by the statement that 
no matter how good the scenario may be, or how well it may 
be worked up, the result of the efiforts of the producer and 
actors will not register clearly and accurately on the film if the 
action is not properly lighted. 

One of the most efficient ways to light a stage either wholly 
dependent on artificial light or using it in conjunction with day- 
light is by means of Cooper-Hewitt Lamps arranged in banks, 
say, eight tubes. Each of these banks throws a mass of light 



upon the scene similar to that from a fair size window or 

The Cooper-Hewitt Lamp is particularly desirable for this 
class of work on account of the great actinic power of the light ; 
for equal illumination, it being about the same as daylight. Also 
the fact that the light comes from a long tube in place of being 
concentrated in a small point, ensures thorough diffusion of the 
light and gives a lighting effect similar to daylight. The light 
blends with daylight, and where used in a daylight studio can 
gradually be added as the daylight decreases. 

Even with two or three hundred lamps on a stage there is very 
little glare, and no harmful effects are produced on the eyes of 
the actors. Furthermore, even with this large amount of light, 
the temperature of the stage is only slightly raised above the 
surrounding atmosphere. This is a most important point to 
be considered in taking pictures, and especially in fairly long 
scenes, as the fatigue produced by an excess of light will pre- 
vent the players from putting forth their best efforts. 

Lamps are frequently arranged in skylights for hanging from 
the ceiling to provide top light, and floor stands are added to 
take care of the side lighting and reinforce the lighting at special 
points to obtain the best effects. By properly arranging the 
lights around the sides of the stage and overhead, modeling 
effects can be produced which do away with the flat pictures apt 
to result from improper lighting. 

As an instance of the manner of lighting a studio for large 
stage work, we may take a stage of about 32 ft. deep. In a 
typical installation of this type there are 208 tubes, 136 for over- 
head lighting and 32 for high side lighting, with 48 mounted in 
floor stands for moving about to throw the light from one side 
and towards the front. 

The overhead lamps are arranged in the following manner — 
Eight tubes in two banks are hung approximately 8 ft. over the 
front line, at an angle of about .30 degrees inclined toward the 
stage ; back of these lamps are hung three banks of eight lamps, 
each at the same angle, and this idea is carried out so that at 
the back line there are four banks, at about 18 ft. above the 
'stage, this fan-shaped method being essential to cover the stage. 
On one side are four hanging banks which are inclined 45 degrees, 
throwing the light in on the stage. No lamps are placed op- 




posite to these, for the reason that if the illumination was 
equalized the picture would photograph flat. The floor-stands 
are placed at various positions to get light in on the stage to 
light up spots where the top and side lighting do not reach and 
to produce artistic modeling. 

The overhead lamps in this studio are all suspended from a 
trolley system which permits the lamps to be removed from one 
end of the studio to the other, and cover in this manner three 
different stages. By this method scenes can be set up on two 
stages while pictures are being taken on the third, and no time 
is lost between the taking of the scenes. 

The overhead structure for this work consists of three tracks 
running the entire length of the studio. On this track are run 
a number of grooved wheels which are linked together by three 
angle iron frames. From these three frames are suspended by 
chains, the skylight banks and their auxiliaries or starting ap- 
paratus. The iron frames are controlled by endless wire cables 
running from one end of the studio to the other, and which are 
connected to winches, so that the overhead frames can be moved 
about very readily, when desired, by turning the handles. 

The wiring is run to a panel board, mounted at one side of the 
studio, and this panel is arranged so that all of the lamps can be 
thrown on at one time, or by a system of double throw switches, 
by throwing certain switches, any number of the lamps can be 
left on, the balance thrown off, or vice versa. This arrange- 
ment permits the dimming of lights for night scenes, or by throw- 
ing on all, gives the impression of the sun coming up, or the 
turning on of lights in a room. 

In addition to Cooper-Hewitt Lamps a studio should have a 
number of arc lamps, several spot lights, which can be used in con- 
junction with the tube lamps for spot lighting effects. More- 
over, arc lamps are used for fireplace lighting, table lamps, and 
other special effects. 

Arc lights are also often used without the admixture of Cooper- 
Hewitts, as many effects can be produced with them which can- 
not be obtained with the diffuse illumination from the mercury 
tubes. The following paragraphs about "hard" lights are an ab- 
stract from a pap^r on "White Light for Motion Picture Photog- 
raphy," delivered before the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 
by William Roy Mott, of the Research Laboratory of the Na- 
tional Carbon Company, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio. 



The famous psychologist, Professor Munsterberg, wrote a few 
years ago a book on moving pictures and in it he asserted that the 
production of moving pictures by the best companies had grad- 
uated as an art ranking with painting, sculpture and music. By 
attention to mode and variation of lighting, many new psycho- 
logical appeals can be made, including the portraying of the 
thought images in the minds of the characters of the play, some- 
thing impossible to duplicate on the theatre stage. 

Besides being one of the fine arts, the moving picture art has 
become the greatest educational institution in the world. Very 
special lighting is needed for scientific films, for ultra-rapid 
moving picture work and for the several new color processes. 

The moving picture industry is one of our foremost industries. 
Since Edison's and Jenkin's invention of moving picture devices 
of only a score or so years ago, the industry has leaped to fourth 
place in the United States. There is spent annually three or 
four hundred million dollars by the people here for admission to 
moving picture theatres. The daily attendance is said to average 
between ten and twenty millions of people. Of the fifty" 
thousand motion picture houses in the world, there are about 
twenty thousand in the United States and the United States is 
the greatest producing center in the world. The sunshine of 
California has built up a major producing center in and near 
Los Angeles. There over twelve million dollars are spent an- 
nually for this production and about twenty-five thousand people 
are employed. 

The importance of light in relation to expense of production 
may be judged from the following statement made by Mr. G. 
McL. Baynes of the English Hepworth Manufacturing Company. 
"As to photographic difficulties encountered in outdoor work 
in England, it is ridiculous to say that they cannot make pictures 
there. It is true production is more expensive, perhaps tzvice 
as much, because we have to wait for the sunshine." Thus in 
foggy England, the difficulties are much greater on account of 
poor light than in the West or East of the United States. 

The invention of the high average white flame arc lamps and 
carbons and of other artificial light sources such as the daylight 
gas filled tungsten lamps and the mercury arc lamps, have elimi- 
nated these expensive waits for sunshine. 

The home-center of the moving picture industry in the East is 



again building up rapidly. There new studios are to be found, 
especially in or near New York City and to a lesser degree near 
other centers of population, in Chicago, Philadelphia, Qeveland. 
Scenic interest is another industrial factor which accounts for 
their location in Ithaca and Florida. 

The increase in artificial light facilities has been an important 
economic factor in this Eastern movement which is being ac- 
celerated by the continual increase in the extraordinary salaries 
which are paid moving picture artists. The cost of production 
of an average negative of one reel is said to be about $i,ooo, 

iclc Line 


Fig. 43 

Plan of Moving Picture Stage showing increased depth of 

and of this it is certainly economy to spend one or two per cent, 
on securing the best lighting. 

The lighting differences between the theatre stage and movie 
stage are illustrated by Fig. 44 which shows the theatre stage has 
a broad front line, below which come the footlights and a very 
shallow background, because the essential action of the stage 
must be visible to every one in the audience on both sides of the 
auditorium. On the other hand, the moving picture photog- 
rapher can select any point of view and this necessarily has an 
enlarging background in the usual case of real scenery. The 
camera lines in the ground view (Fig. 43) represent limits outside 
which the lighting units must be placed, except for trick flame 
lamps used to imitate lanterns and house lamps. In the vertical 
plane exactly the same rule must be followed in regard to in- 
creasing light of overhead lamps for the background. The ex- 



cellent results from footlights has not yet been appreciated by 
moving picture artists. 

Motion pictures became commercially successful for entertain- 
ments only when it became possible to select a subject, stage it 
with all the startling realism of the spoken drama and give its 
photography those qualities perhaps best connoted by the term, 

Fig. 44 

Floor plan showing theatre stage is very shallow, and has a 
decreasing width of Back-Ground. 

For portraiture effects — Rembrandt, line lighting, etc., control 
of the position, direction and diffusion of light is necessary. 
Some lighting forming an oblique angle on the face to the camera 
gives increased reflection and aids in preventing flatness. For 
artistic results, the white flame arc is distinctly superior for 
securing modeling, atmosphere, definition, half-tone and fine 
photographic quality in the negatives. 

Mr. Max Mayers, in his valuable paper on "Artificial Light in 
the Motion Picture Studio," given before the Society of Motion 
Picture Engineers, says, "Back lighting is a splendid way of 
obtaining pleasing and natural results. This is effected by plac- 
ing the lights well back and directing them toivard but not at the 
camera, masking the direct rays at the lamp, and preferably using 
a shielding tube with perfectly dull black interior over the lens 



barrel, to prevent halation. Thus the figures and objects in the 
set will be silhouetted, and by the proper front arrangement of 
reflecting surfaces and well diffused lights at a fair distance, 
the features and details may be perfectly modeled in shadow, 
with pleasing highlight relief effected by the rear lights." 

456 7^9 10 12345678 

Time in Hours • 

Fig. 45 
Average daily variation for June and December. 

A large amount of light is required in moving picture work, 
because of the short exposures (1/30 to 1/50 sec.) and need 
for definition. In the interest of definition and depth of focus 
it is highly desirable to work at small lens opening. For instance, 
with the white flame arc lights f 5.6 is often used in moving 
picture studios whereas f 4.5 and even f 3.5 have been recom- 
mended with other sources of artificial light. Some of the flame 



lamps, with their reflectors and diffusing screens, can be used 
to give a light intensity of 10,000 and more candles per square 
foot, so that even daylight is surpassed, if so desired. 

We will now consider daylight. The larger the number of 
days of good, clear sunshine, the lower is the cost of moving 
picture production, because of the saving of time of high salaried 
artists. But little has been done as yet to use artificial light in 
conjunction with outdoor scenes for which daylight is ideal 
except for the interruption of the photography by dark, cloudy 
days. In England some use of arc lamps has been made for 
outdoor scenes. Even on consecutive clear days there may be 
a large variation in actinic light as shown in Fig. 45. 

For interior scenes daylight must be diffused to avoid out- 
door appearances caused by the direct shadows from sunlight. 
This diffusion is secured by using prism glass in the roof and 
sides of studios. If the studio work for interior scenes is done 
outdoors then awnings of light-sheeting or muslin are used to 
secure proper diffusion. This is sometimes done in studios with 
glass roofs, especially if clear glass has been used. 

A serious objection to daylight in such studios is the hot-house 
effect, especially in summer. As these glass houses receive con- 
tinuously one to two-horsepower of solar energy per square 
yard of projected area normal to the light, the heating effect is 
many times greater than with good artificial light alone, because 
the full amount of artificial light is used intermittently and 
seldom for more than a total of an hour a day. 

The artificial light, used generally for side illumination, with 
daylight should be given by the light of the greatest photographic 
power in proportion to the energy liberated in the studio. For 
this reason flame arcs are commonly used with daylight. In 
the winter daylight is rather poor after penetrating the glass 
and screening and so dependence is then largely placed on arti- 
ficial light. 

This seasonal variation and hourly variation of sunlight and 
skylight is shown in Fig. 46, taken from Eder's Handbuch der 
Photographic. Again the changing direction of sunlight has 
been a serious objection and the studio, known as the Black 
Maria, of the Edison Company was arranged on wheels so that 
it could be moved to face the light. 

Finally there is one class of interior scenes for which daylight 




























































•— • 




in any form is entirely unsatisfactory. This is in night scenes, 
where sharp shadows and brightly illuminated parts must come 
in the same picture. Again all moving picture work in actual 
interiors such as subways, mines, caves, hotels, theatres, churches, 
etc., must be done with artificial light. This brings us to the 
vital importance of artificial hghts. And of these the closest 
to daylight photographically is the light of the while flame high 
amperage arc lamps. 






£jy^^?e /<9S4 



































' y 

' a s /o // /£ / a J ^'^Jls 

Fig. 46 
Daily variation of photographic light with daylight. 

The white flame high amperage arc gives a light which is re- 
markably close to daylight both in color and photographic values. 
Like daylight the spectrum is not entirely continuous, but the 
effect of being practically continuous is obtained by the enormous 
number of light giving lines in every part of the spectrum, in- 
cluding the ultra-violet which with the white flame arc is very 
similar to that given by sunlight. 

This duplication of daylight is so good and the intensity of 
light is so great that this light is being used by large clothing 
concerns as a reliable substitute for daylight in making dye 
fading tests. In fifty hours of testing with the flame arc, dyes 
are faded to the same degree as by about three weeks of ordinary 



daylight in June in Cleveland. The white flame arc is also used 
for color matching. 

It is a part of the higher management of moving picture pro- 
ducers to give the actors and actresses a background of reality 
and not of ghastly unreality. Producers favor the use of music 
to lend realism and to create a desired emotion. "The living in- 
terpreter must have the living scene to do his best." 

It is now a recognized fact that pleasant scenes need pleasant 
light. White light is the best for ordinary drama and comedy. 
A blue or blue-green light is especially good for very sad scenes, 
such as death-bed scenes. Mr. Edward L. Simons at a time 
even before the use of flame arcs, pointed out the eflPect of blue- 
green light on the actors by saying ''but without the arc lamp, 
it would be pretty hard to go through a real love scene, because 
everybody would look sick." Hence the value of the red content 
of the white light is of great importance to moving picture pro- 
ductions. AltKough photographically of no value for ordinary 
purposes, it is of value in giving the artists a suitable environ- 
ment for their best artistic expression. When film is sensitized 
to long wave lengths then the red and yellow light are important. 

A few hints here about "make-up." The moving picture artist 
soon learns that red will photograph black because the ordinary 
film is not sensitive to red light. For this reason the make- 
up should be light, little rouge being used. Gold teeth or fillings 
will photograph dark. An excessive amount of white clothing 
should be avoided as this may give rise to halation which results 
in a blur. Hence yellow, gray and other colors of clothes are 
used. This halation needs to be watched carefully with the 
lights having low latitude on plates. This means the picture 
will show parts highly lighted and dimly lighted with clear 

In regard to film sensitiveness the ordinary moving picture film 
has a maximum sensitiveness in the violet with considerable sen- 
sitiveness in the blue and ultra-violet and much less in the green 
and yellow and no sensitiveness in the red. Some moving 
picture laboratories are making orthochromatic films fairly sen- 
sitive to yellow light. For panchromatic photography and color 
photography, of course, all parts of the light are used. Because 
of the use of a yellow screen with these, special flame carbons 
can be used not only to give more light, but such light that a 



screen of better transparency can be used. This, of course, is 
very important because color photography film calls for a great 
deal more light for moving picture work than ordinary films. 
The yellow flame carbons with special screens have been found 
very good in motion picture production. Calcium fluoride is used 
and gives a spectrum rich in red and yellow bands with very little 
spectrum yellow. 

The flame arc shows a rapid increase in actinic light with in- 
crease in current. In fact the flame arc with doubling of the 
current at the same arc voltage increases its photographic effect 
not twice but three to four times. This makes it profitable to 
use the flame arcs at high amperages of 15-25 to 35 amperes. In 
some cases much higher amperages have been used. 

A vertical flame arc is generally preferred, but the arc will 
burn well in a great variety of positions. In general, flame 
upper carbons and flame lower carbons are used in moving 
picture flame lamps so that the lamps can be used on either direct 
or alternating current and without any regard to polarity if it 
is direct current. This arrangement is different from the photo- 
engraving field where a very common trim is a neutral enclosed 
arc upper carbon with a white positive louder. In this case the 
flame carbon must always be made positive because the flame 
chemicals travel through the arc stream from the positive crater 
to the negative crater. It is the flame materials that produce the 
light and wrong polarity or pure carbon open arc gives about one- 
sixth the photographic light of the white flame arc. However, a 
positive flame upper carbon gives better efficiency with a flame 
negative lower as against a neutral negative lower. 

On alternating current, both carbons should be flame carbons, 
as here the flame material feeds from both electrodes, and so 
this arrangement gives the maximum efficiency. The use of re- 
actance ballast on alternating current lamps in place of resistance 
ballast increases greatly the efficiency of a white flame arc for 
equal power in the arc, and gives from 50 to 100% more light 
for equal power on the line. With reactance ballast on two or 
three flame arcs in series on 1 10 volts, the overall power factor 
is better than .85. Three flame arcs in series on 100 volts with 
metal coated carbons give but very little if any more efficiency 
than two flame arms in series. 

We will now consider some of the typical flame lamps used in 
moving picture studios. 



Special flame lamps have been developed to operate on A. C. 
or D. C. and in series on 220 volts or in multiple on no. This 
makes the lamp of universal use, and calls for no special atten- 
tion to the electrical conditions. The resistance of the flame 
lamp to mechanical shocks, electrical shocks such as over-voltage 
and to bad weather conditions, has made it universally used for 
outside moving picture work. Combined with all these ad- 
vantages is the remarkable small weight of these lamps. For 
instance some of the twin arc lamps weigh no more than 20 
pounds for lights giving 8,000 or more horizontal candle power, 
and with the light of a little greater actinicity than daylight. 
The amount of light is probably greater in proportion to weight 
than any other artificial light used in moving picture studios. 
Further improved design can greatly reduce this weight. 

We will now discuss briefly a number of typical high amperage 
flame lamps. The following flame lamps are commonly used: 
Allison and Hadaway, Aristo, Bogue, Chicago Stage Lamp, 
Joyce, Klieglight, Macbeth, Scott, Simplex, Sunlight, Universal 
and Wohl. As there is no article or book where these types 
have been shown collectively, no doubt the following will be of 

The Aristo lamp is an enclosed arc lamp which has been much 
used by portrait photographers and in motion picture studios. 
In the latter one frequently finds the Aristo lamps, white flame 
carbons 3^ x 12 inches upper with V2 x 6 inches lower with or 
without the globe. The greater dift'usion of the light and re- 
liability of the flame arc Immediately found great favor with the 
photographers of moving picture concerns when demonstrated a 
few years ago by Mr. A. D. Spear, at Edison Studio. The 
amount of light with 28- A and 63 arc volts with flame carbons 
was 5,130 (mean spherical candlepower in the tests made. 

The Allison and Hadaway lamp is a twin arc designed especially 
for portability in a suitcase form. There is also made by this 
company a diffusing cabinet with flame lamp and a small portable 
flame lamp with shunt control to greatly raise the current at 
the time of taking the pictures. The horizontal candlepower 
of the 15 ampere flame lamp is said to be 8,000. 

The Chicago Stage lamp is unusual in having the flame car- 
bons at right angles. 

The Joyce flame arc lamp has been used somewhat in industrial 
motion picture work. 



The Klleglight, Fig. 47, is a high amperage (30 to 40 amperes) 
lamp, with horizontal carbons. The lamp is mounted on a ped- 
estal with casters, and is used for side lighting. The lamp is 
very powerful and so is usually diffused by a large glass screen. 
A low weight lamp with vertical flame carbons is also made. The 
portable Klieglight is shown in Fig. 48. 

The Macbeth Company is well-known in the photo-engraving 
field, and have recently produced a tilting lamp, which is ap- 
parently of considerably greater efficiency than their usual photo- 

Fig. 47 

Klieglight Stand, 2i-35 ampere with horizontal flame carbons. 

engraving lamp. The lamp is designed so that the light can be 
directed to any part of the stage, both vertically and horizontally. 
The tilting lamp is designed to bum an A. C. and D. C. and in 
case of 220 volts, two in series. 

The Scott lamp is a revival of the inclined gravity feed lamp 
at 15 to 20 amperes, and has two arcs in series in each lamp. 
This lamp is especially used for overhead lighting, and in a stand 
form for side lighting. These lamps give a greater effect by 
40% than some of the flame arcs having only one arc on 1 10 volts. 

The Simplex lamp is a twin flame lamp which is easily portable 
and can be carried around in a suitcase. This lamp is designed 
for 15 to 25 amperes. 

The Universal or Majestic lamp has two flame arcs in series 



Fig. 48 
Kliegliglit Portable. 



and these are placed next to the economizer. The lamp can 
easily be directed to throw its light to any part of the stage. 

The Wohl Duplex hanging lamp has two flame arcs in series 
and laboratory tests have shown a mean spherical candlepower 
of 6,700, with no reflector, with the lamp taking 30 amperes on 
115 line volts (direct current). With the reflector, the horizontal 
beam candlepower is 22,000, according to tests made. In mov- 
ing picture studios these lamps are provided with suitable woven 
glass diffusing screens or large tracing cloth diffusing screens. 
The Wohl Broadside is a stand lamp taking 30 amperes with four 
arcs in series on 220 volts or 60 amperes on no volt line with 
two pairs of series arcs. A portable light weight lamp is 
also made. A complete description of all the American lamps 
would fill a book, so we will pass on to foreign lamps and spot 

The foreign makers of white flamx lamps have lagged con- 
siderably behind the American manufacturers. An English flame 
lamp called Truelight, is interesting because four arcs are used 
in series on 220 volts, with the current reversing direction at 
each arc and carbons changing size to maintain a focusing effect. 
Some of the early German flame lamps are shown in Eder's 
Handbuch der Photographie. They can be of no importance 
compared with the American lamps. 

Another type of flame lamp is the spotlight lamps operated 
usually by hand. These are used in the same way as the ordinary 
theatre spotlight lamps, but unlike the theatre lamps, the carbons 
used should be the white flame photographic carbons or the 
white flame searchlight carbons. Some movie directors have told 
the writer that using the white flame photographic carbon in- 
creased the photographic light about six times compared with 
ordinary projector carbons. The white A. C. projector carbon 
is not as efficient for studio lighting as the white flame photo- 
graphic carbon. 

The flame searchlight has also entered the moving picture field 
with great success. It is often operated fifty feet away, and 
with current 120 to 150 amperes. We will next consider home- 
made flame lamps. Electricians in moving picture studios have 
to continually devise new effects for simulating lanterns, indoor 
lamps, fires, etc. In general, it is a great mistake to make an 
article if it can be found on the market ; but there are times when 





it is an advantage to know how to make a flame lamp out of 
other lamps. 

For some purposes a cheap lamp with adjustable current for 
changing the amount of light is convenient. In Figs. 49 and 50 
are shown the electrical arrangements that the writer devised 
several years ago for doing this. The globes should be removed 


Laop Heeistanoe 


Shunt Beai&tanod 
20 anp 

< W *> P 9MU 4 



Fig. 49 

Conversion diagram for changing D. C. Enclosed Arc Lamp to 
Adjustable Flame Lamp. 

from the lamps and where necessary the lower holders should 
be made rigid. All the electrical wiring should be arranged on 
one side of the arc, and then a resistance (or reactance can also 
be used on A. C.) is connected in shunt to carry 15 to 20 amperes 
at 50 volts around the lamp resistance and solenoid ordinarily 
taking only 5 to 7^2 amperes. Half-inch white flame carbons, 
metal coated at the holder ends, give excellent results. It is easy 
to work two converted enclosed arc lamps with the two flame arcs 
in series on 1 10 volts. 
















The chief carbon used for photo-engraving and photography is 
the white flame carbon of which over a million a year are now 
being sold for this class of work. In the larger sizes a special 
star-shaped core is used. The color of the light can, where 


Lanrp Kesotanoe 
5 amp* 


Shunt HesLctanoe 
20 amp. 


Fig. 50 

Conversion diagram for changing alternating current Enclosed Arc 
Lamps to high amperage Flame Arcs by leactance shunt. 

necessary, be changed to suit the exact requirements without 
buying a new lamp or even a new screen, because other flame 
carbons of dift'erent colors are available for these lamps when 
they are needed. The white flame is strictly a snow white light 
with a spectrum full of lines in its every part. This is most 
generally used. 
The pearl white is a light a little more suited for panchromatic 



and color photography. The color of its light is very close to 
that of ordinary sunshine. The yellow flame carbon gives a 
light rich in red and green but having comparatively little spec- 
trum yellow or blue. The sensation of yellow light is produced 
by the combination in the eye of the red and green light. The 
violet in this light is fairly strong. The red flame arc gives a 
light rich in red and spectrum yellow and has a fair amount of 
blue. The so-called blue flame carbons are designed to be espe- 
cially rich in far ultra-violet beyond 3000 Angstrom units. 
This far ultra-violet is practically absent in sunlight and likewise 
in the white flame arcs ordinarily used in photographic work. 
The near ultra-violet light is very important photographically 
with sunlight and skylight, and with the white flame arcs. 
The ultra-violet of the white flame is largely in the region longer 
than 35CX) Angstrom and it efflciently goes through ordinary 

An important improvement has been the use in photographic 
lamps of metal coated flame carbons, especially on the holder 
end. The metal coating reduces the holder drop in voltage from 
about half a volt to 1/20 of a volt so that a holder designed for 
5 ampere use can, with metal coated carbons, be used at 20 or 
30 amperes with long, excellent service. 

American white flame carbons throughout the United States 
have shown 10 to 15 per cent better efficiency of light and longer 
life on the average than the foreign carbons. This is because 
of superior knowledge and skill that the American carbon manu- 
facturers have as regards the making of these flame carbons. 
This condition of superiority has been maintained for several 

The following ten points repeat a few of the advantages of 
the flame lamps for photographic artists ; the greatest efficiency ; 
best color duplicating daylight ; instant response when current is 
turned on ; less unsteadiness from fluctuating line voltage ; wear- 
ing part of smallest cost per unit; most rugged to all kinds of 
mechanical and electrical abuse and to adverse weather condi- 
tions ; lowest cost of installation and operation ; can be used for 
spot lighting or with screen for diffuse lighting or with reflector 
for indirect lighting; largest candlepower per single unit and 
maximum portability In proportion to candlepower. 

In considering the lighting of moving picture studios, we will 



consider first over-head lighting and then side lighting. In re- 
gard to overhead Hghting there are two classes — diffuse and con- 
centrated. The diffuse lighting is often obtained in the glass 
studios by use overhead of flame arcs which occupy only a small 
area and allow considerable of daylight to enter the scene. The 
concentrated overhead lighting is secured by mounting in a re- 
flector a score of flame lamps or by the use of very powerful 
spot light or flame searchlight. 

For side lighting powerful flame lamps on stands with wheels 
are universally used. A well-known illumination expert of mov- 





! f 


^ Long tall of Seta* 



^ J 

vail of 

o^Wg > 

V >>. / ^/ £ /\. / 

v/ \ / 





\\ // 

'/ r 


(yh^^R. /^^^^ 

tU /^^ 


Xaap Uap 


Fig. 51 


side lighting for usual 

L scene 

ing pictures, Mr. Mayer of Wohl & Company, states that the best 
lighting for moving picture stage is ordinarily given by using 
50% more side lighting than top Hghting, and that the so-called 
L arrangement (Fig. 51) is generally more effective for lighting 
than the box arrangement. The side lighting should have con- 
trast to give the proper perspective. The angular sweep of the 
camera is usually such that the distance from the camera divided 
by two gives the width of the operating field (close-ups of 4 
feet cover an approximate width of 2 feet). 

The diagram, (Fig. 51), illustrates roughly, the L arrangement. 
In this arrangement there are shown the long wall of the scene 
to the short wall with the camera opposite the short wall and a 
number of side lights. The overhead lighting is not shown. 
Small reflectors are used with the side lamps to give slant light 
coming back toward the camera, but of course not into it. This 
gives a good reflection on surfaces sidewise to the light because 



the light is reflected so obliquely that a large amount is carried 
to the camera from side surfaces, and this arrangement gives 
the much desired line and Rembrandt effects, or as better known 
to the moving picture artist as molding and modeling effects. 
The viTorking area of such a stage is therefore bounded by the 
long wall and short wall and the camera line, outside of which 
the lights must be. The distance outside should be sufficient 
to avoid harsh changes due to inverse square law. 

The use of real scenery in place of painted scenery gives, of 
course, the best results. Real scenery should be lighted from 
the side. Painted scenery should be lighted directly from the 
front with the light striking nearly perpendicular. If the scene 
is set up with painted scenery, two sets of lighting should be 
used, one for the foreground and the other for the painted 
scenery. This same principle applies to panorama where near 
objects are lighted in one way and the panorama in a different 
way to give suitable blending of the illusion. 

In lighting it is well to get a suitable blending of the direct 
light and of the diffuse light. Nature's rule is half and half. 
The diffuse light is so advantageous in cutting out the harsh, 
sharp black shadows and giving what 'us known technically as 
luminous shadow effects. Diffuse light can be secured by in- 
direct light as well as by diffusing screens. The intensity of the 
light should photographically be very high in order to get the 
camera to operate satisfactorily with f 5.6. The flame arc can 
be used with a camera lens at f 5.6 to give good lighting on a 
small stage with 20 kw. The jump from f 5.6 to f 4.5 or even 
f 3.5 makes a big difference in the definition and clearness of 
the picture. The depth of focus can be maintained better, of 
course, with f 5.6, and because of the important artistic value 
of the background and the large distances with rapid movements 
that should be covered, it is highly desirable to work with a 
good depth of focus. With the flame arc the high concentration 
of light can be easily controlled as well as the direction of light. 
This convenience of control of the amount and direction of light 
are necessarily of the highest importance for free artistic expres- 
sion on the part of the directing geniuses. In general, the moving 
picture stages will use with flame arcs the following amount of 
powers having the lens at f 5.6. 



Small stage 20 kw. 4 to 6 flame lamps 

Medium stage 50 kw. 10 to 16 flame lamps 

Large stage 100 kw. 20 to 32 flame lamps 

Using the larger openings of lens f 3.5 as low as 20 kw. with 
flame arcs can be used to secure the illumination of large stages. 
As the amount of light varies with the reflecting surfaces and is 
inversely as the square of the distance from the light sources it 
is not easy to give exact information without going into too 
elaborate detail. Also multiple reflection can in partly closed 
spaces greatly increase the illumination. 

The artistry of the moving picture field is advancing so rapidly 
with so many new and complex changes that it is rather hard 
to keep track of even their main drift. Among the recent in- 
novations has been the production of plays with the background 
subdued so that instead of the usual "close-up" the faces of the 
players in tense scenes are accented throughout the entire pro- 
duction of the play, as, for example, in the play "The Golden 
Change." In this case, the background is subdued to such an 
extent that the characters in the foreground appear to stand out 
in stereoscopic relief. 

In another arrangement an intensely lighted background is 
used to cause the players to stand out in sharp shadow-like re- 
lief. In still other cases the immense control of intensity of 
light gives a power of securing the sudden appearance or disap- 
pearance of an actor in trick and dramatic pictures and to aid 
greatly in securing such peculiar effects as double exposure and 
other photographic tricks. The lighting can be utilized in such 
a way that the artistic forming of the picture is accented in har- 
mony with the idea involved. Another way in which flame arcs 
are used is for casting shadows in trick pictures and to represent 
prison scenes in the more artistic manner of showing the shadows 
of the prison bars rather than the actual grim stolid fact. 

It would not be expedient to describe in elaborate detail the 
many devices for rapidly moving the lights around in studios or 
the particular mechanical arrangement for carrying the lamps 
around on wheel cabinets or on trolleys or on ropes, etc. The 
actual installations of lighting are arranged in a great variety 
of ways. In some cases the overhead lighting is set up with the 



idea of permanently supplying the particular set. In other cases 
the overhead lighting is arranged so as to be easily moved by a 
trolley system from set to set. In the latter case the small 
weight of the flame lamps in proportion to their candlepower 
greatly reduces the cost of moving system and also affords a better 
utilization of admitting overhead daylight if this is desired. 

For side lighting the flame lamps are mounted on wheel stands 
either separately or in powerful unit groups of 6 and 12. Such 


)teroar7 V*por 

Vohl Idoap 

es * 40 Vatt Hftste 

Slagraa of th« zlag shoving tho ftpprozinatd looatlon of th« 
Ile}itln« valts. 

do largo olrolo la tbo oentor roproeonts • notal CAO oartr* 
tag 300 26 ft 40 watt UasOa laiq^a. 

Fig. 52 

Overhead lighting at Madison Square Garden for eight cameras 

lamps are arranged to be easily moved. It is interesting to note 
that the resistance of the flame lamp can be mounted in a sep- 
arate room so as to further reduce the heating which is remark- 
ably small with the flame lamp. In some studios a dozen Aristo 
lamps are mounted in a portable cabinet formed in sets of three 
rows of four each with the top row forward and the bottom row 
back away from» the stage. The whole can be easily moved 
around the studio because mounted on wheels. 

We give a diagram (Fi^. 52) of the overhead arrangement of 
flame arcs and mercury arcs used for lighting a boxing match 
at Madison Square Garden. It is interesting to note that eight 
moving picture cameras were used simultaneously and the entire 
room was so well lighted that brilliant illumination was obtained 
in every part of the large hall. 



The use of flame arcs is carried out on an extensive scale in 
the Vitagraph moving picture studio located in Brooklyn, New 
York. Mr. Ross, master mechanic of that studio was kind 
enough to furnish data showing that the average number of flame 
lamps (20 amperes each lamp) used per set is twenty,' In the 
Brooklyn studio alone, there are 225 flame arc lamps, hanging 
overhead, or in sets, in stands, or mounted so as to be easily 
moved about in small carriages in order to eliminate shadows. 

P/Amm Ares. 

flAHtm Arc* 

Fig. 53 
Interior room with side and top diffuse lighting with Flame Arcs. 

Figures 53, 54, 5^;, illustrate how some interior studios use 
multiple reflection to greatly increase efficiency and give diffused 

Mr. Cecil B. DeMille, director of the Jesse L. Lasky Feature 
Play Company, wrote an article under the title "Lighting to a 
Photoplay is Like Music to Drama." He concludes that lighting 
effects as applied to motion pictures assume precisely the same 
value in the photo drama that music assumes in the spoken drama. 
He says "the theme of a picture should be carried in its photog- 
raphy." "The Cheat," representing unprincipled sinister Jap- 




anese characters, used abrupt bold light effects to definitely sug- 
gest the "clang" and smash of Japanese music. 

In "Carmen," however, the Rembrandt idea was followed. 
The lighting and grouping of the characters in the soft shadows 
were all worked out in keeping with the school of that famous 

"Light effects are out of place in comedy ; there you will notice- 

Fig. 54 
Interior room with entirely indirect light with Flame Arcs. 

our lighting is clear and brilliant corresponding to the faster 
light comedy and music, except in the melodramatic scenes where 
we carry our audience into thrills, not only by the action of 
the artist, but by a change in the mode of our photography." 

Many new flame lamps have been invented and developed in the 
last year or two, and now varieties of flame carbons for special 
effects are available for a multitude of simple or complex artistic 
effects. However, only a small beginning has been made as to 
the artistic effects counting merely the minor factors of control 
such as direction of light, its diffusion, change of intensity and 
the power by proper color and environment to greatly aid the 
moving picture actor-artist. 



There is the subject of "catch-lights" in the eyes of the play- 
ers that represent the reflection of the light sources. If the light 
sources are rectangular in shape, then the catch-lights will be 
rectangular or triangular and with sharp curve points. The bad 
effect of not using round or oval light sources is easily ap- 
preciated. It is well recognized that curved lines convex to each 
other tend to give a sorrowful, depressed look. Curved lines 

Rov/of Wh'ite 

Fig. 55 
Interior room for high efficiency lighting by multiple reflection. 

concave to each other, tend to give a pleasant, agreeable, smiling 
look. By attention to the shape of the diffusing screen for the 
light sources, it would seem possible to vary this element so as 
to be in harmony with the ideals of the play. All the recent 
moving picture photo-plays of the best companies show the power 
of white flame arc lighting to give fine definition, splendid half- 
tones, luminous shadows and favorably shaped "catch" lights. 

In some studios the light of the flame arc is thrown upon the 
ceiling or a reflecting screen, and in this way some very beautiful 
pictures have been photographed. The possibilities of indirect 
lighting with the flame arc have been touched upon. By suit- 
able lamp design, it seems practical not only to get more diffuse 



light but also greater candlepower delivered to the working plane. 
Again in the matter of regulation, the shunt control is one of 
the important future developments that will enable the artists 
to secure a wide variety of new effects. 

On alternating current eificiency can be greatly increased with 
the flame arc by re-actancy control. 

In the matter of studio lighting, interior rooms lighted entirely 
by artificial light have splendid advantages, because the lighting 
can then be entirely controlled by the artist, and the extremely 
hot atmosphere of sunlight glass studio is done away with and a 
cool, comfortable studio can be maintained throughout the year. 
The director can then obtain all diffuse light, all direct light, or 
any proportion and direction of diffused and direct light under 
perfect control, and old King Sol with his changing position, will 
be entirely unnecessary for all interior scenes. 


Chapter XV 


THE making of so-called educational pictures has developed 
until it now calls for a high degree of specialization. In- 
dustrial pictures are of the same type in the majority of 
instances, and may be classed under the same heading as the 
higher grade of scenic pictures. 

It is no longer possible for a cameraman to take his camera 
out in an automobile and, after riding around for a day, return 
with a heterogenous collection of scenes and dispose of it as 
"Picturesque Podunk," length 989 feet. 

If he is not familiar with the region he is about to record, he 
goes to the nearest library or book store and peruses with care 
and diligence all possible literature describing the locality. He 
writes the history and location of landmarks and points of in- 
terest in his note-book. He records incidents of the customs and 
habits of the natives, with a view of finding characteristic bits 
to enliven the skeleton scenario which he will make before he 
starts to turn the crank on his picture. When he has done this, 
he engages a car and a chauffeur well acquainted with the locality, 
or pack mule, or whatever conveyance the case may demand, and 
a guide. 

He then starts out w^ith his outfit to find the things which he 
has noted in the synopsis. His eyes are open for anything that 
will add interest to the picture. Many things will greet his eye 
that he had not foreseen. But the chances are, if his scenario is 
what it should be, whatever he discovers will help round out and 
add interest or local color to what he has already planned. 
Oftentimes he discovers something that will give him material 
for another picture aside from the one he has planned. 

I remember, making a picture of an historic Mexican city years 
ago. It nestles in a beautiful valley between high mountains of 
impressive grandeur, and my first thought was only of the beau- 
tiful scenic picture that I could make in the quaint old city, with 
its historic buildings and rugged mountain scenery. It was a 
perfect mine of interest. 



When I had finished I had material for the following pictures, 
varying in length from 400 to 1,000 feet : "Picturesque Monterey," 
''Hemp Industry," "Rope Making," "Thermal Baths of Topo 
Chico," "Where Nature Makes Soda Waters," "Iron Industry 
in Mexico," "Zinc Mining and Refining," "Primitive Laundries," 
"Beer Brewing," "Mexican Cookery," "Bull Fighting in Mexico," 
"Pulque and Mescal — The Mexican National Drinks," "Beasts of 
Burden in Old Mexico," and some others which I do not recall. 

On the first trip many of the scenes mapped out can be found 
and taken. Others will either be impractical, or lacking in in- 
terest, or be in such relation to the light as to require taking at 
a diflferent time of day. 

A compass and timepiece are indispensable, although in the 
absence of a compass the watch may serve for both. Point the 
hour hand of the watch in the direction of the sun and half way 
between the hour hand and the numeral twelve will be south. 
Knowing this and reversing the process will show you at just 
what hour the sun will be at the most advantageous position for 
taking your picture. 

Make a note of each subject which you intend to take at a 
particular time and arrange the schedule with your guide so as 
to return and cover the missing scenes with the greatest effi- 

Learn to use just enough film to show your subject plainly 
and well, but stop before the interest can lag. A naturalist 
friend of mine took a camera on one of his expeditions.. On the 
first trip he took a whole roll and sometimes two or three rolls 
of film on each subject, unless it flew away while he was reload- 
ing. Of the details of camp life, of the ex-president who was 
a member of the expedition for a portion of the time, of the 
methods of preserving specimens and a thousand other interesting 
details he took not one inch. They were every-day matters to 
him, and it never occurred to him that the people who would view 
the picture would be interested in anything other but what in- 
terested him. 

Try to look at things with the eye of a curious stranger. 
Don't let the little interesting things that may be familiar to 
you get by. Often they are the spice which seasons the picture. 
A cute kid with a dirty face engaged in some childish occupation, 
or a baby animal of almost any kind, are more apt to touch the 



emotions of an audience than a beautiful landscape. The in- 
nocent flirtation of a buxom peasant girl, or the foolish amorous 
smile of a hulking farmer boy, even a close-up of a beautiful 
wayside flower adorned with a honey bee, or brilliant butterfly 
will bring your spectators into more human relationship with 
a scenic picture. 

There are millions of people in this broad land of ours who 
have never had the opportunity to travel. An old style scenic 
with panoramas of ancient ruins or old castles brings to them 
no more sense of reality than engravings of a fairy story in a 
book. Show among these ruins or castles, things which are 
kindred to the emotions which they experience and you establish 
a sympathetic bond which gives them a sensation of reality and 
relationship to the images on the screen. 

While dwelling on the intimate touches that go to make in- 
terest in a picture we must not lose sight of another factor. 
That is the sense of the beautiful. "Artistic composition" sounds 
highbrow, but the lowliest of us have some innate sense of the 
artistic. The soddenest wretch who ever passed a nickel into a 
picture house ticket-window may be capable of catching his 
breath at the glory of a mountain sunset thrown on the screen 
though his intellect would prevent his putting into words the 
emotion that the picture caused. 

The cameraman who makes interesting educational pictures is 
more than a photographer. He is an artist, an author, a director 
and a scholar. 

As an artist he strives to make his pictures pleasing to the 
eye. He is not content with his natural gifts in that direction if 
he is ambitious. He studies books on art and composition when 
he has the opportunity (and in this day of free libraries and cheap 
printing there are none who have not the opportunity.) 

As a scholar and author he studies the subjects which he makes, 
and complies a coherent and consecutive story before he starts 
his picture. In his brain must dwell a clear conception before he 
can crystallize it for others. 

As a director he has charge of his subject matter, and, whether 
his actors be moths or machines, cascades or cocoons, he is as 
surely the director as the man who moves the living pawns and 
knights on the chess-board of melodrama. 

As a photographer and cameraman he is master of the camera's 



technique. Beside all the accouterments and paraphernalia of the 
studio cameraman he calls to his aid other devices, such as the 
microscope and the ultra-speed camera. He should have a large 
assortment of lenses of different focal lengths. He pictures 
phenomena so that he who runs may see and understand. The 
bullet's swift flight and a tree's slow growth; the mountain's 
magnitude and the microbe's minuteness slow down or speed up, 
contract or enlarge at his word of command. 

With ray screens and panchromatic film he can accentuate or 
suppress or record with proper tone values the different colors 
as they appear to the eye. 

The European war has aroused the American public to a 
greater interest than ever before in the slogan "See America 
First." Motion pictures, following public interest in the past, 
have shown the scenic wonders of the old world, the equatorial 
depths of darkest Africa and the fronded palms of southern seas 
almost to the exclusion of the many wonders encompassed by our 
own boundaries. True, we have seen a few excellent pictures, of 
our best known scenic wonders such as Yellowstone Park, Yose- 
mite Valley, Niagara Falls, Grand Canyon and Glacier National 
Park, but even their possibilities have been but touched. 

How many of the thousands of visitors, to Yellowstone Park 
have ever seen its indescribable beauties when wrapped in the 
mantle of hoary winter? The gorgeous spectacles of its boiling 
geysers driving back the ever encroaching ermine cloak of drift- 
ing snow ; its trees bedecked with* prismatic ice jewels from the 
condensing vapors ; its sledges and teams of husky dogs and snow- 
shoed drivers ? Have these been caught on the fleeting film ? 

Where are the pictures of Alaska, that vast treasure house 
of which we know so little? Where is the cinematographer to 
record the customs and life of the Southwestern or Pueblo 
Indian as Curtis has done with the still camera? Where are 
the pictures of the romance of the new West where the cowboy 
has shucked his six-shooter, wears blue jean overalls instead of 
chaps, and irrigates his ranch and raises blooded cattle instead of 
Texas long horns ? 

Show us the pictures of the gigantic irrigation projects where 
the civil engineer has built mighty dams and created miracle gar- 
dens in the desert. Show us the life 'of the mining camps where 
machinery and resistless hydraulic streams wrest treasures fi'om 



mother earth. Take us through the PhiHppines, let us see what 
a paternal government has done for the natives. Let us see 
the hospitals and schools, the railroads and highways our Govern- 
ment has built. What do we know of the Tagalogs, the Moros, 
the Bon Toes, the Igorrotes and the other tribes? Are Luzon, 
Cebu, Mindoro, Negros, Samar, Mindanao brands of cigars or 
names of some of our island possessions? Show us the Maine 
Woods, the Michigan Forests, the commerce of the Great Lakes, 
the pulse of our inland waterways, the awakening of the new 
south, the Florida Everglades, the cities of the great Northwest, 
the Peoria distilleries and the Texas missions. 

Surely the man with his hand on the camera crank who can 
select from a myriad of subjects the high lights and shadows of 
human interest and arrange them in logical sequence will be well 
repaid for his work and trouble. It is difficult to conceive of 
more interesting work than this; to take the things of interest 
in some particular place or on some particular subject and com- 
pose a graphic essay that will hold, if not a worldwide, a nation- 
wide audience's attention. 

Don't forget, if you take such pictures, that the little intimate 
touches of humanity and the close-up details of little things here 
and there are the master strokes that limn the greater subjects 
into high relief. Concretely, if you are photographing the awful 
chasm of the Grand Canyon, don't overlook the quizzical expres- 
sion on the countenance of the quaint gray burro who patiently 
packs your apparatus, nor the horny toad that scurries away 
from beneath your feet, nor the round-faced papoose hanging 
contentedly to a limb while mamma squaw spins the wool for a 
zigzag patterned Navajo blanket ; nor mamma squaw either. 
They all fit into the picture and make for what the artist calls 
"atmosphere" and "local color." 

There are many avenues to money-making open for the 
amateur owner of a camera. It sometimes happens that the 
amateur beats the professional out on news events — generally be- 
cause he happens to be on the ground first, but even when the 
odds are equal, the zest of the chase or happy circumstance has 
often favored the amateur with better records than the salaried 
professional. You may live where things of national interest 
do not often occur but that does not prevent your making ar- 
rangements with your local theaters to supply them with pic- 
tures depicting events of local interest. 



As I have said before Percy Haughton, the Harvard Football 
coach, is making use of the motion pictures to find out what his 
teams are really doing. The motion camera is now a part of the 
athletic equipment at Cambridge, and it is expected that many 
hitherto inexplicable weaknesses may be found and corrected by 
a study of the film. The presence of the camera acts also as a 
stimulus to the men on the field, they feel that they are on dress 
parade ; it may be possible to avoid the eye of the coach, but the 
lens is relentlessly sure. 

Mr. Haughton took still photographs of plays that seemed 
perfect but which failed in execution. The difficulty that con- 
fronted him was human. Although the camera was fast enough 
no photographer could possibly tell the exact second at which to 
press the bulb. Had he known the second, it was impossible to 
co-ordinate eye and hand. The motion picture camera offered 
the solution. With a film the whole play might be taken and then 
the defect discovered by a study of the various pictures. 

It was found that certain men shifted their poise just as the 
ball was being snapped, and thus lost their chance to start ; that 
others relaxed their tension for just the fraction of a second 
before the play was on and thus were late. Individual peculiari- 
ties of the hands — a thousand and one little things that even the 
keenest eye could not find appeared on the screen when the nega- 
tives were studied one by one. 

All our theories of activities are likely to be revamped as a 
result of the film studies. The eye cannot be trusted to tell 
what it sees, for it is easily confused by rapid motion. The lead- 
ing trainers all believe that considerable progress in every branch 
of athletic activity will come about as a result of the opportunity 
to make a laboratory study of the human body in motion. 

When it is realized that one-tenth of a second means about 
one yard in a hundred-yard dash, the importance of little things 
will be realized. The single faulty motion of the hurdler taking 
the bars makes all the difference between the fast man and the 
slow one. There have been men that could not really run fast 
in a flat race who were very speedy over the hurdles simply be- 
cause they wasted no motion or effort in leaping across the 

It is in track sports that the greatest good is expected from 
the film — track performances are a matter of little things done 


Making a Micro-cinematograph of Bacteria to illustrate a Biological 
subject at the N. Y. Institute of Photography. 


perfectly. The day of great changes has passed; in the last 
fifteen years the style of athletes has been about universal. There 
seems little likelihood of revolutionary changes, such as the 
"crouching" start in the sprints or the substitution of the stride 
for the jump over the hurdles or the approach in the high jump. 
In many events the limit of human endeavor is near at hand, and 
the lowering of records will depend upon the conservation of 
effort toward the end desired. Nearly every big event is now 
taken with the motion camera and is eagerly studied by coach 
and athlete to learn if the winner had any new or improved way. 

Authorities on the subject claim that baseball has been placed 
on a highly scientific basis by exhaustive investigations conducted 
on the same principles as the most efficient methods. It now 
seems probable that there are still greater possibilities for im- 
provement under the keen eye of the camera. 

Most of the education film companies have their own camera- 
men who attempt to cover as far as possible the more important 
educational features of this country. These traveling cameramen 
include in their itineraries the most interesting views of prin- 
cipal cities and the most beautiful views of natural scenery. It 
is impossible for the regular cameramen to obtain many important 
subjects so any motion picture camera operator will find a ready 
market for high class films. 

For example, one of the largest and best-known educational 
film companies recently started a cameraman on a trip across the 
continent with instructions to take certain views in New York 
City before proceeding. He was told to obtain a view of the 
Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor v/ith the sun setting 
behind the statue. Were it not for this particular fact the 
cameraman might have started on his way westward sooner but, 
owing to inclement weather and to the hazy atmosphere prevalent 
in the harbor, he had to wait nearly two weeks for the required 

How much better it would have been for the company to have 
sent their cameraman on and to have advised some local photog- 
rapher just what was required. The local man could have been 
on hand daily at little expense. 

There are in every fair sized city, some points of interest that 
make good educational subjects. 

A man living in the small town of Burlington, New Jersey, was 



quite surprised to learn that an educational film company had 
sent a cameraman to that town to obtain some views of shad- 
fishing in the Delaware River. Shad-fishing in this particular 
spot had been going on for years and years but the local man 
had not appreciated the fact that this familiar industry would 
make a worth-while picture. 

There is the same market for first-class educational pictures 
as there is for "Newsfilm." Educational work is best for the 
local photographer because there is no hurry, no mad rush be- 
cause of the news-value of the picture. Often "Newsfilm" 
cameramen become excited and neglect to make some final ad- 
justment of the camera which results in a spoiled picture. On 
the other hand, the man photographing educational pictures may 
take his time and get the best results obtainable. 

Industries of special nature, such as- the automobile industry, 
make good subjects. Beautiful scenery which you may see every 
day but which people may come miles to view, is well worth 
photographing. In fact any subject that is of general interest 
makes good material for educational pictures. 

Of course, the more technical part of educational work, such 
as the microscopic studies of plants and small organisms cannot 
be attempted by everyone but some little feature might occur 
that would make interesting material for a picture that others 
would enjoy seeing. 

A former professor of physics has taken up moving picture 
work lately. He found that photographs of some of his experi- 
ments in chemistry and physics were interesting and found a 
ready market. Now he is engaged in making a picture of the 
life and habits of the ordinary frog. You see there's always a 
field for those who are alive to the opportunity. 

When the motion picture photographer goes from the tem- 
perate zone to the tropics he will find himself confronted by new 
problems, which result from the unhealthy climate, the uncertain 
light values, and the intense heat. 

A cinematographer made a trip to the Canal Zone during the 
rainy season. When he removed the film from the packing cans 
it was soft and an hour after placing it in the box of the camera 
it was as wet as could be. The following morning it was com- 
pletely covered with mildew. Moisture not only deteriorates the 
speed of film but, if the film is not developed immediately, de- 
stroys the latent image. 



How may this be avoided? One cinematographer, working in 
the heart of Africa deemed it advisable to carry the film stock in 
a cooling case similar to a vacuum flask. He guarded against the 
exterior becoming hot by covering it with cool banana leaves. 
The film chest was made like a metal refrigerator of double walls 
of sheet zinc with layers of heat-insulating felt packed between 
the walls. 

You who will travel in warm climates take my advice. Do not 
burden yourself with more film than you actually need as it de- 
teriorates rapidly. If you can arrange to have small consign- 
ments despatched as required so much the better. 

Before setting out, store the film in air-tight cans and place 
adhesive plaster around the edges of the lids. Once at your des- 
tination, select a dry and cool place for the film boxes. They will 
keep in good condition if placed in an ash-can or other air-tight 
receptacle in which a dish of fused calcium chloride has been 
placed. Calcium chloride has a strong affinity for moisture and 
takes it up rapidly. It absorbs it so rapidly that it will soon 
dissolve in the moisture it takes up, making a corrosive liquid 
disastrous to metal. Therefore, it should be surrounded by some 
absorbent material to prevent its spreading. 

Re-load the camera only just before you plan to "shoot." 

If you do not protect the camera from the direct sun as much 
as possible, you may experience considerable difficulty in turning 
the crank. The sun is apt to heat the brass and make it too hot 
to be operated with the bare hands. 

Develop the film at the soonest possible moment. 

A cameraman working in the Sudan discovered that sunrise is 
the ideal time for developing in the tropics. Then the air is not 
too warm and the water, kept in canvas buckets since the heat 
of the previous day, is cool. 

This operator used an oblong straw hut, 17 feet by 1 1 feet, as 
a dark room. The inner lining to keep out the light was a red 
and black Turkey cloth, slightly smaller in size. No ventilation 
was provided. There were openings both at the top and the 
end to accommodate the wooden frames. In the openings were 
placed ruby glass, ground-glass, and thin wire netting. He made 
his own developing frame of native timber, shaped it like a 3-foot 
6-inch drum and painted it with paraffin. He made two troughs, 
one for the developer and the other for hypo, of wood joining the 



sections together with pitch. He allowed for a space of an inch 
between the film and the trough interior. Each trough had two 
wings, so that the developer and hypo would be caught on falling 
from the film and be conveyed back into the trough-well. To 
hold the axle carrying the drum he equipped both of the troughs 
with slotted side arms. 

The developing materials used were Burroughs, Wellcome & 
Co. "tabloid" pyro soda and a little bromide of potassium. He 
used eight cartons to develop two hundred feet of film, and dis- 
solved them in a bucket half filled with water. 

Often water is difficult to get and of poor quality. I have 
used river water that looked like coffee by stirring an ounce of 
alum in a barrel of it and allowing it to settle over night. I 
used the clear water at the top by decanting it off with a short 
length of hose. Many times the residual sludge in the bottom 
was four inches deep. At a pinch, sea water may be used for 
washing if a final rinse of about five minutes be given in fresh 

For the worker on a small scale, pin racks and trays that nest 
compactly are probably best on account of ease of transportation. 

One man showed me a neat outfit he had made. It consisted 
of skeleton drums which could be dissembled for packing, with 
nesting nickel-lined metal troughs. The entire outfit of a dozen 
loo-foot drums, three troughs and a lot of black felt, used for 
extemporizing dark rooms from hotel rooms and native huts, 
packed into a fair-sized trunk! 

He dried his films on the same drum on which they were de- 
veloped, a thing which is difficult to do satisfactorily on pin 


Chapter XVI 

IT is now several years since Winsor McKay, the famous car- 
toonist and creator of innumerable and popular comic char- 
acters, took the trouble to make sixteen thousand drawings, 
proving that with the system of reproduction used in cinematog- 
raphy to create the action in the images he could, for the first 
time in history, produce on the screen the miracle of an animated 

Animated drawings became immediately popular in Europe 
although not on the same scale or with the same effect as in this 
country. Profiting by the example set by McKay, others applied 
themselves to the same work and soon produced films with ani- 
mated drawings, cartoons, caricatures and other products of 
the pen and brush which became so popular with people that 
they have come to form an indispensable part of cinema ex- 

Without a doubt, sixteen thousand drawings is a great number 
and not every one has the patience of McKay nor the skill and 
time to devote months and months to the production of one 
picture. As a result of this, the art has degenerated a bit, with- 
out losing any of its attraction, and still the inimitable creations 
of McKay and of Bray, who followed faithfully in his footsteps, 
have few imitators in point of technique, although animated 
cartoons continue to excite delight and applause. 

The average person has little conception of the mechanics of 
animated cartooning. One need not wonder at this for many 
young artists are likewise ignorant. Those artists who are doing 
this work have perfected schemes of their own, after weeks and 
months of practice and experimenting. The successful ones 
jealously guard their system. The reasons are obvious. 

As a rule, trick photography is combined with an intricate study 
of motion and its portrayal. Some artists rely almost entirely 
upon successive drawings and others upon cut-out figures — an 
elaborate and delicate process. Occasionally one will find an 





1 and S 

Ccurtesy of Daniel's Cartoon Studios) 

The same silhotiette is used for 1 and 3; again, the same silhouette 

is used for 4 and 6. By photographing 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in succession, 

the illusion is that of policemen running. This succession is repeated 

as many times as necessary 



4 and 6 



artist who makes as many as 5,000 drawings for each 500 feet 
of film. On the other hand, an ingenious artist might obtain 
smooth animation with but 500 drawings for the same length 
of film. 

Consider the task presented when animal cartoons are drawn 
and the artist has to make four legs move in a fairly natural way 
and at uniform speed in bringing a dog or cat into a picture. If 
too many drawings are made, his picture drags; if too few, 
the motion is jerky and stiff. To strike the right combination 
is an art. 

There is one difficulty which, while perfectly evident, is rarely 
appreciated. ''Minute exactness is profoundly necessary in ani- 
mated work," to quote Vincent Colby, creator of animated Colby 
Dogs, "for the excellent reason that the drawings are enlarged 
enormously when projected on the screen. This brings out 
in a glaring manner the most infinitesimal inaccuracies present 
in the original sketches. Thus the cartoonist's finished work for 
the movies contrasts with that of the newspaper caricaturist in 
that in one case the cartoon is enlarged and in the other, reduced 
for presentation." 

In order to animate a cartoon, it must be drawn on some trans- 
parent medium whether it be paper, celluloid or ground glass. 
In the center of an ordinary bread board cut a rectangle g" x 12". 
Fit a piece of window glass into this opening. Two steel pegs, 
four and one-half inches apart set into a bar five and one-half 
inches in length are fastened to the board at the upper side of rect- 
angle and immediately at the edge of the opening. The bar must 
set in a chisseled-out space so that the surface of the bar is flush 
with the surface of the glass and board. The glass is held in 
place flush to the board by nailing thin strips of wood to the 
edges of the rectangle beneath. It is held fast by placing strips 
of adhesive tape around the edges of the glass. 

The board is placed at a slight angle to the drawing table 
and an electric light is put under the glass. The paper used is 
substantial ledger paper free from water marks. The paper is 
held in place by punching holes at the top, four and one-half 
inches apart, which fit over the pegs in the peg-bar. Thin cel- 
luloid, a clear and transparent grade, about .005" in thickness 
is used over every drawing which goes under the camera. 

Celluloid is one of the most important time-saving devices in 



animating a cartoon. All drawings not representing motion may 
be put on celluloid. To be more explicit. Let us imagine a 
kitchen with a table in the middle of the room, on the table a 
jar of jam. A boy walks into the room, spies the jar, walks near 
the table, rubs his stomach in anticipation, takes the jar of jam 
and walks out of the room through the same door through 
which he entered. Those parts of the picture which remain 
stationary may be drawn on the celluloid. Make it a point to 
take care of as many things on the celluloid as possible. This 
leaves less to take care of on the paper drawings. In carrying 
out the action planned above, one would place a paper on the 
pins and, after drawing those lines which do not move through- 
out the action, on the celluloid, would place the celluloid face 
down on the model. Since the jar of jam is stationary for the 
first part of this example, the jar could be drawn on the back 
of the celluloid and left until that part of the action when the 
boy takes it up. Then it could be erased with ammonia. 

Before attempting to animate a cartoon, an artist should ob- 
serve all natural movements of man, animal, fish, automobile, 
train, or whatever it is he wishes to animate. He must likewise 
study the consecutive minor movements which go to make up 
any major movement : the positions of the feet in running or 
walking ; of the hands in clapping, etc. 

The field is the space inside of which all action must operate 
freely. The field lines should be ruled on the glass. /' x 95^" 
is a good size for the field. All action entering the field should 
be started from behind the field lines. 

In order to keep an exact likeness of a character throughout a 
picture it is best to make a complete set of head positions of that 
character. In this way, the head may be traced from the model by 
placing it under the paper in the position desired. This not only 
keeps the likeness the same but holds the proportion which is diffi- 
cult to obtain free handed. The ordinary set of head models is 
drawn in a row on a slip of narrow paper. They are composed 
of five positions. One profile, one three-quarter front view, one 
three-quarter rear view, one full face and one full rear view 
make up the set. If any other position is called for, it too can 
be placed on the slip of paper and used as many times as 


MOTION PicTUi^E Photography 

(Bray Studios Inc.) 





A cut-out is any object which is cut out of paper or celluloid 
and laid over the paper drawings or the celluloid overlay. Sup- 
pose a man's hat blows off his head and out of the picture. A 
drawing of the hat may be made of celluloid. The artist then 
cuts out the hat and instead of making separate drawings, moves 
the cut-out under the camera until it carries out the effect of 
being blown out of the field. Talk baloons are also cut-outs 
and are laid over the celluloid while the characters make mouth 
movements. ALL cut-outs must have the edges blacked or 
they will cast a shadow. 

Ordinarily the action on each drawing should advance about 
one-quarter of an inch but sometimes more or less. In short 
action, where the space is limited, make a division for the moves 
and space the action each time, the distance of one of these 
divisions. In operating between two fixed points always make 
the divisions equi-distant for the moves. Fast action should 
never be spaced over three-quarters of an inch. Wider spacing 
makes the movement jumpy. The spacing of drawings does not 
govern their speed on the film. The number of exposures given 
each drawing regulates the action. The fewer the exposures 
the faster the action. 

Avoid having more than one character or object in motion at 
the same time as the eye can follow but one movement easily. 
Characters should be brought into some natural and appropriate 
position before being kept idle for a long period. Such posi- 
tions as thinking, sleeping or resting are frequently used. Any 
object or character whose part of the plot has been spent should 
be eliminated from the scene as quickly as possible. 

When photographing take the top drawing by the lower right 
hand comer and lift and lower it rapidly so that one drawing 
can be seen then the other. As a result, the movement made by 
the two drawings can be seen. Do this frequently when penciling 
out the action and you will find it a great aid in obtaining perfect 

All tracing should be carefully done, line for line and dot for 
dot. Any carelessness will quickly be revealed in the enlarge- 
ment on the screen. Models for tracing come from the figure 
or parts remaining idle and each tracing is made from the same 






model until the figure takes another position which will serve 
as a new model. Traced lines should not wiggle in the slightest 
degree. You can test the accurateness of your line by flipping 
the paper. If the pen should move the least bit in following a 
line, scratch out the wrong line lightly with an ink eraser and 
correct it. 

The parts to be traced on each drawing should be noted by 
a number in the spot where the tracing is to be made. The num- 
ber used for the tracing note is the number used on the model. 
Jot notes describing incidents in the action outside the field lines 
on a drawing. This note making is especially valuable when 
making drawings which reverse or repeat actions. 

One sketch-saving trick consists of making a drawing of a 
setting and having a large number of half-tone prints made of 
it. On these reproductions the motion is sketched in, thus sav- 
ing an almost endless amount of w^ork. 

To Photograph Animated Cartoons 

The camera is set at a distance above the drawings so as to 
exactly cover the field of the drawings. A glass frame is fastened 
to a board and a peg-bar is set in this frame with pins to fit the 
holes in the paper. Each drawing and all celluloids for that 
particular scene are placed on the pins in order. The glass 
frame works on hinges and is lowered over each drawing and 
its celluloids holding them firm and flat. Arrange two nitrogen 
bulbs with reflectors so as to illuminate the drawings evenly. 
When one drawing has been photographed, the next one is put 
in place. 

As I have said, the fewer the exposures the faster the action. 
Ordinary action is given three exposures. Fast action is given 
two exposures and rapid action is given but one exposure per 
drawing. As exposures govern speed, it is advisable to organize 
a system for walking, running, jumping, etc., and fix an exposure 
scale to operate action. There is no rule for exposures, they 
must be regulated according to the artist's judgment. 

Each paper drawing must be numbered and each scene desig- 
nated. Also prepare an "exposure sheet" on which the exposure 
of each scene must be indicated. 

There is a great demand for animated cartoons. It is per- 



haps best for the amateur to confine his efforts to short bits of 
film made especially for advertising purposes. 

A number of large concerns market animated cartoons. In 
such a place the amateur can find employment. The artists who 
animate the cartoons earn as much as a hundred dollars a week, 
their rating depending upon the amount of footage they are cap- 
able of turning out each week. Those who work on celluloids 
or at tracing earn less, but have every opportunity to study and 


Chapter XVII 

UNDER this heading will be handled the numerous so called 
"fake" methods used to deceive the eye into believing it 
sees something which really never occurred, and, also some 
of the methods used to embellish or aid in the artistic conception 
of the picture. 

The director will often require that the picture grow darker 
and darker gradually until it has "faded" to blackness. This is 
called a "fade-out." It is supposed to indicate the end of an 
incident similar to the end of a chapter in a book. To accomplish 
this the cameraman must slowly close the diaphragm on his lens 
or the shutter opening on his camera. Either will produce the 
same result. Some cameras have an automatic closing and open- 
ing shutter that performs its complete movement from open to 
shut in lo turns (five seconds or five feet) and vice- versa. These 
automatics work by merely pressing a button and holding it 
down until the indicator shows shutter to be closed. If the 
button is still held down the shutter will begin to open again as the 
pressure must be removed as soon as indicator shows "shut" and 
a few more turns given to the crank handle to insure that all of 
the fade has been wound up into the take-up magazine. 

The "fade-in" is exactly the reverse of the above. The operator 
starts with the shutter or diaphragm on lens closed. He gives 
first a few turns of crank to insure bringing fresh film stock into 
his camera and then gradually opens either lens diaphragm or 
shutter until fully open or until open to the desired point. All 
this time, of course, the other hand is keeping the crank going 
steadily and accurately two turns to the second. It will require 
a little practice to do these two things at the same time. For this 
reason an automatic shutter is very desirable as it does not take 
the operators mind from his turning. 

Some lenses do not diaphragm completely shut. Any lens can 
be made to close entirely by having an optical worker fit an extra 
leaf in the diaphragm which has a little projection on its end. 
This small projection folds over the other leaves when the lens 



is diaphragmed down below f.64 and closes out light completely. 
It does not affect the working of the lens at all when it is used at 
various openings although it may appear to one that the projec- 
tion would cast a shadow.. It must be remembered, however, 
that every point or node of an anastigmat lens is projecting the 
image all over the field from every point or node on the surface 
of the lens. The projection on the diaphragm only cuts out a 
few of these rays and therefore the only effect is to make the 
lens work a very little slower, so little that it need not be taken 
into consideration. The small projection is, however, very small 
and only of sufficient size to cover the pin-hole opening of f.64. 
Do not allow an incompetent optician to fit a large clumsy pro- 
jector piece to a diaphragm leaf. 

Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, N. Y. ; E. B. Meyerowitz, New 
York ; C. P. Goerz, American Optical Company, New York ; are 
some of the concerns which dO' this kind of work. 

There is also a method of honing the blades of a diaphragm 
down to a razor edge so they will close completely but it is a 
decidedly delicate process. The worst of this is that the blades 
do not last long after they have been honed but soon cut them- 
selves to pieces. 

To make a fade, however, a lens does not necessarily have to 
close entirely. The cameraman can, the moment his diaphragm 
has been turned shut as low as it will go, begin to speed up on 
his crank and at same time place his left hand in front of the 
lens, being sure to keep cranking a few turns after doing this. 
The effect will be perfect. The same can be done in fading-in. 
Start with a fast crank, at same time removing hand from lens 
and quickly slow down to normal crank speed at same time be- 
ginning to turn the diaphragm open to the point you desire to 
work at. 

An average fade should be about five-feet — ten turns of 

A fade at the end of the entire picture, (Final fade) should 
be about ten feet — a slow fade. 

Fades of fights or exciting action should be quick — either 
when in or out fades. They should not cover more than three 
feet or six turns. 

A similar result to fades is the circle-in and circle-out. 

This is accomplished by a diaphragm that fits on the lens 



hood of the camera — sometimes called the sun-shade. It must 
set at least three inches in front of the lens (2-inch lens). This 
diaphragm has a lever projecting to one side and while turning 
the crank steadily the cameraman uses his free hand to push this 
lever one way or other to either close or open the diaphragm 
leaves. This produces on the picture a circular shadow enter- 
ing from the edges or corners until it completely circles the pic- 
ture out. The effect is very pleasant if carefully done, but a 
jerky movement of the lever is worse than if the effect had not 
been attempted. 

A circle-out should never be less than five feet in length. This 
means ten turns of the crank during which the diaphragm lever 
must be steadily pushed in its proper direction with the other 

The diaphragm may also be used to shade or vignette the cor- 
ners of the view. The diaphragm can be used for numerous pur- 
poses. It may be used to cut out a bothersome bit of sky in one 
corner or to cut out an objectionable side of the set. I have used 
it frequently to shade out the corners of the film where a lamp 
was placed very close. In this manner, I obtained the strong 
effect from the lamp that I desired and at the same time avoided 
flare in the lens. 

Care must be taken that the diaphragm does not slip after it is 
set. Some diaphragms have set screws to fasten the lever in 
any position. 

Keyholes on the screen are produced by means of a metal 
mask that is fitted in front of the aperture-plate of the camera, 
and, of course, back of the lens. The keyhole is usually cut in 
thin brass by means of a very fine file and the edges then smoothed 
by rubbing with a very fine em.ory cloth followed by rouge-cloth 
such as jewelers use, the idea being to obtain a very smooth edge, 
otherwise the edge will enlarge on the screen and appear ragged. 
There are, in most carrieras, two small springs to hold these 
"masks" in place when they are set in front of the aperture plate. 
After they are placed, focusing is done through the ground glass 
as heretofore. The keyhole will appear as picture and all around 
it will be black. 

Of course, a variety of different openings can be cut in thin 
brass and thereby can be obtained such effects as looking through 
either a plain or latticed window, looking out through the entrance 



of a cavern, etc. In the cavern effect it is a good idea to leave 
the edges rather rough to give the effect of rough rocks. 

To give the effect of binoculars two circles which overlap each 
other are cut with a drill To obtain a smooth overlap it is neces- 
sary to first solder the thin piece of brass to a piece of heavier 
brass or soft iron. Then drill through the thin piece into the 
heavy. After the two holes are drilled heat the pieces and they 
will melt apart and you will have a thin piece or mask with per- 
fectly smooth and clean-cut edges. 

A telescope is done in the same manner only there is but one 
hole. As a matter of fact, when the eyes look through binoculars 
they see but one opening if the binoculars are of any account at 
all and properly adjusted, but popular custom has decreed that 
binoculars are double circles and they are invariably so repre- 
sented on the screen. 

Sometimes when showing binoculars the view as seen through 
them is out of focus at first and then comes into sharp focus as 
the holder of the binoculars is supposed to adjust them. This 
is done by first focusing the camera on the view and noting the 
mark at which the calibrating dial is pointed. Then deliberately 
throw the camera out of focus, and, while turning, bring the 
focusing dial back to the correct mark. 

There is no end to the variety of fancy frames and masks that 
may be cut for the aperture of cameras. They range from plain 
ovals and circles, to intricate lattice-work effects and geometrical 

In over-sea countries the fancy masks are used a good bit more 
than in the United States. 

Visions on Dark Walls 

We now come to the many varieties of visions that appear on 
walls, against doors or in dark fireplaces, etc. 

The student will now have to learn to count while he is turn- 
ing the crank. He must not count every turn but every other 
turn. If he tries to count every turn he will find that his breath 
will give out when he reaches about one hundred or so. He 
must count aloud so that the actors can hear him above the buzz 
of the arcs. 

Suppose we have a scene that calls for an actor to cross the 
stage, seat himself in a chair, remove a letter from his pocket 



and look at it. He leans back in chair and looks at wall above 
fireplace, and, as he does so, there "fades-in" a picture, above the 
fireplace, of his brother's face. 

We proceed thus : The entire scene of the actor crossing the 
screen and sitting down, looking up, etc., is taken first. The 
cameraman places his film in the camera gate after carefully 
focusing and observes when the two pins that pull the film down 
after each exposure are exactly at the bottom of their downward 
stroke. He then marks the two holes that these pins engage in 
when at the bottom of the down-stroke. This can be done either 
by pencil or by cuttmg a notch opposite the perforation we wish 
to mark. The system of marking depends upon the construction 
of the camera. On a Pathe it is difficult to mark imder the gate 
so a scratch mark is made on the side of the camera plate which 
will come exactly opposite a perforation in the film when the pins 
are at the bottom of the stroke. The idea of this is so that the 
film can be rewound and set to exactly the same mark to start 
again. If it were to be one or two perforations out of true the 
picture would be out of frame when taken the second time and 
the vision, instead of appearing above the fireplace as we desire, 
would probably be up half way between the pictures which 
would never do. 

Having assured himself that he has marked the film so that 
he can return it to exactly the same place, the cameraman takes 
three turns of his crank to make sure he has fresh stock in camera 
and stops with his crank handle down — straight down. He is 
now ready to start. It is now important that actor and camera- 
man start at the same moment so the cameraman starts his handle 
and after two revolutions says loudly, "one" after two more turns 
he says "two" and so on. The actor goes through the scene in this 
case regardless of the counting up to a certain number which has 
heretofore been agreed upon at which point he is supposed to be 
looking at the vision. We will assume that at 20 he is to see the 
vision of his brother. When the cameraman's count comes to 
twenty the actor looks up at the spot on wall where the vision is 
to appear as previously agreed. He looks until the cameraman 
comes to — we will say 30 — when the actor removes his gaze. 

The cameraman counts up to the end of scene or when the 
director says "cut" or "through." He (the cameraman) now 
reverses the belt on his take-up magazine so the film will wind 



backwards. He must be SURE TO CLOSE THE LENS, no 
light must reach the film on its wind back through the camera. 

Having closed everything tight against light and reversed belt 
the cameraman begins turning his crank backwards counting at 
the same time until he has counted backwards as far as he had 
previously gone forwards. He now takes the additional three 
turns that he took at first and opens camera. The film should 
now be at the exact point at which the scene started. Now, be- 
fore doing anything else he OPENS THE LENS and RE- 
VERSES BELT ON TAKE-UP AGAIN as it must be for 
turning forwards. 

He can now remove the film from gate and focus for the vision. 

This vision need not be taken at the same place at all. It is 
preferable to have the brother seated before a black cloth with 
plenty of light on his face from both sides and not much deep 
shadow except on the black cloth, of course. 

In order that the vision will be at its proper place on the 
screen before leaving the set-up in which he took the film just 
exposed, he made a mark on the ground glass of the space oc- 
cupied on the ground glass by the space over the fireplace where 
the vision is to appear. (If the ground glass is too smooth on 
the glass side to take the mark of a fountain-pen use a piece of 
ground celluloid instead, in this case — turning it towards the rear 
of the camera, but use it for getting position only as, being 
reversed in the camera it would not give the proper focus if used 
for focusing by. Focusing of the vision must be done on the 
regular ground glass — ^that is^ — the bringing of it into sharpness 
and clearness.) 

The person who appears in the vision, having been placed be- 
fore the black cloth and camera set so he occupies the correct 
position, the cameraman proceeds to mask out or cover all parts 
of the scene except the vision itself. This can be done by means 
of the outside diaphragm already explained if it is mounted on a 
sliding base by means of which it can be brought to any position 
desired in front of the lens, or it may be accompHshed by means 
of pieces of electrician's friction tape being stuck across the front 
of the light-hood or sunshade of the camera. These masks or 
whatever is used must be about three inches in front of a 2-inch 


Everything but the vision being covered the film is now re-set 



in the gate so that the pins will engage the same perforations at 
the bottom of the stroke as heretofore explained, the camera 
closed and three turns of the crank taken as heretofore ending 
with the handle down as before. The lens diaphragm is closed 
and the operator holds his hand over it if it does not entirely 
close or else the dissolving shutter is closed. The operator now 
begins turning, counting as before but the LENS REMAINS 
CLOSED up to the number where the vision is supposed to 
appear. In this case the vision is to appear at 20. So at 20 
the operator removes his hand from front of lens and "fades-in" 
for five feet counting all the while. Or if he is using an auto- 
matic shutter he presses the button at 20 and holds it to 25. 
He now keeps on turning, the vision being meanwhile photo- 
graphed and at 30 in this case, he quickly (about three feet) 
fades out ; the vision, of course, vanishes as he does this. The 
operator must continue turning with his hand over lens or 
shutter closed until he comes to the full count of his scene as 
counted the first time he ran the film through the camera. The 
vision and scene are now finished. 

If the vision is to appear against a light object such as a white 
hospital wall or a book a different process must be used. 

The film is set the same as heretofore, but at the point where 
the vision is to appear a piece of dark cardboard is slipped in 
front of the lens in a slot in the sun-shade or hood to a point 
previously determined and with a pin stuck through the card so 
it cannot go too far. This is prepared before the scene is taken. 
It is called a corner vision and the card being passed in front of 
the lens while count is going on and crank turning, will cause a 
gradual shadow to grow in one of the corners of the picture which 
will form a background for the vision which is taken later. 

If the vision is to disappear at a certain count the card is 
merely drawn away from in front of lens at that number. The 
time occupied in placing and drawing the card should be about 
five seconds or five feet. After taking the full scene it is now 
important to take a test piece. This is taken with the black 
card in front exactly as it was for the vision and about three 
feet should be taken for the test. This is now notched — opening 
the camera to do so, and just above the notch written in pencil 
on the face of the film "Test on this end, vision." 

The piece of film is now taken to the dark room in its magazine, 



of course, and there rewound, a piece of the end being first torn 
off and laid aside for the moment. After the film is rewound 
it is placed in magazine ready to be placed in camera and the 
vision part taken. Before going further the test must be de- 
veloped. This can be done by the laboratory but to get it 
quickly I advise every cameraman to have, in his dark room a 
small jar of strong developing solution and a small jar of hypo 
fixing bath. He dips the test piece of film into this and developes 
it and fixes, after which it is rinsed in running water and hung 
up at a window to dry wihich it will do within an hour if weather 
is dry. 

When ready to place the vision this test piece of film is placed 
in the camera the same position that the film will occupy — ^viz., 
upside down and with the emulsion towards the lens. The 
ground glass is slipped in back of it and the film pulled up or 
down until the claws or pins engage in a perforation which will 
bring the film into correct frame when viewed through the mag- 
nifier or focusing aperture. 

The operator can now see the shadow made for the vision only 
in this case it will be clear film — ^being a negative. He can now 
adjust his camera so that the vision occupies this space and by 
means of diaphragm or black tape or cards as heretofore he can 
block out all the parts of the picture except this corner where the 
vision appears. 

He should now remove the piece of test film and focus on the 
ground glass for sharpness. Then place the film in camera and 
set it to the point previously marked as heretofore and CLOSE 
THE LENS. He now begins the count and at the proper count 
fades in the vision as previously explained. 

But we will assume that the vision is not to be in a corner but 
in the center of a white page — as a letter. 

To obtain this a piece of clear glass is used with a small patch 
of black paper pasted in its center. This glass is moved about 
until its proper position is secured by means of the ground glass 
and then it is marked so it can be replaced in this exact position 

The film is now placed in camera and marked so the same posi- 
tion can be obtained when run the second time. We will suppose 
that ten feet are to be run before the vision appears. The film 
is run up to ten counts and from ten to fifteen counts the dia- 



phragm in the lens is slowly closed — in other words — a fade-out 
is made. 

The belt on magazines is now reversed and WITH LENS 
STILL CLOSED the film is wound back five feet (not the whole 
way this time). The belt is now changed back again and the 
piece of glass with spot in center is adjusted. The lens is still 
closed. The operator now begins turning again and counting 
from the point he turned back to, ten in this case, and at same 
time performing a fade-in. This will cause the dark spot to 
gradually appear on the letter although the letter or page does 
not change at all. A test is made at the end of the scene as 
heretofore to enable the cameraman to place the vision at the 
correct point and to assist him in blocking out all other objects. 

The vision is then photographed as heretofore fading in at 
the same count at which the black spot was faded in. The black 
spot must be of sufficient size to accommodate the vision. 

All numbers and counts etc., should be marked down in the 
cameraman*s note-book immediately and not left to memory. It 
is easy to forget or become confused about numbers. 

One of the best methods for keeping memoranda of numbers 
is to mark them, with lead-pencil on the film itself — ^that is — on 
the loop that is exposed when camera is opened for focusing 
and just before the scene that they refer to. For instance : 

Mark on film something like this : 

Vision — May asleep in chair sees face of mother 
Face fades in 30 to 35 
Face fades out 60 to 65 
Scene runs to 85 
5 ft. test on end. 

It is sometimes not convenient to finish the making of the 
vision the same day the first part is taken. If some time will 
elapse between the first and second takes the film may be removed 
from the magazine, rewound and canned. This can must be 
carefully labeled and set aside where it will not be sent to the 
laboratory by mistake. 

Cans should be labelled somewhat like this : 

Vision No. 6y (or whatever number scene is). 
May asleep in chair sees face of mother. 
Counts in notebook (or on film end). 
Rewound (or not rewound yet). 



If a test has been made and developed it should be taped on 
top of the can so one can see at a glance what the can contains. 
200-foot cans are good for this purpose as they take up less room 
than the larger 400-foot ones. 

A dissolve is one scene diffused into another. It is accom- 
plished by merely making a fade-out and a fade-in overlapping. 

For instance, if the first scene fades out at 20 to 25 — ^the 
cameraman merely v^^inds back the film five feet (with the lens 
closed) and then fades-in for five feet while turning forward 
again on the other scene. 

It will be found that dissolves are more perfect if they overlap 
more than normal. That is to say if a fade-out is made from 
20 to 25 it is a good idea to turn back to 19 (instead of 20) and 
to begin the fade-in from there to 24 (instead of 25). This will 
prevent any tendency of the film growing dark where one view 
fades into the other. 

As with visions a memo should be made of numbers at which 
dissolves occur, and, if the second scene is not made the same 
day the film may be canned and set aside. 

Enough blank film' must, of course, be reserved so that the 
second scene may be dissolved onto the first and an ample amount 
left for the succeeding scene. For this reason the director 
should tell the cameraman about how long he expects his second 
part of the dissolve to run, or, in case the second part is taken 
first, as is often the case, how much blank film shall be left in 
first part of roll to accommodate the first scene. 

Sometimes as many as five or six scenes are dissolved — one 
into another, in which case the cameraman must calculate what 
the total footage of all the scenes will be and allow enough film 
on the roll. 

In making a number of dissolves — one into another — ^the 
cameraman must be very careful not to get his numbers mixed. 
It is well to take all dissolves twice, so as to have a second take 
in case of a mistake at the time the first is taken. These should 
be marked first and second take on the film before the camera is 

One cameraman had ten dissolves to make — one into the next. 
He went along and had nine all right but became confused on 
the tenth and, of course, the lot were spoiled. This work took 
almost a week to do and probably cost the studio $500 or more. 



Often the director will call for a dissolve into a close-up. To 
do this quickly — first focus the long shot and note the mark on 
focusing dial at which needle points. Now move the camera up 
to the point from which you wish to take the close-up and make 
a mark with chalk where tripod legs meet the floor. Set focus 
and note the indicator dial. Now move back to long-shot posi- 
tion which may also be marked in chalk, set focus dial back to 
long-shot mark and go ahead. When director calls "dissolve" 
fade-out for five feet, rewind with the lens closed, move up to 
marks previously made, reverse belt, set focus to the close-up 
point previously determined and point camera correctly by 
means of the finder on side. When ready say so to director and 
when he says "go" begin turning and at same time fade-in for 
five feet (ten turns). 

If now the director wishes to dissolve back to the long-shot 
and says "dissolve" repeat the above except in this case set the 
focusing dial back to the long-shot position and move camera 
back to original position, adjusting the camera correctly by 
means of the finder. 

Miraculous appearing scenes where the costumes or surround- 
ings change before the eyes, are often required. For example : 
suppose theactor^s ordinary costume must change to the uniform 
of a soldier. To do this, run to a pre-determined number, say 
20 — and then fade-out. The actor has been previously instructed 
that at 20 he is to hold absolutely still until told he may move. 
After having faded out from 20 to 25 stop the camera and care- 
fully mark the actor's general position. The position of his feet 
is marked with chalk and the position of his. hands on table is 
marked likewise. The place his head occupies is marked with 
pencil on the ground glass of the finder and care is taken that no 
one moves the camera in the slightest degree. The actor is now 
told to go to his dressing room and put on his uniform which 
must be all ready for him before the scene is started. While he 
is doing this the cameraman* reverses the belt, winds back five 
feet with the lens closed and awaits the return of the actor. 
When actor has made his change he is placed in exactly the same 
position as he previously was, his head at same place on ground 
glass, his hands on the chalk marks which are now carefully 
erased and his feet exactly as they were. It is never possible 
to get identically the same pose, but the blur caused by the dis- 



solve with its confusion to the eye will cover any small changes. 

When actor is placed he is instructed to hold perfectly still 
until you count five. After this he may do whatever the director 
wishes. Turn forward and at same time fade-in for five feet 
and continue turning until scene is ended. 

Miniatures are frequently used to simulate wrecks of trains, 
boatSij etc. The success of these tricks depends a great deal upon 
the skill with which the miniature-man builds his toys. Some 
makers of these diminutive models are very skillful and can 
construct a war-ship, castle, bridge, or whatever is required, 
correct in every detail. In using miniatures on water in a studio 
tank, take caje that no bubbles form as they would appear very 
large — about the size of hogsheads compared to the model-ship — 
and give the trick away. 

A great deal depends upon the lighting used on models. It 
should not be too harsh as that tends to throw details into strong 
relief and the possible crudeness of the object is exaggerated. 

Burning trestles are usually soft wood saturated with turpen- 
tine which produces a black smoke that photographs well. 

Explosions are usually produced in miniature with the use 
of slow burning flash-powder. 

Wind comes frcnn a nearbye electric fan, and rain from an 
overhead tank in which a number of small holes have been 
punched or from a hose with a spray nozzle. 

Toys and dolls may be brought to life and chairs, tools, etc., 
caused to perform any actions the> operator may desire by means 
of the stop>-mQtion crank which has been explained. When tak- 
ing a stop-motion of a doll walking, the cameraman turns one 
revolution thereby producing one picture — ^he then advances one 
of the doll's feet a very little and takes another turn on his 
camera. He then gives the doll's foot another move forwards 
and another turn of crank and so on — endeavoring to produce 
lifelike motions. It must be remembered that in stop-motion 
work the light must either be much weaker or else the shutter or 
diaphragm be closed down enough to make allowance for the com- 
paratively slow speed at which the pictures are taken. 

An illusion that is easily explained is that of a man climbing 
up- the side of a building. He lifts himself up past windows and 
balconies until he reaches the roof. In this case, the house's 
side is built on the studio floor — flat against the floor and not 



upright. The camera is taken up into the girders at the top of 
the studio and pointed straight down. The man who does the 
climbing does not really climb but merely drags himself over the 
floor which, in this case, is made to resemble the side of the 
house. When viewed on the screen the house, is of course, ver- 
ticle. The illusion is complete. 

This same method is used with many different backgrounds 
painted to resemble the bed of the ocean or the moss and ferns at 
the bottom of the sea in perspective. One of these is laid on 
the studio floor and a woman attired as a mermaid drags herself 
around with the motion of swimming or is swung on a thin wire 
a few feet above the floor. To finish this illusion the same piece 
of film should be again run through the camera. The second 
time the film is run through the camera, the latter is focused upon 
a small flat aquarium in which fish are swimming. This 
aquarium should have a flat glass side and be backed up with a 
black cloth on the side furthest from the camera. The camera 
itself must be covered with black cloth leaving only the lens ex- 
posed through a hole cut in it. This black cloth should cover 
the cameraman as well otherwise the glass of the aquarium will 
reflect everything in front of it and the camera and anyone near 
it will appear in the finished film. After the second exposure, the 
film is developed and the effect will be that of a woman swim- 
ming among fishes at the bottom of the sea. 

The warning about reflections in the lens that are given above 
also holds in photographing a close-up of the human eye. In 
doing this, a cameraman must be very careful how he places the 
lights or he will have a reflection of every light in the studio in 
the curved lens of the eye and, when this is enlarged to fill the 
screen, the reflections will be plainly visible. Again, in this case, 
the camera and operator must be in black or covered (except the 
lens and the operator's eyes), with black cloth. 

Actors often have to play dual roles — ^that is, play two char- 
acters in the same scene. To make one actor talk to another 
figure — ^the latter being himself — an instrument is used to split 
the stage or frame in two sections. This is an opening in the 
sun shade — about four inches in front of the lens in which two 
black cards slide so that each card can be moved across until 
one-half of the ground glass is black or shaded. The action is 
first carefully rehearsed so that the actors know exactly what to 



do at certain counts. After one side is taken the film is rewound 
with the lens closed and the other card moved across until it just 
touches the first one and the first one is then removed. This 
shades the side of the film just taken and exposes the other side. 
The lens is now opened and the other side taken. If the cards are 
manipulated carefully and the actors are careful not to cross 
the line or the blend of the two sides the illusion will be perfect 
and no division of the stage will be seen. 

The action, in this case, must be carefully timed so that the two 
figures will speak and answer at the proper instant. 

There will be, of course, a space in the center of the picture 
beyond which neither person may venture or they will simply 
vanish. If, even, a hand is passed across this forbidden space 
it will disappear. There are, however, methods of crossing this 
dividing line and having one of the figures follow the other off the 
stage. The action goes up to a certain point and one figure 
leaves the stage. We will say it is the figure on the right. Left 
now holds his position for a few moments and follows off. 

This is accomplished by having a certain count agreed upon 
at which right leaves and is OFF stage. At exactly this point 
the camera is stopped. We will say it is count 40. The film is 
now reversed and run back to start and the left side taken. xA.t 
count of 40 the actor known as "left" must remain perfectly 
still. That is hold. The camera is stopped and the mask cover- 
ing half of the lens is removed. The camera is now started and 
the actor *'left" has the whole stage to act in if he desires. 
When the film is developed there will be a fogged place or possibly 
a few inches of black film where the stop was made, but this is 
cut out and the ends of the film carefully joined together with 
cement. If this is done skilfully no jump will appear on the 
screen where the mask was removed. 

Triples or three persons on the screen at the same time, the 
three persons being one and the same individual are made by using 
three masks, one in the center and one on each side. 

An example of this is a scene showing a man at telephone on 
one side of the screen, a girl at 'phone at the other, and between 
the two, a panel of a city with telephone wires. 

The two sides are usually taken first and then the mask set 
and the outside view taken. This means that the film must go 
through the camera three times or that the two outer scenes may 



have been taken at the same time by placing the two sets close 
together the centre exposure masking the junction of the two sets. 

A vision in a mirror is done by means of a piece of black 
velvet fastened to heavy cardboard which is made to exactly fill 
the frame of the mirror. The lady seated in front of mirror 
sees her own reflection up to a certain point when suddenly her 
reflection changes to a vision of her enemy — a fierce looking man. 
We turn the camera up to the point where the vision is to appear. 
In this case let us say 20 to 25. Fade-out from 20 to 25 having 
actress hold her position during fade — and not move afterwards. 
Quickly wind back five feet of film as heretofore and at same time 
have stage-hands fit the black velvet into the mirror frame. 
When this is done fade-in and actress can now move again and 
register horror at what she sees in the glass. After scene is 
ended be sure to take a test to show exact location of the mirror — 
otherwise you may have great difficulty in placing the vision 
squarely in the centre of it. 

When making the vision fade-in on the film from 20 to 25 
and be sure to have plenty of black cloth back of the man posing 
for the vision and to block out that part of his figure which comes 
below the line of the mirror frame else the vision will spread all 
over the dressing table or whatever the piece of furniture contain- 
ing the mirror may be. 

A good method of masking out mirrors is to take a piece of 
the test and cut out the mirror opening carefully and then opaque 
the piece of film with indian-red water color. Place this piece 
of film as a mask in the aperture back of the lens and in front of 
the film and the only part of the film you will expose will be the 
mirror. The mask must be carefully placed by means of a piece 
of the same test. For this reason make plenty of test of a mirror 

Ghost or spirit figures are often required. First take the regu- 
lar scene and then rewind to the beginning. Now have all ob- 
jects in the set covered with black cloth. Velvet is best. See 
that camera is not disturbed in the slightest or moved even the 
slightest particle. A black drop is used to hide the background. 
In other words everything is black. The actor portraying the 
ghost now enters the scene and the film is run through again. 
This actor should not be dressed in black or he will not show. 
Ghosts are always to wear something light otherwise only their 
faces would be visible against the black ground. 



The above effect will produce a visionary figure — one that can 
be seen through or is partly transparent. 

To cause the illusion of a soul arising from the body and float- 
ing away, the figure is first photographed to end of scene and the 
film re-wound. We will assume that the figure from which the 
soul emanates is to be seated in a large arm-chair. At a cer- 
tain count (say 30) the actor must be in this chair and remain 
seated there until the end of scene. 

After rewinding the film to the start cover everything in the 
set with black velvet and have the actor sit in the chair again. 
Now close lens and turn to 30. At the count of 30, fade-in while 
simultaneously the actor slowly rises from the chair and with 
a gliding motion crosses the stage and exits. 

The effect will be of the man remaining seated in his chair all 
through the scene while the spirit-like figure of him will rise 
from his body and move slowly away from the living being and 
out of the picture. 

An illustration or picture in a book may be required to come 
to life and move. In this case a girl reads a paper showing an 
illustration of the "toughest tenement in New York" she is shown 
reading and the scene jumps to a close-up of what she sees in 
the paper. Show section of page with view of front of building 
— people passing and children playing in street. This is a still 
picture. Suddenly the people begin to move and the children to 
run about. This is accomplished by taking a motion camera and 
a still-camera to the same location and setting them to focus on 
the same scene. 

About twenty feet are run in the camera with lens closed and 
at the count of 20 the cameraman starts to fade-in and at same 
time his assistant snaps the still-camera. The scene is now run 
to end. After returning to the studio the still picture is de- 
veloped and a print made of it. This print is now fastened up 
on wall and the motion-camera focused carefully on it. The 
film has been rewound to start and the cameraman now photo- 
graphs the still up to count of 20 when he fades-out. If he does 
this at the correct count the still picture will merge into the mov- 
ing one and the figures will appear to come to life. 

Some very astounding illusions can be performed by double 

We wish to show an airship sailing up Fifth Avenue, New 
York, only a few feet above the heads of the people : 



First, a good view of Fifth Avenue is taken, looking straight 
or nearly straight along the street. This is developed but not 
printed. The negative is laid aside for the time being. 

A miniature airship is now built and suspended by two WHITE 
threads so that it can be pulled towards the camera along an 
overhead wire for quite a distance — in this case about 15 feet. 
Back of the airship and covering the entire field of the lens is 
stretched a white sheet or background which must be well lighted 
so that it will photograph brilliantly white. The camera is now 
set so that the airship will, when drawn along the wire grow 
larger and finally pass out of the top of the frame when it is 
quite close to the camera. The focus will be set about midway 
of the airship's travel and may either be changed as the airship 
approaches or left stationary. There is little advantage in this 
case in changing focus. The airship itself must be painted gray 
or drab so that it is visible against the pure-white backing. 

After this piece of film has been taken it is developed and 
the result should show the airship approaching against a jet 
black ground (this being a negative). 

A print is now made from this negative on positive stock which 
must be printed so deep that the airship, instead of being gray 
or drab as in the original, appears black or nearly black. In 
other words a very dark print is made. This should show a black 
or nearly black airship approaching against a pure-white or clear 
film background. 

We are now ready to superimpose the airship against the back- 
ground of Fifth Avenue. The piece of negative of the street is 
placed in the printing machine and against its face is placed the 
piece of print of the airship with the clear film background. A 
mark is made on the perforation of each where the start is made 
and then a piece of unexposed positive stock is placed in the ma- 
chine, its beginning marked and all three are run through the ma- 
chine together. If this strip of film were now developed it would 
show a picture of Fifth Avenue with a white airship coming up 
its length but we don't wish this to be the case. Therefore, we 
take the piece of negative of the airship with jet-black back- 
ground and match it up with the print of same so that the begin- 
ning can be made to correspond with the beginning of the print 
and place it in the printing machine together with the piece of un- 
developed positive stock which we have just printed. These two 



pieces are now run through the machine and the film is then de- 
veloped as regular positive stock. 

The result will be a perfect illusion. Every detail of the ship 
will show clearly and there will be no visionary effect since the 
print of the airship was run through the printing machine with 
the negative of Fifth Avenue and this served as a mask and left a 
clear space which the final negative of the airship followed iden- 
tically. Every rope and spar will automatically find its proper 
place on the masked film and imprint itself there. 

To insure that the airship travels in the center of the street 
or where desired a piece of the negative of Fifth Avenue first 
taken, can be placed in the ground glass aperture when focusing 
on the miniature airship and the camera so arranged that it will 
be the right size and travel on the wire in the proper direction. 

This trick need not be confined to miniatures. By building an 
airship large enough to accommodate living persons and having 
the ship so arranged that clear sky is back of it to serve for the 
white background, people can be seen moving about on the deck 
of the ship as it sails up the street. 

The student will, by using his imagination, think of a variety 
of original ideas that can be carried out by this method. 

For instance — A man leaps from one building to another while 
far below him can be seen the street and its traffic. The view 
of the tops of the two buildings is first taken and the street 
showing below. The jump itself is performed from one white 
covered box to another in the studio against white backing and 
if the leap is to be exaggerated the actor is merely swung on a 
steel wire painted white. The position of the two white boxes 
is arranged by placing a piece of the negative of the roofs in the 
camera and arranging the boxes to fit the exact position of the 
edges of the roof. 

Also a man can be shown running along a street at the rate 
of a hundred miles an hour by this means : 

A view of the street is first taken f fom an automobile traveling 
along. This should be taken side view to the street and the 
camera turned slowly so that the streets will apparently fly past 
very quickly. This negative is later used with one taken in the 
studio showing the actor running on a tread-mill painted white 
and against a white backing as heretofore. Any number of ap- 
parently impossible effects can be otained by this method. There 



is no end to the variety of effects such companies as Keystone, 
Sennett and others obtain by its use. 

Scenes showing Hghtning striking people or buildings are 
often needed. An actor comes to the door of a house during a 
storm, he is immediately struck in the chest by a bolt from the 

This is done by counts. The perforation is marked so film 
can be reset in camera to start At count of (say 30) the actor 
is to receive his supposed stroke. So he must be at the door by 
about 28 and just as the cameraman shouts 30 the actor must 
recoil as if struck and fall. The film is then run to end of scene. 

A test is now carefully made — the actor returning to as near 
the position he occupied when struck as possible. It is well to 
take the above scene several times as much depends upon whether 
the actor returns to his exact position for the test. 

The film is now re-wound and the test developed. 

This test will be placed in camera back of ground glass later 
to find the correct place for the bolt of lightning to strike. 

You will now need an induction coil, such as is used for X-ray 
work, capable of throwing a six-inch spark. This can be rented 
from the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. or obtained from 
some X-ray operative or electrical store. 

It is set up and covered by a black velvet cloth so that only the 
two balls between which the spark jumps are exposed to view 
and these are painted black with non-lustre varnish. 

The camera is now adjusted so that one of the balls is placed 
against the actor's breast on the test — as seen in camera, and the 
other one is against a post in the sky from which the bolt comes. 
The switch on the electrical machine is then closed and the effect 
of the jumping spark is noted on the ground glass and test. If 
it looks natural and effective the bolt is ready to photograph. 
It is advisable to throw the spark itself a little out of focus as 
this will give a sort of halo to the bolt and make it look more hot 
and natural. 

Everything being ready the film is placed in the camera and 
set to its proper mark and the lens opened. The cameraman 
starts turning, counting at same time. As everything is draped 
in black he is getting no picture. There must be very little light 
in the room however. At the exact count of 30 the assistant 
presses the switch or key for just one instant and the camera- 



man then continues to the end of his scene and the bolt has been 

This should be developed before the other takes are finished 
to see if everything has gone right. It is quite a tricky piece of 

When making scenes on board ship or in a ship's interior set 
the effect required is that of a ship rocking at sea. Place the 
camera, sideways on the tripod-tilt. While turning the crank 
have your assistant also turn the tilting handle several turns one 
way and then reverse the motion. This must be done steadily 
and not too fast, never jerkily. 

Camp-fire effects at night are obtained by several methods. 
The most effective I ever obtained was by digging a hole in the 
ground about two feet deep and setting an arc light in this, with 
the wire leading away from the trench covered by a layer of 
ground. The arc was turned so that its rays were thrown up- 
ward into the faces of the .men grouped around the spot. In 
front of this trench, that is, on the side towards the camera, were 
placed a few logs of wood and some leaves saturated with 
kerosene. The background consisted of an old tree trunk stand- 
ing in the studio yard where this scene was taken. 

The camera was focused on a flash-lamp bulb held by my as- 
sistant directly over the spot where the fire was later ignited. I 
also measured the distance with tape and checked up on the cali- 
brated camera scale. When all was ready the logs were lighted, 
the current switched on in the arc and the men gathered around 
the fire. I had the diaphragm of my lens wide open — f.3.5 and 
shutter at normal. I turned a little slowly — about Ys normal 
speed. The positive film was tinted red and was all that could 
be desired. 

Another method, where electricity cannot be obtained, is to 
sink several slow burning magnesium torches in the hole 
in the ground. These are made by Newman of New York and 
are quite expensive so that, wherever possible, electric arcs 
should be used. Also, the flares only burn about two minutes 
and emit volumes of smoke which often entirely hide everything 
from the lens. 

Smoke-pots are a sulphurous combination of powders that can 
be purchased at any theatrical supply house and are used to 
"fake" fires in daytime, Several smoke-pots lighted behind 



windows will produce volumes of thick, yellow smoke that will 
roll through the window giving the effect of a hot fire within. 
They are harmless inasmuch as they never produce any real 
amount of heat nor can they explode. The smoke they pour 
forth quickly disappears. It is, however, very non-actinic and 
photographs effectively. It is also used by "miniature" workers 
in miniature volcanoes. When these effects are tinted red they 
are most convincing. 


Chapter XVIII 

UNDOUBTEDLY the most important phase in the produc- 
tion of a picture is the choice of subject, and in no case, 
paradoxical as it may seem, is this so important as in 
pictures which, to the "man in the street," have no subject. 

The fact that a particular view or landscape is pleasing to the 
eye is not necessarily a reason for its being pleasing in a picture, 
for there is an essential difference. Nature is an unlimited, un- 
bounded reality, possessing color, relief, solidity, distance, atmos- 
phere, and other attributes, which can only be represented, not 
reproduced, in a work of art. While nature is an entity, art is 
an illusion, a symbol, based upon and recalling nature, but appeal- 
ing to us in a different way. Though lovers of art are also lovers 
of nature, they do not enjoy a visit to a picture gallery in the 
same way that they enjoy a walk in the country. A picture, 
however real in its illusion, can represent only a small portion of 
nature — a small slice of it. 

Here we have the first reason why a pleasing landscape will 
not necessarily give a pleasing photograph. The photograph has 
an outside boundary, a hard edge, where it is cut out of nature. 
The eye cannot wander beyond this edge and find fresh beauties 
as it can in nature. We are brought at once to the formal limits of 
our subject. 

If the eye strives to go beyond the limits of a picture, the 
result will be restlessness and want of completeness. The objects 
at the margins must not be so attractive as to lead the eye out 
of the picture. They should not suggest the violent exclusion 
or excision of parts of nature. To give instances, great circum- 
spection is necessary in introducing overhanging branches of 
trees not themselves included in the picture, or of showing a tree 
without giving an indication of the ground from which it grows ; 
do not infer that such objects are never allowable. Each case 
must be considered on its own merits. 

A picture has a two-fold aim. It aims not only to represent 
nature, but also to be a decorative design. The lines and masses 




of the picture must have a certain balance or rhythm in order to 
please — hence the importance of "composition." 

The photographer, unlike the painter who can shift objects 
and place them where he likes on the canvas must find his de- 
sign in nature. He has to move his camera right or left, back- 
wards or forwards, up or down, until his focusing screen in- 
cludes a pleasing design. 

The problem is to fit the picture into the space satisfactorily. 
The picture must not look as if it were cramped and forced into 
constraining limits. It is also necessary that all parts of the 
picture help the general effect and belong to it. Extraneous 
objects, confliction of lines, division of interest, all detract from 
the force of the picture. 

The general design should be simple. It should resolve itself 
on analysis into a few sinaple forms, or groups of forms, rather 
than into a heterogeneous mixture of light and dark patches and 
bewildering lines. 

If we examine one of those pictures which attract us in a 
picture gallery, interesting us even before we have made out their 
subject, we shall find generally that it is built on well-marked but 
simple lines, with well massed light and shade. 

The fact that the groundwork is simple has little or nothing to 
do with the details. These may be few or elaborate, yet the 
general effect of the picture, considered as a design or decorative 
piece remains much the same. 

The subject of the picture is its most important and con- 
spicuous part. It is generally placed toward the middle of the 
composition with the subsidiary objects leading to or balancing 
it. Unless one portion of the picture is more interesting than 
the rest, there is danger of the eye being attracted first to one 
side and then to the other. This may lead to a restless or monot- 
onous effect By having a principal object, supported by less 
important elements the interest is concentrated. Such a prin- 
cipal object need not be very large, nor is it necessarily im- 
mediately recognizable as the artistic motive of the picture. It 
may be merely a splash of sunlight on a white house, or a branch 
against a white cloud. In many pictures, depending for their at- 
traction more on the mood and expression of the whole than on 
the actual subjects treated — on tone more than on design — it is 
often difficult, if not impossible, to pick out one portion of the 



picture as undoubtedly the principal object. Generally, however, 
such a centre of interest is discoverable. 

Many authors have sought to determine mathematically the best 
position for such principal object and their results may be useful 
as suggestions rather than as rules. It has been stated, for in- 
stance, that if a picture be divided into three, or into five, equal 
parts in both directions, the points of intersection of the dividing 
lines will be the strongest positions for the principal, and second- 
ary objects. This is rarely the case, however, and it would be 
correct to say that such objects are rarely quite central or quite 
evenly balanced. 

If the most important parts of the pictvire are placed toward 
the centre, it may be asked what should be placed in the mar- 
gins. Generally speaking, the base of the picture should form 
a sort of threshold to the picture, a piece of ground or herbage, 
upon which in fancy we may step, the more nearly to examine 
the picture proper. Sometimes it is a road or path leading into 
the picture, sometimes the lower leaves of a plant which rise 
upwards, something soft and harmonious rather than detailed 
^nd emphatic. 

There is a story of a French painter, who painted a picture 
with a wonderful foreground. He showed it to a friend, who 
was so full of admiration for the foreground that he could hardly 
look at other parts of the picture. Seeing this, the painter seized 
a brush and painted out most of the details, reducing the fore- 
ground to its simplest expression, in order that it might form 
but one item in a harmonious whole, instead of overweighing 
other parts of the picture and detracting from the effect. 

Foregrounds, then should be unobtrusive. They should not 
contain great contrasts or be too sharply detailed. 

Nevertheless, a note of contrast, such as a strongly lighted 
rock or tree-trunk on one side or other of the immediate fore- 
ground, may often be of value in throwing back objects behind 

The foreground should not form an isolated, uninteresting 
patch — it should lead into and blend with the picture. Some- 
times we see a more or less rectangular space of foreground, 
almost detached from the rest of the picture, a space which could 
be trimmed off without making much difference. Nearly always 
such disconnected islands in any part of a picture detract from 
the unity of the composition. 



What has been said of the base applies in less degree to the 
top and sides. One side generally contains some important fore- 
ground object placed a short distance from the edge. 

Although few photographs contain "lines" such as those in 
pencil drawing, yet Line is a most important matter in every 
branch of picture-making. If we examine a good collection of 
etchings, we shall notice what an immense power line possesses. 
The etcher has neither the color of the painter, nor, to any great 
extent, the gradation of the photographer. He is largely de- 
pendent on line, and uses its power to the utmost. 

The photographer often overlooks the importance of line. 
Line in a photograph is not necessarily an actual line, such as a 
wall or paling, the base of a building or a path. More often it 
is the edge of something, a ridge of hills against the sky, or a 
dark bank of trees against the lighter distance. Often it is dis- 
continuous : a row of posts or trees, a flock of sheep going down 
a road. Whatever it represents, and however it occurs, a fairly 
well-marked line insensibly draws the eye along it. 

If the line is a softly undulating one the eye follows it easily, 
and without effort, and the result is pleasant and soothing. If, 
on the contrary, it is broken and jagged, the eye has more 
trouble in following it, and the resulting impression is one of 
stress or movement. 

We all know the peaceful calm of a quiet sunset over the sea, 
the straight horizon and the parallel banks of cloud above it, 
or the restfulness of softly undulating downs, with, perhaps, 
the gently curling smoke of a farmhouse in the foreground. 
Compare these with the wildness of a billowy sea and storm- 
torn clouds, or the jagged outline of a granite crag, or the 
gnarled and twisted trunks of windswept trees. The mental 
effect is entirely different: Gentle lines, especially where they 
are nearly horizontal, are connected in our minds with peace; 
jagged and broken lines with unrest. 

It may be objected that the photographer cannot alter the lines 
of a landscape. Nature has formed them for him to take or 
leave. If that is so, he can, at any rate, exercise his power of 
selection by taking a picture only where the lines are suitable, 
and refraining from exposing when they are not. But that is 
hardly the case. Nature provides the lines, the photographer 
can vary them, if not to an unlimited extent, at any rate to such 



an extent that out of the same subject he can often make many 
dissimilar pictures. 

Let us take as example the case of a well-marked path leading 
past a tree, with the distance beyond. The photographer erects 
his camera in the middle of the path pointing at the tree; re- 
sult, the tree in the middle of the picture, the path widening out 
towards the bottom of the picture. By turning the camera on 
its tripod the tree and lines are brought more towards right or 
left, but their shape is unchanged. Move the whole camera a 
yard to one side, however, and a marked change occurs. The 
path now starts from the corner, and curves towards the middle. 
Move the camera another yard in the same direction and the 
path will now enter from the side of picture, curving past the 

The horizon "line is a line of great importance. Its position in 
the picture has a great influence on composition. All level or 
horizontal lines which recede from the eye terminate ultimately 
in the horizon, or would do so, if produced sufficiently far. 

The horizon is on the level of the eye or, in the case of a 
photograph, of the lens. In order to obtain a true perspective 
of a picture the eye must be on a level with its horizon. If the 
picture be above or below the eye, the camera must be tilted for- 
ward or backward, in order that the line of sight from the eye 
falls normally (i.e., at right angles) on the horizon of the picture. 

Horizontal lines above the horizon line, therefore, slope down 
towards it, while those below slope up. The Hne of a wall of, 
say, 4^ feet high may, therefore, be made to slope upwards or 
downwards on the ground glass, according as we place our cam- 
era at a height of 5>4 or 3^ feet respectively. 

With regard to the position of the horizon in the picture, the 
division of the picture into three or five comes into play here. 
The horizon line seldom looks well in the middle of the picture, 
for it then bisects the picture, making it too symmetrical and 
geometrical in arrangement. A much more usual position is a 
third or two-fifths from the bottom. In most old pictures and 
in pictures in which the sky forms a prominent feature, the hori- 
zon will be in that neighborhood. 

The influence of Japanese art, with its strong decorative char- 
acter, or the desire for change from an arrangement which had 
become almos.t conventional, has led to the frequent use of a 







1 l^^<l 





w . 


td o 




high horizon, about one-third or two-fifths from the top of the 
picture. A high horizon gives greater scope for decorative Hnes 
in the foreground. 

The photographer raises the horizon on his film by tilting the 

If most of the lines in a picture slope in the same direction the 
effect is uneasy. There is a feeling that the whole picture is 
sliding downward. To obviate this it is necessary that the sloping 
lines be balanced by opposing lines sloping in the other direction, 
or that some strong object be included to stop the lines sliding out 
of the picture. Although the lines are not actually sliding, the be- 
holder imagines they are. Just as we stop an object from sliding 
by placing a heavy mass in front of it, so we can neutralize the 
the effect of sliding in the picture. 

On the slope of a hill or watershed where most of the lines 
tend to slope in one direction, it may not be possible to find con- 
trary lines of hills, but a foreground rock or clump of bushes, or 
a house or tree in the mid-distance, may often be secured in 
the field of view. Failing these, or in addition to them, cloud 
forms may be secured, which will give the necessary balance of 

For another reason unbalanced sloping lines are undesirable. 
They lead the eye out of the picture. When balancing lines are 
introduced, on the other hand, the eye is led toward the middle of 
the picture where the lines join or cross. The tendency is for 
the eye to follow converging or disappearing lines toward their 
converging end, rather than to follow their radiations toward the 
edges of the picture. 

Design is not only a matter of line, biii; also of mass. As we 
may have an unbalanced effect if all the lines slope the same way, 
so also we may get an unbalanced effect if all the larger and heav- 
ier masses are on one side of the print. Here, again, the mental 
effect is comparable to the actual effect of mass or weight. A 
"heavy" shadow appears to drag down one side of the picture, 
just as a heavy weight would drag down one side of a pair of 
scales. The blacker the mass, the heavier its effect — a property 
of which we may make use in order to balance a large mass of 
low tone on one side of the picture by a smaller mass of still 
deeper shadow on the other. 

Large masses not too much chequered and contrasted by light 



and shade give dignity and breadth. White and black are uncom- 
mon in nature, and should be discreetly used. The highest light 
in a film, even if it is not absolutely clear celluloid, will tell better 
if it forms but the climax of a modulated mass of light tone (espe- 
cially if contrasted by a strong dark in its neighborhood) than if 
it is a flat tone of unmodulated white. 

Mass, and light and shade, are almost synonyms in mono- 
chrome. Therefore the lighting of the subject, the time of the 
day, the weather, and especially the presence or absence of sun- 
light, have an overwhelming effect on the arrangement of mass. 

A hill against the sky with the light behind it forms a dark 
mass, while the same hill in a misty atmosphere and lighted from 
the front may merge into the general tone of the sky. We lose 
not only the heavy effect of the mass, but also the strong line of 
its edge. The lighting, then, is worthy of intense consideration. 

The lights and shadows in pictures are generally found more 
or less massed together than chequered over the surface — the 
darker tones, for instance, at the bottom and one side, and the 
lighter tones at the other side and top. 

Where a strong dark juts out against a high light, or vice versa, 
we obtain a contrast which is certain to attract the eye. Such a 
point generally forms the central point of the comfw:>sition. It 
must, therefore, be well placed. 

The most stable and solid effect is obtained by having large 
masses, more especially dark ones, at the base of the picture, 
support smaller or lighter masses above; on the principle of the 

Too even a distribution of light and shade is apt to be monot- 
onous, and inimical to concentration of expression. For thh 
reason, a landscape lighted from the front is generally less suit- 
able for pictorial representation, than if lighted from the side. 
Similarly, evening light, with its long shadows, has a breadth 
which we may seek in vain at noontide. 

A sky with brightly lighted cumulus clouds interspersed on 
the dark blue ether — such a sky we get when a storm passes off 
— is likely to give a much more interesting lighting to the land- 
scape, than either a cloudless blue sky, or the dull grey of a 
dreary day. 

Most potent of all in its effect on light and shade, is the 
presence of the sun. 



Do not draw the inference that all pictures are best taken by 
evening sunlight or after a storm. The characteristics of such 
lighting are merely given. These matters have to be considered, 
but they should be subsidiary to the carrying out of one's artistic 
intentions. Nature has many moods, and they are all worth 
portraying artistically. 

To take an instance where some breadth must be sacrificed for 
natural effect, the chequered sunlight of the leafy wood would 
lose its gaiety and vivacity if the sunlight appeared in large patch- 
es instead of small ones. One should endeavor merely to choose 
a view-point, in which these small, overlapping images of the sun 
on the ground are more or less grouped into masses of light. Also, 
one should avoid their being scattered too evenly over the whole 
picture, and try to arrange (by including a bit of sunless fore- 
ground, for instance) that the sunny bit forms the center of at- 
traction of the picture. 

The proportion of light to dark in a picture is a matter of indiv- 
idual preference and of the effect desired. Rembrandt in his 
work generally used much shadow, thereby enhancing the bril- 
liancy of the lights by contrast. The French Impressionists, on 
the other hand, keep the whole picture light, thereby obtaining a 
general luminous effect. If a picture contains light and dark in 
equal proportions, the result is likely to be rather tame, in com- 
parison with one in which either light or dark tones preponderate. 

As in musical nomenclature, these differences are often spoken 
of as differences of key. Likewise, the tones of a picture, rang- 
ing from black as the deepest tone to white as the highest, are 
comparable to the tones in music. The whole range of tones is 
called the scale of tones, or scale of gradation. If the picture 
includes all the tones from black to white we speak of a complete, 
full, or extended scale. 

From the photographic point of view, a full scale of gradation 
depends on an exposure sufficient to give the shadow detail (the 
low tones, without over-exposing the lights (the high tones), 
coupled with a developement which gives sufficient contrast to 
enable both black and white to be obtained in the particular print- 
ing process employed. 

It may be as well to note at this point that while line is almost 
entirely a question of view-point, having little to do with lighting, 
and being almost independent of exposure, mass is a question not 



only of view-point, but of lighting. Tone, though depending on 
selection for its material, requires approximate exposure and de- 
velopment for its successful registration. 

Photographic composition is, therefore, of a threefold or four- 
fold nature. 

To return to our musical analogies : A picture containing many- 
deep tones is said to be in a low key, one containing a majority 
of light ones in a high key. 

Where there are a few gradations (or modulations, to use the 
musical analogy) between light and dark, the range of gradation 
is said to be abrupt. 

The scale of gradation in nature between a light in sun- 
light and a dark object in shadow is many times greater than the 
range obtainable between black and white in a print. So great, 
indeed, is the illuminating power of sunlight, that a piece of black 
velvet in the sun may reflect more light — that is, appear lighter — 
than a piece of white paper or other light object in the shade. 

This being the case, it is obviously impossible to copy nature's 
scale, except where only a very limited range of light and shade is 
included in the picture. The best we can obtain is a compromise, 
which will give us the illusion of nature and nature's lighting, 
Obviously, there are different ways of approaching this problem. 

First, let us consider the three cases in which we represent the 
highest tone of our subject by transparent celluloid and the dark- 
est tone by the blackest deposit of silver of which our print is 

The first case is that in which all the tones of nature are more 
or less equally compressed in the scale of the print. The highest 
light is white, the deepest shadow black, and the middle half- 
tone is a medium grey in the print. This is the ideal negative 
of the technician. It corresponds to a negative which, allowing 
considerable latitude in exposure, has received normal exposure 
and normal development. The result evokes no blame and little 
praise. It is more or less impersonal and unexciting, and is 
usually of more topographical than artistic interest. 

The second case is that in which the shadow gradation is long 
and extended, and the high light gradation compressed. This 
form of treatment is suitable for subjects in which the greater 
part of the picture is composed of dark objects. To some extent 
it sacrifices the high lights to the shadows. It corresponds to very 



full exposure and suitable development. The negatives are good 
printers. It gives results of solidity and richness. 

The third case is that in which the scale of gradation is ex- 
tended in the high lights and compressed in the low tones. It is 
suitable for subjects whose charm is in their luminosity and the 
delicate modulations of their lighter tones, for effects of sunlight 
on light surfaces. It sacrifices the shadows, and, if these are 
extended, makes them look empty. It corresponds to careful de- 
velopment with comparatively short exposure. 

In these three cases we have postulated the existence of gra- 
dation sufficiently contrasted to give both black and white in the 
prints. But actual white is found, as a rule, only in small patches 
in nature — as the highest light on a sunlit cloud or white object — 
while absolute black is practically non-existent. 

Now, though the black of a print is not comparable with actual 
blackness, i,e., absence of light — ^yet we know that it is the black- 
est black we can obtain on a print. If we use such a black to 
represent something in nature which is not absolutely black, the 
print will appear forced and exaggerated. 

In nature we feel that there is always a reserve. Though the 
dark shadow in nature may be much darker than the black on 
our print, yet we know that in nature still deeper tones exist, 
while in the print we have touched bottom. For this reason it is 
safer not to use quite the full gradation of a printing paper, or 
if we use it, be careful that white and black appear only in very 
restricted areas, to form the extreme accents of the high light 
and deep shade. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that we do not always 
utilize the full scale of gradation, but may vary the expression of 
pictures by adopting a high tone in which we have full gradations 
in the Hghter portions of the picture and no darks, or a low tone 
with full gradations in the shadows, but no lights. 

Obviously, in neither of these cases must development be 
pushed so far as to get a very long scale of gradation. In the 
first case the exposure must be comparatively short, in the second, 
sufficiently prolonged to give the shadow tones. 

Such a restricted scale is most appropriate when we wish to 
give an effect of great luminosity or of gloom. Although such 
treatment is capable of giving a very good illusion of certain 
aspects of nature, the results are more likely to appeal to the few 



than to the "man in the street," who prefers more full-blooded 
presentments of nature. 

The general design or composition of a picture, and its masses 
and light and shade, are of paramount importance. Detail is 
good if it helps to emphasize and increase the interest of the 
general idea, but bad if it attracts attention from, or conflicts 
with that idea. 

For instance, if in a picture, the eye, following some attractive 
line from the foreground, halts to consider the principal object 
in the middle distance, and finds pleasing detail there, the sensa- 
tion is one of added enjoyment. First the good design, then the 
pleasant progression, then the interest of the main object, and 
then the further interest of examining its details and finding fresh 
beauties. This is a right use of detail. 

When, on the other hand, detail, whether owing to too crude 
lighting or to too sharp focusing, is sprinkled all over the picture, 
and draws the eye now this way, now that, then it is detail in- 
correctly used. 

A picture may be sharp, or nearly sharp, all over, yet if the 
details are subsidiary, and do not flaunt themselves, the effect 
may be harmonious — witness many of the paintings of the pre- 
Raphaelite school. On the other hand, a picture may have no 
sharp place in it, as in the paintings of the French Impressionists, 
and yet be harmonious. 

There is no general law, only the rule that detail must be sub- 
servient to the general idea of the picture. Detail may be con- 
sidered as pictorial embroidery — rightly used it gives a rich effect, 
wrongly used a garish one. Yet, as we may have a beautiful 
drapery either with or without embroidery, so we may have a 
beautiful picture with or without detail. 

In a photograph we are more likely to have too much than too 
little detail. Often it is a case of not seeing the wood for the 
trees. If we focus sharply on our principal object, we shall get 
other objects in the same plane sharp also. 

It is one advantage of the older forms of lens that their curva- 
ture of field, or their marginal astigmatism, partially eliminates 
the detail round the edges of the picture, where it is most likely 
to be superfluous. 

The larger the stop used, the fewer planes are in focus at the 
same time, and for this reason one should work with the largest 



stop with which fair definition is obtainable, focusing generally 
on the principal object or on the foreground, for a blurred tree 
or rock in front of the picture is objectionable, while a diffused 
distance is generally pleasant. If we stop down too much, we 
lose all effect of relief and distance, unless, indeed, nature has 
been so kind as to intervene with an evening mist to soften the 
distance for us. We are using too large an aperture, when the 
drawing of objects is lost. 

A certain amount of detail is probably necessary to convey 
texture, but in landscape this is not always requisite. Less detail 
is necessary to indicate the shape of objects. When form is lost 
by extreme diffusion, we attract attention to parts of the picture 
which it was our intention to keep subsidiary. 

Depth of focus, or depth of definition, the name given to the 
power of a lens of defining equally sharply, planes at different 
distances, is chiefly a matter of focal length and stop. 

Using the same lens, the depth of focus is increased by stopping 

Of two lenses of different foci working at the same relative 
(not actual) aperture, the shorter focus one has the greater depth 
of definition. 

A great softener of detail and harmonizer of tones is the 
atmosphere, especially if burdened with moisture, not necessarily 
in the very distinct form of mist or fog. 

We sometimes notice how hard and crude everything looks 
in an east wind, how black the shadows are, yet how devoid of 
that mysterious depth which is so attractive to the artist. That 
which is lacking is '"atmosphere." 

The effect of atmosphere — aerial perspective — is to interpose, 
as it were, a light veil between object and spectator. Only near 
objects are visible in their real tones or values, those further 
away, are more and more veiled as they are at greater distances 
from the eye. The effect of this is twofold. On the one hand, 
it blurs and diffuses objects progressively, according to their 
distance. On the other, it confounds their color or tone, by 
shrouding and covering them with a veil of mist. Thus a black 
and white object near at hand becomes but dark and light grey 
when we recede from it, while from the distance it appears a 
uniform grey tone. 

It is one unpleasant effect of under-exposure and over-develop- 



ment that they tend to exaggerate the contrasts of distant objects 
and make them come forward, "jump," as it is called. 

In order that the different tones of a picture should appear 
to the eye at their right distances, their values must be correct, 
that is to say, they must be to some extent proportionate to one 
another. The tones individually need not match the tones they 
represent in nature, but they must bear a similar relationship. 

Thus, we may represent a light tone in nature by a light tone 
on developing paper, or by a medium tone, and both may give a 
true effect if all the other tones are shifted down in correct 

It is not known whether this question of values can be ac- 
curately proportioned or scientifically measured. The problem 
has been attempted, but not solved. At present a trained eye is 
the only judge. 

It is therefore necessary to carefully educate one's taste by 
observation. It is the only safeguard against those crudities of 
tone which are far too frequent, even on exhibition walls. Never- 
theless, we are progressing in that matter, faster perhaps than in 
other directions. 

The ordinary photographic film is color blind, and therein lies 
one of the chief causes of false values. A blue object appears 
too light, and a yellow object too dark when the negative is taken 
on an ordinary plate. The ordinary film is little affected by 
pure spectrum yellow light in the time required to impress the 
blue rays; yet as all objects in nature reflect mixed colors, includ- 
ing a good deal of diffused white light, and not merely a single 
spectrum color, this insensitiveness is less formidable than it 
would otherwise be. Nevertheless, it is quite sufficient in many 
cases to entirely falsify results. I have, for instance, taken a 
field of blossoming gorse on an ordinary film, and the result has 
shown no indication of blossom. All photographers, too, know 
the difficulty experienced in obtaining clouds on the same plate as 
the landscape. 

Orthochromatic or isochromatic films are prepared with a dye, 
which enables the film to absorb, and be affected, by rays of color 
which the ordinary film fails to hold fast. There are two chief 
classes of orthochromatic films — ^the one class sensitive to yellow 
and green, the other sensitive to red as well. 

The latter, or panchromatic class, is rather difficult to work, 



fogging easily, and hardly permitting development to be watched, 
and therefore most suitably developed by time. The other class, 
with ordinary care and by using a good red light and shielding 
the tank during development, is nearly as easy to work as or- 
dinary film. Yellow being to the eye the brightest color, it is 
yellow sensitiveness which is important, and so red sensitiveness 
is to some extent a luxury. 

Whichever class of film is used, however, its blue sensitiveness 
is still excessive. In order to make full use of their ortho- 
chromatic properties, it is necessary to damp the blue and violet 
rays of the image with a yellow or orange screen. These have 
already been discussed. 

By a suitable screen, in conjunction with an orthchromatic 
film, it is possible under favorable circumstances to obtain the 
sls^ and landscape both well rendered on the same plate. When 
a dark foreground is contrasted against a bright sky, it is, how- 
ever, a difficult matter to expose so that both landscape and sky 
are satisfactorily rendered. It is well worth trying, though one 
may have to put up with frequent disappointments. 

After selection, which settles the composition of the picture, 
and focus, which decides its detail and to some extent its em- 
phasis, we arrive at the very important matter of exposure, which, 
with suitable development, decides its tone and gradation. The 
old idea was that you could give almost any exposure, and then 
make up for its incorrectness by suitable development. 

The modem trend of opinion is almost the contrar>\ Once 
the exposure has been made it is only possible to alter contrasts 
by giving a short or a long development, or, what is much the 
same, a weak or a strong one. 

Modern authorities do not deny the value of bromide in over- 
exposure if used from the beginning of developmpent ; but as 
its use in quantity appears to be equivalent to slowing the film, 
it is hardly suitable for unknown exposures which may have 
erred on the short side. 

W^hether we believe in the possibility of modifying results or 
not in development, however, we cannot help believing in the im- 
portance of exposure. For this reason it is necessary to have 
some guide which will enable us to estimate, or rather approxi- 
mate to, a correct, or preferably a normal exposure. 

Once we know what the normal exposure is, it is possible to 



modify it in either direction to obtain special effects, as sug- 
gested when discussing tone gradation; but if we only guess at 
the exposure, we are working in the dark mentally — a far more 
difficult task than working in actual darkness. 

Given a normal exposure on an ordinary subject, we shall get 
good gradation; the length of the scale and the amount of con- 
trast depending on development. 

With under-exposure we shall get either a partial scale with- 
out contrast, or an abrupt scale with contrast, according as we 
develop little or much. 

Normal exposure may be defined as the exposure, which, with 
normal development, gives detail in the shadows without over- 
exposing or blocking up the lights. 

The principle on which exposure is calculated is simple, though 
the estimation itself is not always easy. If we always took similar 
objects in the same light, with a particular film and stop, we could 
always give the same exposure. 

It is the variation of these four factors, stop, film, light and 
object which modify exposure. 

The basis of all methods of calculating exposure consists in 
taking an exposure which has been proved to be correct as a 
starting point, and multiplying or dividing it to compensate for 
alteration of the four factors. 

To take the simplest factor first. The stop lets through light 
in quantity proportionate to its area ; and its area is proportion- 
ate to its diameter squared. Thus a two-inch stop lets through 
four (that is, two square) times as much light as a one-inch 
stop, and therefore requires only one-quarter the exposure. 
Similarly f/12 requires four times the exposure of f/6. 

With different lenses, the equivalent, not the actual aperture, 
is the measure of the light passed. Thus f/8 must be taken as 
of equal rapidity with all lens. 

The next factor is the film. Its speed must be found by 
trial, under known conditions, or taken from one of the published 

The most difficult factor is the light, and this must either be 
measured with an actinometer, or taken from tables giving its 
strength under different weather conditions in different latitudes 
and at different times of the day and year. If we use tables we 
must have another factor for subject, for obviously the exposure 
for an average landscape will be much shorter than for the in- 



terior of an avenue. When the Hght is directly tested, this 
subject factor may be eliminated for ordinary subjects. In the 
shade of an avenue, for instance, the actinometer will darken 
much more slowly than in the open. 

The tabular method is exemplified in the Hurter and Driffield 
meter ; in the Photographic Era exposure table ; and is elaborately 
worked out in the Burroughs and Wellcome exposure record. 
The actinometer method has been perfected by Watkins and by 

Theoretically the actual testing of the light is most correct. 
In practice, all methods give very similar results- 
Most films possess great latitude in exposure. If the normal 
exposure be doubled or halved the difference would generally not 
be great. 

This latitude of a film is more severely taxed when the subject 
includes great contrasts than when there is a short range of gra- 
dation. Considerable latitude is necessary to correctly render a 
bright cloud and a dark, detailed shadow at the same time. In 
such cases, therefore, careful exposure becomes a necessity. 
Careful development, too, is necessary, or the sky will be so 
dense that it will not print out till the shadow detail of the land- 
scape is buried. On the other hand, subjects of slight gradation 
may receive exposures in the ratio of one, two, and four on 
separate pieces of film, be developed for the same length of time 
in the same tank, and yet give prints indistinguishable from one 
another, though the negatives will be different in density. 

It may be well to sum up shortly the different qualities on 
which depend the artistic values of a picture. 

From the point of view of natural effect, the most important 
are tone and values ; from the decorative standpoint — good de- 
sign, including spacing, balance, line and mass ; unity, the sub- 
serviency of all parts of the picture to the general effect and idea 
of the picture ; and harmony, which pleases the eye by good light 
and shade, with absence of clashing lines or harsh contrasts. 

The artistic expression of the picture depends on all these, 
its moods depend on key, on focus, on contrast, and on line. It 
depends also on the photographer, on his seeing eye, on his 
capacity for discovering and being impressed by the beauties of 
Nature ; finally, on his ability to record something of these beau- 
ties and something of his emotion in receiving them, so that 
those who behold his picture may see and feel with him. 


Chapter XIX 

THE tremendous increase of interest in aeronautics brought 
about by the war has brought the importance of aerial 
photography to a prominence which cannot be ignored 
in a book on motion photography. 

Already many of the large producing companies are maintain- 
ing hangars and fleets of airplanes for taking motion pictures 
in the air. Dare-devil stunts on terra firma have been worked 
with every conceivable variation and permutation until the spec- 
tators have become blase and view with ennui, feats that thrilled 
them to the marrow a few short years ago. Consequently, pro- 
ducers, ever alert for new sensations, have turned with alacrity 
to the possibilities of new hair-raising stunts performed thou- 
sands of feet in the air. 

In most of the stunts on the ground or even on the water, the 
cameraman often shares to a large extent the dangers involved 
in the feats depicted, but in only a fraction of a degree to what 
he must share in taking stunts in the air. 

In working on the ground with speeding trains, or other racing 
vehicles he can easily reduce the speed of the moving participants 
and by reducing his cranking rate produce the effect of break- 
neck speed, whereas the apparently wildly careening machines 
are in reality proceeding at a leisurely pace. 

In the air, however, no such latitude is permitted him. His 
racing airplane cannot reduce its headlong flight without fall- 
ing to the ground and his crank hand must never falter or lose a 
stroke even though he hang head downward with ten thousand 
feet of thin air between him and the good green earth. Not 
only must he keep cranking but he must also panoram with 
lightning speed to retain his subject in the field of his camera. 
The constant shifting of the planes in the unstable air make it 
impossible to get the picture without giving a contortionist cards 
and spades and beating him out at his own game. 

The work of a cameraman in a ship is analogous to that of 
a machine gunner in a combat plane. All planes are **ships" to 


(Photo by U. S. Signal Corps) 




the aviator and the science bf aviation has given us a new ver- 
nacular which we may presently find blending its picturesqueness 
with the idiom and patois of the picture game. 

The writer, who happens to be the editor of this book as well, 
feels, with considerable egotism perhaps, that he can write with 
some authority on the subject, as he made for the Department 
of Military Aeronautics, while in the Army, several thousand 
feet of motion picture film while in the air. In addition he made 
sundry flights at other times for other purposes including as- 
censions in balloons, both free and captive; dirigibles, observation 
and kite balloons, airplanes of many types and flying boats. 

In all of his experience of more than twenty years of photog- 
raphy in many lands and different climes, he found nothing — 
not even three months* exploration of coral reefs on a tropical 
sea bottom in a glass-sided diving bell — which can begin to com- 
pare with the pleasurable excitement of aerial photography. 

Taking a flight as a passenger securely strapped in the seat in 
the observer's cockpit and protected from the rushing air by the 
sides of the fuselage is like riding in a limousine, compared to 
standing behind a camera with half the body exposed to the 
ripping, tearing, raging hurricane from the propeller, whipping 
past in a hundred-and-twenty-five mile gale with the roar of 
the exhaust battering the ears till your loudest shout becomes 
but the shadow of a whisper to your own ears. 

If you have no gosport or speaking tube to communicate with 
your pilot, it is necessary to arrange a system of signals before 
ascending so that you can direct him as to what to do. 

Much of the success of your pictures depends upon your pilot's 
having a good camera sense. Fortunately most good pilots have 
an inherent sense of distance and after being shown just what 
angle the camera covers, will be able to keep the camera ship 
in the most advantageous position and at the correct distance. 

In a machine where the cameramen can be stationed in the 
observer's cockpit forward of the propellers, the work is a cinch 
compared to the more common two-seated tractor where the 
photographer must take the rear seat and the full blast of the 
propeller. In a ship or a flying boat with a forward cockpit the 
camera can be trained easily in almost any position and close-ups 
may be taken of the operation of the ship itself. 

With the tractor type in which the cameraman must work in 



the rear cockpit, it is generally impracticable to shoot forward 
at all, the range of view being limited to the sides and over the 
tail. I have worked in ships that were in such bad repair that 
they threw a constant spray of oil and water from the engine 
and radiator back onto me and the camera. Turning the lens 
toward this was, of course, out of the question. 

On the other hand, I have been in some ships which were so 
clean that the camera could be turned directly toward the propel- 
ler and operated for minutes at a time without fogging the lens. 
The revolutions of the propeller are so swift that it is seldom 
that they interfere with the picture unless the sun strikes the 
blades at an angle which throws reflections into the lens. So 
do not hesitate to shoot through the propeller blades if neces- 
sary. Naturally in shooting in any direction except at right 
angles to the fuselage of the ship in a rear seater, portions of 
the plane will show in whatever view is being made. Generally 
this adds to rather than detracts from the picture. However, as 
dramatic pictures come to be taken more and more from camera 
ships such obtruding parts will become unwelcome as detracting 
from the main action of the picture and more care must be 
exercised to see that these extraneous parts do not intrude in 
the field of view. 

The pilot has almost as much to do as the cameraman in ob- 
taining stunt pictures, that is, close-up views of other ships 
flying near the camera ship. Besides keeping at a proper angle 
and distance, there is the problem of flying the ship smoothly 
so that the taken view will not meander all over the screen. 
Some pilots have such a delicate sense of balance and orientation 
that they can dip and bank and put the ship into almost any posi- 
tion without a jar or quaver, while others make it difficult to 
stay with the camera, to say nothing of being able to crank it. 

An expert can wing a ship over into an almost vertical bank 
and turn at just the right curve so that the gravitational and 
centrifugal forces just neutralize each other, and though the 
cameraman may be standing with his body almost horizontal and 
be shooting straight down vertically over the side, yet in rela- 
tion to the plane, he is standing straight up and not touching the 
side of the cockpit. Instead of fearing that you are about to 
drop out of the plane, the sensation is not that you have turned 
half-way over, but that the earth has suddenly gone crazy and 



tilted itself up on edge and that the only way that you could drop 
out would be to fall through the bottom of the plane which 
seems still to be in the direction of down. In a like manner in 
looping the loop, when it is done at just the right speed, the 
earth tilts up at the tail of the machine, rises up, sails over your 
head, drops down in front of the propeller and then resumes its 
customary place beneath you. 

Don't go up if you are not feeling well. Even a good aviator 
will not do that. I did it once and it made me very sick. I 
do not feel ashamed to tell it for half the pilots on the field would 
not go up that day. It was at one of the Texas flying fields 
where the officers' mess was fortunate in having a particularly 
good cook and the evening before, fried liver and bacon had 
been the piece de resistance at the eating club and although it 
certainly tasted good, all who partook of it had a strong touch 
of ptomaine poisoning. I was one of those who had eaten 
heartily of it and had passed a bad night in consequence. Still, 
a special aerial combat had been arranged for me to record and 
I did not feel that I could refuse after elaborate preparations had 
been made to engage the best pursuit pilots for a mock battle 
in the clouds. 

My own ship was manned by a fine stunt pilot and his instruc- 
tions were to fly just above the combat planes who were to 
play hide-and-seek in the clouds below. Well, I'll say we did a 
few stunts ourselves trying to keep those two pursuit artists 
within camera range and get their swoops and feints and starts 
and dashes at each other. They did everything in the aviation 
decalogue and a few more that haven't any names with my pilot 
trying to step on their tail and me humping to keep them in the 

Well, I got four hundred feet, all there was in my magazine 
and signaled the pilot to go down. He turned around at my 
touch on his shoulder and he must have seen my pea-green com- 
plexion for he didn't lose any time getting down into the field 
which was fortunate for I had a severe attack of sea-sickness. 
The pilot, who had also partaken at mess the evening before, was 
very polite and was similarly affected. He was in fact apologetic 
and said something about a weak stomach so that I couldn't help 
rejoining that he had a pretty good one ; he seemed to be shooting 
about as far as I was. 



The main secret of taking good pictures from an airplane is 
in having the camera securely fastened to the ship so that the 
vibration cannot loosen it. When a machine-gun ship can be 
used, the machine gun scarp makes an ideal mount. With the 
machine gun removed, the average tripod head with the legs 
removed can be fastened to the mount with a single bolt four 
or five inches long and ^ inch in diameter with a sixteen thread. 
A ^-i6 bolt fits the regulation tripod socket. With the scarp 
mount the camera can be trained instantly in any direction and 
does not take up much room in the cockpit and the swivel seat 
and gunner's belt will also prove useful. 

Where a machine-gun scarp is not to be had, a mounting de- 
vice can be made easily in almost any ordinary repair shop. This 
consists of 6 in. or 8 in. boards just long enough to fit under and 
over the upper longerons across the cockpit. Two holes are 
bored near each end of the boards and one in the centre, the 
boards being placed in alignment and bored at the same time. 
Four bolts through the end holes will clamp them firmly to the 
longerons which are the two upper main members of the fuselage 
frame running lengthwise of it. If it were not for the rounded 
cowl on top of the fuselage, the tripod head could now be bolted 
directly tO' the clamp through the centre hole in the boards. 
The cowl, however, interferes with the manipulation of the 
camera and renders it necessary to place enough blocks under 
it to raise it above the cowl. These blocks should be six or eight 
inches square with a hole through the centre of each. A king 
bolt must now be made of ,^-inch rod, long enough to pass 
through the clarrup boards and the blocks and screw into the 
tripod socket. Large washers should be placed on the bolt heads 
and under the nuts so that everything can be tightened up firmly 
without drawing the bolt heads into the wood. Thread the king 
bolt for a good distance at each end for the block and boards 
will stand considerable compression before they are perfectly 

Now see that everything about the camera is in perfect shape 
and securely fastened. The turning handle and the tripod 
handles must be fastened on their spindles or the vibration will 
shake them off and cause you to lose them. 

A light yellow ray filter should be used. This you can well 
afford to do because in airplane photography you have the ad- 












vantage of all the light that there is. Even with the Eastman 
filters Kj or K2 pictures can be taken at f 8 and f 1 1. 

Set the lens at infinity unless you have fairly close up pictures 
of other planes, in which case, set it at thirty feet which, at the 
aperture you are using will render everything beyond 6 or 8 
feet perfectly sharp. 

Us€ the shutter wide open. It has been advocated that a 
narrow shutter opening should be used so that the sharp defini- 
tion of a quick exposure would neutralize the effect of vibration. 
This is a fallacy. If vibration is severe enough to spoil single 
pictures, it will spoil a series also. Even though each individual 
frame may be sharp the succession of sharp pictures out of 
register with one another will be blurred on the screen and show 
a greater effect of vibration than when made with an open 
shutter and small stop. 

In cases where it is not possible to make a special camera 
mount for a ship, the tripod can be lashed in the cockpit with 
strong twine and straps but this should be done only when no 
mount can be obtained. The legs are bulky and take up useful 
space in the cockpit and it is almost impossible to fasten the 
tripod so that the panoramic head will be level with the plane. 

See that your flying clothes and goggles are fastened securely 
but comfortably. Losing your goggles will mean loss of sight 
for as long as you are up you will not be able to open your eyes 
in the terrific blast from the propeller. Fasten your clothes 
tightly or the air will balloon them and they will interfere with 
camera operation. 


Chapter XX 

Written by Lu Senerens 

Captain Charles Williamson, of Norfolk Va., perfected an 
invention several years ago designed to explore the bottom 
of the sea. The apparatus consists of a barge, a flexible 
tube of metallic construction, and a submergible terminal operat- 
ing chamber, containing a steel cone projecting outward, the end 
of which is made of glass. By descending the tube into the 
sphere and photographing through the glass, pictures of sub- 
marine life can be secured. 

The inventor's sons, J. Ernest Williamson and George M. 
Williamson, helped their father in the development of the appa- 
ratus. They began experimenting with ordinary cameras, and 
secured some excellent snapshots of fish at the bottom of Hamp- 
ton Roads. This experimenting led them to the belief that Moving 
Pictures of submarine life could be taken, and they formed a cor- 
poration of Norfolk business men. 

An expedition was then planned to take the apparatus to the 
West Indies. The photography was in the hands of Carl L. 
Gregory. The famous marine gardens of the Bahama Islands, 
near San Salvadore, were selected as the best location for the first 
under-the-sea studio. This location was chosen because of the 
remarkable clearness of the water and the variety and beauty of 
animal and vegetable life. A vessel suitable for operating the 
apparatus was constructed in the shipyard at Nassau, in the 
Bahama Islands. The marine gardens nearby were selected as 
the place for taking the first pictures. This location is more 
beautiful than any other in this part of the world. The sea bot- 
tom is strewn with wrecks along the treacherous coral reefs, and 
the denizens attain the most gorgeous colors and most fantastic 

Here Mr. Gregory secured a panorama of the sea bottom by 
the perfect illumination afforded by the sunlight coming down 
through the water and striking the white coral reefs. It required 
ten days of experimenting and considerable waste of film to ascer- 


(Courtesy of the Submarine Film Corporation) 





tain the correct exposure necessary for submarine photography. 
Some of the pictures were made at night with the aid of sub- 
marine lamps equipped with 2,400 candle-power Cooper-Hewitt 
quartz burners. The exposure for day and night pictures was 
about the same, the average being from one-thirty-second to one- 
seventy-fifth of a second at depths varying from 15 to 60 feet. 

Scientific photographers in America had previously declared 
that no practical photographs, much less motion pictures, could 
be obtained under water, but the result of the expedition of sev- 
eral months' duration was about 20,000 feet of moving-picture 
film. These pictures were later produced and copyrighted by the 
Submarine Film Corporation. 

Mr. Hadden-Smith, the colonial governor of the island, was 
much impressed by the importance of the work. Both he and his 
wife descended into the observation chamber, and were amazed 
by the beauty of the spectacle revealed. 

A series of scenes native to the Bahamas were fixed upon and 
photographed. For example, all tourists in tropical waters have 
seen negro boys dive for coins thrown into the water. Perhaps 
one of the most intensely interesting scenes in the film is the one 
showing these negroes beneath the surf-ace fighting each other for 
the descending pieces of silver. As many as three at a time were 
caught by the camera struggling to secure the money at a depth 
of about 25 feet from the surface. 

Not far from Nassau lies the bulk of an old blockade-runner, 
wrecked while seeking safety in that harbor lat the time of the 
Civil War. She sank to a depth of 50 feet, and her location was 
well known. As the expedition required a scene showing a diver 
under water, George Williamson volunteerd to enact the role 
and a diving suit was boirrowed from the colonial government. 
Mr. Williamson had never been beneath the surface in such an 
apparatus before, yet unhesitatingly donned the suit, made the 
descent near the wreck of the blockade-runner and strolled about 
picking up cannon-balls. These were sent to the surface In a wire 
basket at the end of a rope. His movements were photographed 
by Mr. Gregory from inside the spherical chamber. 

Numerous exposures were made of the great variety of fish fre- 
quenting those waters. A number were snapped swimming about 
their natural haunts among the coral reefs. Some were drawn 



near the aperture of the photographic chamber by means of a 
baited Hne. In roany cases color plates were taken of the finny 
beauties as a guide for coloring the film by hand, so that the public 
might see the creatures in their tints. 

Man-eating sharks are indigenous to the waters of the Bahama 
Islands, and a film that has no counterpart in the annals of pho- 
tography was made of a battle royal between two of these levia- 
thans. Some of the monsters are from i8 to 20 feet in length. In 
ordeir to secure this film the carcass of a dead horse was towed 
out to sea 'and anchored in the water near the Williamson appa- 
ratus. It was then cut with a knife in order that its blood might 
attract sharks to the spot. Within an hour there were fully 
twenty-five of the monsters nibbling at the bait. An effort wa^: 
made by the crew of the barge to catch some of the sharks with 
hooks, to which heavy woven wire was attached, but they snapped 
the wire with their teeth, and it then became necessary to use 
chains. One of the largest of the sharks was drawn close to the 
observation chamber in order to secure a photograph of his strug- 
gles. He retained a large piece of meat in his mouth, which 
attracted another shark, who came up to wrest it from his jaws. 
The second shark, angry at its inability to get more food, dashed 
away into the abscurity like an enraged lion, but returned and 
with open jaws darted like a bull at the one held fast by the hook. 
The photograph shows his snatching at his companion's huge fin, 
and he is seen tearing it to shreds with his serrated teeth. The 
captured shark in turn became furious, and began swimming 
around wildly in an effort to get at the other. 

Alarmed for the safety of the photographer should one of these 
raging monsters burst in the glass, the man on deck slackened the 
line, and the sharks began to sink below the observation chamber. 
They were plunging toward each other with wide-open mouths, 
tearing at each other's body until they were reduced to shreds and 
a mass of streaming blood. Despite the fact that one of the fish 
was handicapped by hook and chain, it beat off the other and won 
the battle. It was later drawn to the surface and killed. 

The most daring feat ever attempted by a moving picture actor 
was one undertaken by Mr. J. Ernest Williamson. Stripped to 
the waist, a knife between his teeth, he dove into the ocean where 
a doz&n man-eaters were making the water fairly boil in their mad 

V 313 

(Photo by J. F. H^illiamson) 



rushes for another victim. Descending twenty feet, Mr. William- 
son met an ocean monster and fought his battle of life and death. 
The photographer, watching the encounter with terror, kept turn- 
ing the crank and recorded every movement of the desperate 
combat. Mr. Williamson had taken his life in his hands to fight 
a shark in order that the scene might be recorded on the moving- 
picture film. As he went under the water he observed an enor- 
mous shark darting toward him and permitted his body to sink 
under if. The shark shot past over his head and turned just as 
Mr. Williamson ascended. They were now face to face. Tlie 
strain of holding his breath nearly thirty seconds was becoming 
unendurable. He knew that he must kill the shark or the shark 
would kill him, and it had to be done before his breath gave out. 
With ta quick movement, he swung slightly to one side, just 
escaping the shark's head, and grasped one of its fins with his 
left hand. Taking the knife from between his teeth, he thrust it 
into a vital part of the shark's body again and again. Had the 
combat been prolonged five or ten seconds, as it threatened to be, 
he would never have come to the surface alive. The cameraman 
would have seen him torn to pieces by the other monsters that 
came gliding around in a circle outside the range of the lens, 
watching the finish of the fight. 

Perhaps his feat was foolhardy, but hardly more so than Orville 
Wright's first flight in his biplane. Mr. Williamson was simply 
doing something that no other man had ever done. Once he 
learned that he could take photographs at the bottom of the ocean, 
it was up to him to stage at least one picture that would be memo- 
rable in moving picture history. 

Many other intensely interesting photographs were taken, 
showing the flora and fauna of the ocean bed, and not the least 
interesting of the latter is a fish with a tuirtle-like neck and head, 
which is a species entirely imknown to the savants of piscatorial 

Upon the return of the expedition to America, it was decided 
that the first exposition of the film would be made before an 
audience of scientists, diplomats and men and women prominent 
in Washington society. The films were developed and found to 
be excellent. They were then exhibited in the Smithsonian Insti- 
tute. Dr. Paul Bartsch, of the institute, mounted the platform 



after the reels were shown, and, addressing the audience, gave 
the following endorsement : 

**I wish to say that these gentlemen brought us only a few of 
the astonishing photographs which we have just beheld, and they 
have shown many times more than we ever expected to see in our 
lifetime. They have shown us pictures that are the most won- 
derful and most marvelous ever taken in the world.'* 

The exhibition marked the climax of years of effort and investi- 
gation on the part of Captain Williamson to perfect his invention 
of the submarine tube, 





IV^*5 '.' 







v> > 

1^^ J' 









' ' ', 






k4W *■ 






• • .^■y^ ' 



V".*^ - 


-a^'^" '^ y^ , 

\ ^ 

*■ jT/ ';^- 






n j:^ 

y^ \.^ 


o ^ 


jsd -^ 



r g. 






o 1 

^ 5 

^ ' 


H S. 





> s 


z "^ 



c ^ 


Vik .. 


S c- 


> ^■^' 



w ^ 






r • 




r:5 Ci 


V '~ 


K ;? 





C 2 

^ \ d 

^ •:? 

V * 

s— • 





^.^■^ . 1 



^^^&v. x^ 


/ ' 

^^ yva^K 




^^^^^ M^^^HI 



■■ - i 


^ "'^^■^M ^ ^ fll^^^^^^^^^^^^^^l 



\ -*♦. 

>>^^ •» ^^^^^^^^^^^1 




^ vrVy ^^^^^1 

. - . » 


:j> " 


"Jv WA/7/,^i A^^^K 





vran^^^%=?^' ^ii^H 



^'^ '^^^ <<-^ ^ ^^H 



' ^<' / -«ii 




>t^.//_^ ^ 







<r ^ 


■^ :; 



■^ J 





7 ■', 1 






(Courtesy Stibntarinc Film Corporation — Photographed by Car! L. Gregory) 

Diver at work on the lemains of a Civil War Blockade Runner. 
Coial reef and fish in the background. 

Chapter XXI 

^"TT^HERE is a great deal too much make-up used in motion 

I picture studios. The primal idea of make-up should be 
the same as that of the retouching done by a good photog- 
rapher in making a portrait, i.e., the removal of superficial 
blemishes. Retouching the multiplicity of small pictures in a 
motion picture negative is practically impossible and the actor is 
supposed to arrive at the same result by the more direct method 
of retouching his face. Since the average actor is used to mak- 
ing-up for the glare of the footlights and to bear inspection only 
at comparatively great distances, he is apt to forget that in 
motion pictures the major part of his work is done in the much 
stronger and differently colored light of day or in the glare of a 
multitude of arcs and Cooper-Hewitt's with the relentless eye 
of the camera only ten or fifteen feet away and often much closer. 

Up-to-date directors are insisting more and more that make-up 
shall be natural and not artificial. Some of the studios even put 
their extra people on the salary list the day they leave off shaving 
when they require people for "rough-neck" j>arts. It requires 
an artist skilled in making-up to put on a crepe-hair mustache or 
beard that is not palpably false. The director who uses an actor 
with a bad make-up is only deceiving himself and not the public. 

Below I am giving an abstract of a set of general rules for 
make-up which was made for a well-known studio a short time 
ago, and a copy of it should be pasted in the top of every motion 
picture actor's make-up box : 

People doubtful of their make-up should submit the same to 
their photographer for inspection before appearing before the 

As a rule too much make-up is used for natural effect. 

For ordinary make-up use Stein's No. 2 grease paint over cold 
cream with enough flesh or brunette powder to avoid shine or 
varnished effect of grease and cold cream. 

Unless of extraordinary dark or light complexion or in case 
of skin defects such as pimples, moles, pits, freckles, or fine 



wrinkles, grease paint should not be used — a light application of 
cold cream with a slight application of powder gives the best re- 
sults before the camera. 

Application of grease paint: Remember that the camera records 
the back and profile as well as the full face and extend the make- 
up to the hair at the top, to below the clothing at the neck and 
behind the ears at the back. 

Make-up of the eyes : As a rule it is not necessary to bead the 
eyelashes. It should practically never be done although it is 
sometimes advisable for persons with light lashes to darken them 
with black cosmetique. If you possess heavy black lashes it is 
not necessary to line the eyes. Others should line the eyes with 
a very narrow black line placed as near the lashes as possible. 
People with prominent eyes and plump persons should shade the 
orbits of the eyes very slightly with black or brown — generally 
thin persons and those with sunken eyes do not need to use 
shading. Unless eyebrows are very heavy and well defined it is 
generally advisable to touch them up with the eyebrow pencil. 

The lips: Be very sparing in the use of lip rouge. Remember 
that red photographs black and that a heavy application of rouge 
shows an unnaturally black mouth on the screen. Except in very 
rare cases do not attempt to alter the shape of the; lips by the 
application of lip rouge. It almost invariably shows. Apply 
the faintest trace, if any, rouge to the cheeks. 

Lining : Lining should not be resorted to except in cases where 
the character of the part absolutely requires it. Lines should 
be made with dark red or brown and very carefully blended. 
Directors should take pains to select their characters according to 
type whenever possible and not require people to make-up out of 
their type unless in cases of increasing age, or effects of disease, 
etc., called for by the scenario. 

Wigs : Wigs with wig bands coming across the forehead should 
never be used if it is possible to avoid it. When this is necessary 
take great pains to blend the band to the forehead to render the 
junction of band and flesh as nearly invisible as possible. 

Mustaches and beards: The technique of a good beard and 
mustache would require more space than can be devoted to it 
here. Do not use curly crepe-hair until you have straightened it 
by dampening and wrapping around a hot pipe or by some similar 
method. Comb out the straightened hair and build up the beard 


















(Courtesy of the Universal Film Company) 



or mustache on the face a small lock at a time with the aid of 
good spirit gum, then trim carefully. If you do not know how 
to put a beard on properly get assistance from some one who does. 
Do not fail to use hair colored to harmonize with your own or the 
wig you are wearing. 

Colors : Light blue photographs white and should never be used 
in motion picture make-up. 

Yellow, orange, red and their combinations all photograph dark. 
Red and black are exactly the same to the camera. 

Yellow blonde hair photographs dark, ash blonde photographs 
light — the more loosely the hair is arranged the lighter it photo- 
graphs, and different methods of studio lighting also affect the 
photographic values of hair. 

Actors will frequently startle one by coming onto the stage 
to work in a new and wonderful ( ?) make-up that someone told 
them to try. 

Never let actors or actresses change their method of make-up 
during a picture that has been started. They must, absolutely 
wait until the next picture to make any change in their style of 
making-up. One actress had a habit of appearing one day with 
her eyes encircled with a lovely emerald green shade and then 
the next day deciding to try sky-blue instead. She caused con- 
siderable trouble before she was convinced of her error. 

Another myth that numerous actors entertain is the yellow 
grease-paint theory. Nobody can explain why a performer 
should make-up in Chinese yellow. There is absolutely no photo- 
graphic theory to account for it or its use. Let the actor make-up 
with grease-paint if he has a rough skin but let it be flesh-colored 
paint, not yellow. The objections to yellow are that it is non- 
actinic and if the actor happens to step out of the rays of the 
arcs for a moment or if he is shaded from the direct force of the 
light by another actor his face photographs BLACK instantly. 

Yellow may be used under heavy or double chins to cause them 
to appear to recede or be less pronounced, or red may be used for 
this purpose. Yellow and red are also useful in causing eyes to 
appear more deep-set than they really are. For the actor who 
has so called "pop" eyes a shading of red around the eyes will 
often overcome the defect, but it must not be used as a regular 
shade to cover the face. 

On the other hand do not allow actors to come before the 



camera snow-white or powdered with too light a powder. Some 
actresses think that the lighter they can make themselves the 
more youthful they appear whereas they only succeed in making 
themselves look like billiard balls. A good natural flesh tint with 
a powdering over of flesh tinted powder to kill the gloss of grease 
paint cannot be improved upon. This powdering should be re- 
newed at intervals, especially if the weather is warm and perspira- 
tion causes the powder to disappear. 

Hands should be given the same care in make-up that is ac- 
corded the face. Too often hands are neglected. 

Wigs must be carefully adjusted and a wig that would pass 
on the speaking stage may not be nearly perfect enough to de- 
ceive the camera. 

When assigned a part, many actors allow their beards, mus- 
taches or hair to grow to fit the part. This, of course, requires 
notice some time in advance but is often done. 

In designing sets or interiors for the studio, the cameraman's 
opinion is frequently asked. It is a good rule to try to keep the 
background tones several shades darker than the face of the actor 
for the sake of contrast. If the walls were very light the faces 
would appear darker than natural or sink into the background 
giving a flat lifeless picture. 

Wall paper is frequently deceptive. A design with a heavy 
lavender flower may look fairly dark but will photograph almost 
pure white. This applies to anything with much blue or violet 
in it. Red and yellow will photograph somewhat darker than 
they appear to the eye, but are not so deceptive as the blue tones 
because of the orthochromatic qualities of the film. 

Sets should be built two-sided whenever possible to allow the 
cameraman to set lamps along the open sides. If the director 
needs a three-sided set, places such as archways, doors, or win- 
dows should be designed through which light may be thrown. 
Never let the designer or stage manager tell you that you can get 
your light from overhead. This will not produce a good result 
excepting possibly in the case of prison-cells, artists' studio sets, 
or caverns, and such effects. 

Woodwork must be dull finished. A high polish looks well 
to the eye but will reflect every lamp in the place and give a 
thousand high lights to confuse the eye and detract from the 
acting. If the stage painter says he cannot produce a dull luster 



on wood, tell him to either rub it down with paint-remover, or 
daub it heavily with putty. This will kill most of the gloss. Ex- 
perienced stage-managers, however, will not present this abomina- 
tion to the cameraman. They will finish all woodwork in flat 
water color or stain which photographs well. 

Floors are covered either by rugs or compo-board. If the lat- 
ter, the cameraman should watch closely that he does not "shoot" 
past the front edge as it is usually left rough and unpainted at 
the side near the camera. 


Chapter XXII 


MANY times directors or scenario writers ask for absolutely 
impossible effects. The director expects the cameraman 
to know his business. He does not wish to argue with 
him whether or not a thing can be done. He states what he 
wants and says, "Can we do it?" If the cameraman is not sure 
let him reply. "Let rnie think it over an hour and I will tell you." 
Invariably this is satisfactory to a director but at the end of the 
stated time, the cameraman must say "Yes," or "No." There 
must be no "Maybe" or "Well, let's try it." The director wants 
to know whether it is a sure thing and whether it will justify his 
spending perhaps thousands of the company's dollars on an effect. 
He will not excuse any failure if the cameraman cays the thing 
can be done. On the other hand, the cameraman can, if he 
considers the effect impossible, say so and usually the matter will 
be dropped and another idea substituted. 

The director should never attempt to hurry a cameraman in 
focusing or getting his camera set up. If he does, it is the 
cameraman's dut>^ to remonstrate and the quicker a director is 
told and impressed with the fact that the cameraman is not 
going to "shoot" until he is ready, the sooner peace and friend- 
ship will reign. 

On the other hand the cameraman should not waste time or be 
outdoors smoking a cigarette while the director is rehearsing a 
scene and then, when called, come in and want to know what it 
is all about. The cameraman's place is back of his camera from 
the time the morning's work begins until lunch time and the 
same in the afternoon. That is why he draws a good salary. If 
he leaves the stage or location for any purpose let him first tell 
the director and state the length of time he will be away, 
f With the electrician — Oh — I beg you — ^make friends with 
the electrician. He is your best friend or your worst enemy. 
Bring him a cigar or a pack of cigarettes several times a week 



if this will help your standing with him. If he likes you he will 
push the good lights into your set and see that your carbons are 
nicely trimmed. He, also, will get to know your methods of 
working and can push a heavy bank of lights just where you want 
it without your even telling him. 

If he has it **in for you" you can holler for lights an hour and 
he will remain peacefully out of sight behind some barricade or 
other and you can rave all you please. Or fuses will mysteriously 
**blow" in the middle of a scene or the lights will all be working 
in somebody else's set — "leastwise — all the good ones" and you 
will, generally, feel that the world is a tough place in which to 
live. And the happy part of it all is that these knights of the 
**juice" are usually happy-go-lucky, easy-to-get-along-with fellows 
who are easy to cultivate. Once your friends they will remain 
so and do anything for you. Just treat them like human beings 
and exhibit some good nature. They will appreciate it. 

The same applies in a lesser degree to "props," the man who 
takes care of the furniture and accessories used in the sets — but 
his particular associate in art is the director. Still, he is very 
useful to the cameraman when a platform is needed or a mirror 
is wanted to throw a reflection into some dark corner. 

The stage-carpenters are usually quiet men who go about their 
business slowly and methodically. They are paid by the day. 
The cameraman will have very little to do with them but should 
be gracious and polite in any dealings he may have with them. 
They are under the direction of the stage-manager. If anything 
does not suit you in the construction of the set, you should talk 
to the stage-manager and he will direct his carpenters accordingly. 

And now the STARS. Who, oh who, can tell anything about 
stars ? Their temperament, their whims, their eccentricities ! 
The best way for the cameraman to conduct himself is to let 
those personages understand, at the very start, that he is as im- 
portant to the picture as they. The opportunity to do this may 
not come at once but, feel assured, it will arrive. Anything said 
must be in a gentle voice without trace of anger but just as firm 
as you can make it. 

Stars frequently are "peevish." They will come in about ten 
or eleven some morning with a headache — growl at everybody — 
and want to hurry through the day's work and get away. The 
more they are humored the more overbearing they become. So 



long as no remarks are made direct to the cameraman on such 
a day he had best keep his peace as the atmosphere in the studio 
is usually heavily charged on that day. But any suggestion to 
him that — **He get a move on," or "Step on the gas," must be 
retorted to mildly by "Leave that part to me," or "We will do 
the work carefully and right, or not at all." A few remarks 
like this are all that is necessary to show the cameraman has a 

If the star comes along with a nickname for the cameraman 
it is very probably meant as a sign of his or her liking for him. 
However, if the nickname appears to be the result of spite or a 
dislike the cameraman should think up a suitable nickname for 
the star and apply it vigorously. A certain cameraman did not 
agree with his star on certain points of make-up and the star 
began by calling him by the name of "useless." It apparently 
riled the cameraman and he always replied to the hated epithet 
by referring to the star as "Old fathead." A few applications 
of this resulted in neither of the names ever being used again. 
Its funny but true, studios are peculiar workshops. 

The cameraman will, if he is cheerful, usually get along al- 
right with the most temperamental star. Let him just laugh or 
smile a little and attend to his business with a good word for 
everybody and never a knock for anyone. Let him object strenu- 
ously when things don't suit him or his camera, but do so in a 
quiet and gentlemanly manner and he will have no trouble. 

"Extra" people are actors and actresses who are engaged to 
appear in only a few scenes. They are not on the studio pay- 
roll but are engaged by the day or half -day to appear in a scene 
calling for a crowd. This may be a mob scene, a dance, a 
cabaret, a camp of soldiers, etc. They are sometimes called 
"supers." It will be well, when a crowd of "extras" is about 
for the cameraman to keep a close watch on his equipment. Film 
boxes should always be locked and the lenses kept under lock 
and key also. I have even seen the lens on the still-camera stolen 
on a day when about five hundred "extras" were being used. On 
the same day they got away with several large silver platters, 
about six dozen knives and forks, and a number of costumes. 
Many professional pickpockets and petty-thieves mingle with 
these "extra" crowds just for what they term "the pickings." 
Therefore, keep everything not absolutely needed, in your dark 



room and keep it locked securely when ''extras" are about. Care- 
fully watch everything you must have on the stage. 

There will also be found in every crowd of "extras" girls 
and women who will frequently try to ingratiate themselves with 
the cameraman or whoever will not repel their advances. It is 
best for the cameraman, as a matter of ethics, not to mingle with 
extra-people any more than is absolutely necessary. Some there 
are among them who are struggling to work their way into the 
studio, but the majority have other objects or no object at all, 
except to get a few dollars and a square meal. (The studio 
usually furnishes them with a free noon-day meal.) 

With the manager — be businesslike. If he calls you into 
his office on any matter of complaint — state your side of the 
case quickly and pointedly. That is what he expects. Do not 
show any inferiority of manner or fear of anyone. The manager 
is usually the easiest and most considerate person about the 
studio with whom to get along. He is also a very busy man 
and the cameraman does not, as a rule, see much of him. 

Your conduct to your fellow-workers is just as important to 
your advancement in your profession as a thorough mastery of 
your handicraft. 

Do you ever assume a detached attitude of mind and ask your- 
self why you are not earning as large a salary as some other man 
whom you feel is not nearly as well equipped in professional 
knowledge as you? Do you feel that you have some handicap 
that you cannot define and yet which you know impedes your 
progress to a better position and a better standing with your 
fellows ? 

Have you had the bitter sensation of having some one whom 
you felt below you in the scale of experience, step ahead of you 
into a position that you felt should have been yours ? 

Most of us have, and most of us have accused our employers 
of unfairness, or our rivals with duplicity or made any old ex- 
cuse that salved our conscience and permitted us to place the 
blame anywhere but where it belonged, that is, on our own 

Let it be granted that many times there have been unfair pro- 
motions and raises in salary for the other man, but before we 
begin any bitter recriminations and hasty bewailings of the bone- 
headedness and unfairness of employers, let us go to open session 



with our own conduct and try to ferret out the attitude and 
frame of mind of the employer and of our rival. 

We are all prone to view the world too much from a selfish 
viewpoint and to accord too little respect and consideration to the 
viewpoint of others. We like to magnify our Httle troubles and 
tribulations and, no doubt, they are supremely important to us. 
Does that justify our thrusting their burden upon others and 
not taking into account the complications which vex them per- 
haps more than we are vexed ? 

Very, very few employers want to discharge an employee or to 
reduce his salary if he is giving satisfactory return for the sum 
he receives. If you are discharged, demoted or lose your place 
in line for promotion, the chances are ten to one that the fault 
is yours and not your employer's or your rivaFs. When the 
reason is a financial or business one, the employer is, as a rule, 
ready to explain the situation to the employee. Naturally in 
such a case no odium is attached to a let-out for reasons over 
which an employer has no control. 

On the other, a discharged employee is often told that he 
is being let out on account of a reduction in the working force, 
because of some deficiency which is inherent to the employee, and 
yet which the employer has not the heart or courage to reveal 
to him. One cannot imagine a more embarrassing situation than 
that of telling an employee that he is incompetent, or undepend- 
ab^e, or dishonest, or careless, or whatever the case may be. 

It is true that there is hardly any other profession in which 
there is more professional jealousy and distrust than in cinema- 
tography. Many enforced hours of waiting occasioned by too few 
studio managers and directors and by the lack of schedule which 
prevails in most studios, seem to breed an incessant turmoil of 
gossip or recrimination or malicious scandal, causing enmities, 
ill-feeling, partisanships. Let us all broaden our radius and put 
a bridle on idle and malicious gossip. Every unkind or thought- 
less word we utter, wounds and rankles and breeds others which, 
like boomerangs, scarify our own reputations. Our environment 
is a mirror which reflects our acts and thoughts. 

A man's earnings are limited only by his own limitations. Are 
you working to broaden your scope or are you whining that 
others hold you back? 

Cinematography is a profession that far out-classes portrait 



photography in the exacting knowledge and artistic training re- 
quired for its pursuit. Yet where are the Pirie MacDonalds, 
the Arnold Genthes, Bangs, Kasebiers, Johnstones, Hoyts, 
Saronys, Du Fonts, Marceaus, Reutlingers, Curtises, Bradys, 
Hartmans, Gillies and hundreds of other names that grace the roll 
of honor in portrait and pictorial photography? 

An art is the sum of individual exponents. Are you adding to 
or detracting from the dignity of the art of cinematography? 
Be even more specific in your self-examination. Aside from 
your technical qualifications, are you a man whose conduct is 
entitled to respect and consideration? 

Personality is a factor, a vital part of your profession. It 
cannot be detached from it. Do you co-operate intelligently 
with your director? Do you work for your salary alone? Do 
you study the scenario carefully? Do you try to comprehend the 
director's ideas and endeavor to assist him with tactful sug- 
gestions? Or, do you scorn reading the scenario and distract 
the busy director by asking inane questions? 

Does your conduct command respect or derision? Are your 
opinions deferred to or are they ridiculed? Are you liked by 
everyone above and below your station? All of these relations 
depend absolutely upon your conduct. If nature has not en- 
dowed you as bountifully with pleasant attributes as some of 
your brothers, all the more reason that you should strive to com- 
pete with them. 

Boys, none of us can more than faintly realize the far-reaching 
effects of the force which we are wielding. The phantom forms 
that daily influence and mold the thoughts and fancies of mil- 
lions of people are recorded by us. One cannot over-estimate 
the consequence of our most thoughtless act. 

To you as much as to the director belongs the task of inter- 
pretation of the author's idea. You can add inspiration and 
strength. You can increase its beauty, subtly render in light and 
shade the nuances of expression, show contrast and antithesis, 
correlate, delineate. 

When your work reveals more than mere mechanical repro- 
duction, when it shows both thought and imagination you have 
ceased to be an artisan. You are an artist. 

An artist is not a man with a flowing tie and baggy trousers, nor 
a long-haired genius in frayed pants, although quite a lot of us 



seem to have that impression, if appearance is any criterion. 

Carelessness in dress, action or speech betray the same charac- 
teristic in work and in technique. It is a moth-eaten idea that the 
artist and genius affect eccentricities of dress and manner. It is 
true that many brilhant men are afflicted with human weakness 
but it is true also that their brilliancy might have been greater 
if their weakness were fewer and that their greatness is not 
because of, but in spite of lapses of conduct. You cannot prove 
genius or artistic ability by imitating the bad points of brilliant 
men. Mimicry is the artifice of the ape; originality and self- 
respect the attributes of real manhood. 

Dressing neatly, brushing your teeth and wearing decent foot- 
gear will not make a sissy of you and you are a lot more pre- 
possessing and a great deal more apt to command respect and a 
good salary than a man with ability disguised in a shabby suit 
and down-at-the-heel shoes. 

Your mental habits are harder to overcome than your physical 
ones ; the mote that is in your eye is ever the hardest to perceive. 
The braggart, the liar, the egotist, the pessimist, are all loose 
and fluent talkers, and the enchantment of their own chin music 
drowns the groans of their unwilling and unconvinced audiences. 
You know them all, the braggart and liar who says, "When I was 
in India taking the Durbar for Kinemacolor,'^ who wouldn't know 
an East India native from an American Indian, if he saw them 
side by side, and who never saw a motion-picture camera before 
he came from Coshocton, Ohio, sixteen months ago. The ego- 
tist, "Why, Tm the guy that put him in the business. I taught 
hini everything he knows. I made-I-I-I-." And the fellow 
who blames everybody and everything but himself. He says, 
*Tf the lens in my camera was any good, and if the camera didn't 
buckle and throw a streak of static every time I turn the handle, 
and if the developer hadn't ruined my stuff in the dark room, 
and if they hadn't cut out all the good stuff in the cutting room, 
it would have been a good picture." 

The photographer himself is the only reason for terms of 
equality with director and star. There have been photographers 
who have risen from photography to directorship, to manager- 
ship, even to ownership of companies. 

"Hitch your wagon to a star" and plug. Search yourself for 
your handicaps and eliminate them. Make up your mind that 



nothing but your own actions and their consequences can hinder 
you. No one can advance you except yourself. Associate with 
successful men, ferret out the reasons for their success. If you 
can honestly and honorably employ their methods, do so; if not, 
reject them and seek others. Have confidence in your ability. 
It you have no confidence in yourself, can you expect others to 
have confidence in you? **Faint heart" never won anything 
worth having. 

And last, but not least, don't forget that you can't preserve 
your faculties in alcohol. 


Chapter XXIII 

WHEN applying for a position the proper person to see, 
if you are not previously acquainted in the studio, is 
the Studio Manager. 

You should request an interview and when you see him, in- 
troduce yourself and state that you wish a position as camera- 
man in that studio, if there is an opening. 

The manager will say if there is an opening, but if he says 
there is not, it is useless to insist on an immediate trial of your 

You should, however, request him to keep you in mind and 
leave with him your card containing your address and telephone 
number — ^that number is important as studio managers use the 
'phone frequently. If you possess a camera, add the name of 
its make to your card. 

An opening may present itself in that studio in a day or it may 
be a month or more before they will require another cameraman. 
Sooner or later they will want men and then, if your card has^ 
been filed, they will, very likely call you on the 'phone. 

We will assume, however, that the manager does require a 
cameraman when you present yourself for an interview. He 
will ask you what salary you expect and, if you value your 
chances of a position in that place do not make too cheap a 
figure. A manager will appraise your worth at exactly what 
you appraise yourself. In large, well-established studios a salary 
of $ioo a week will not startle the manager out of a single wink. 
In fact, if you ask for less he is very likely to set you down in 
his mind as a "crank-turner" or an amateur. 

If he states that he wants you to photograph some celebrity 
or well-known star — do not hesitate to ask $150. You will get 
it if they want you. 

At these figures, of course, you will be expected to furnish 
your own camera and complete equipment for taking the films 
However, you will not be required to furnish rewinders or darl< 
room fixtures, as these are part of the studio paraphernalia 



Also, most studios will keep your equipment in repair as they 
have well-equipped machine shops and expert machinists. 

Of course, experience counts for a lot in securing a position. 
The first job is always the hardest to get. After you have made 
one good picture the rest is easy. You should not say that you 
have had no experience whatever as that would be fatal. It is 
better to say that you have been making film for yourself or free 
lancing considerably rather than admit you have not worked in a 
studio before. Of course it is advisable to state that you are 
a graduate of a school of photography and to show your diploma 
if you have it with you. 

Unless you have already practiced with your camera enough 
to give you confidence to handle any situation that might arise 
in studio work, it is strongly advised that you first obtain a 
position as an assistant cameraman so that you can learn the 
ropes and adjust yourself to the customs and practices of studio 
work. If you have ability and perseverance you will soon get 
a chance to be promoted to cameraman with a substantial raise 
in salary. This salary will possibly not be as much as if you had 
attempted a cameraman's job, but you will be in a much more 
comfortable f>osition of having demonstrated your ability as 
you went along. As soon as you have made a successful picture 
as a full-fledged cameraman you can again get a raise in salary — 
if not in the same studio, in another. One of the peculiarities 
of the film business is that it is generally easier to get an in- 
crease in salary by changing a position than to try to get the 
increase you are entitled to in the place where you are working. 

You will, perhaps, be engaged on trial — services to terminate 
without notice if desired on either side. It is then up to you to 
show them that you are a man they cannot be without. If the 
foregoing instructions are carefully followed you can do this 
and establish yourself as a fixture in that studio as long as 
they make pictures and you wish to stay. 

When going to seek a position it is advisable to wear your 
best clothes. There are a number of itinerant crank-turners 
running from pillar to post and never remaining anywhere and 
they usually exhibit their shiftlessness in their appearance. You 
do not want to be considered one of these. 

Lastly, be considerate to your other cameramen. Do not act as 
if you knew it all just because you may have had a college educa- 



tion in cinematography, while they have gone through the long 
school of experience. You may have learned as much in a few 
weeks as they have gained in five years, but they are entitled to 
your consideration and help, if needed. A man may not know 
what the focal length of a lens is and yet may get good results. 
Some day he may have a puzzling effect to work out and may 
come to you for the explanation because you have had theoretical 
training as well as experience and practice — an ideal combina- 
tion. Only a boor would then strut and throw out his chest 
and proclaim himself the great-know-it-all. 

If you wish to impart some of your precious knowledge, do 
so with gentleness and modesty. You will make friends among 
your colleagues and they will respect and admire you. 

Many operators have purchased their own motion picture 
cameras and have added materially to their income by filming 
local events for exhibition in the theatres of their home town. 
All of the topical or news weeklies are ready to purchase negative 
films of subjects of national interest and, while we do not all 
live in localities where pictures of such events may be obtained, 
except at very long intervals, yet many ingenious cameramen 
have discovered common things in their own territory which, 
when carefully taken and titled proved of general interest and 
salable to some of the big producing concerns. 

Beautiful scenery and places of historic interest are in greater 
demand than ever before. The European war cut down the sup- 
ply of available foreign scenic stuff and awakened an interest 
in the American public to the beauties of its own country. "See 
America First" is a slogan that should stir a thrill of real 
patriotism in the breast of every American citizen, and the mo- 
tion picture is pre-eminently the medium of showing to the 
great masses of our people, who, for one reason or another, 
are not able to travel, the almost unknown grandeur of our own 
United States. Even those people who have had the good for- 
tune to see the wonders of America enjoy the many memories 
recalled to them by a picture of their past travels. 

Motion picture cameras are costly pieces of apparatus, it is 
true. The operator who wishes to begin modestly and is will- 
ing to start with a camera that, although a long way from a 
professional studio camera, is still capable of doing remark- 
ably good work, can purchase one of those amateur instruments 
for less than a hundred dollars. 



It is not necessary that the owner of a camera should develop 
and print pictures, although, doubtless, many of the ingeniously 
and mechanically inclined among you would be highly interested 
in doing your own work. If you can take and finish pictures 
with an ordinary carwera, you can do the same with a motion 

There is a large and ever broadening field for local talent that 
need not in any way conflict with that of the strictly professional 
studio cameraman. 

The enormous development of the motion picture industry has 
aroused the interest of millions of people and there are thou- 
sands of subjects of purely local or sectional interest which, while 
they are entirely outside the range of work of the big studio or 
factory, yet would be a profitable employment for the man who 
has the preliminary training that the motion picture operator 
must have acquired. 

If your town has an event such as a celebration, a corner- 
stone laying, a football or baseball game, anything that brings 
out masses of people to see and hear men of great local im- 
portance, arrange to take a picture and let the local theatre use 
it for a stated sum, or, better yet, in certain instances, play it 
for a certain percentage of the box office receipts. Get as 
many of the local people in the picture as possible ; most of them 
will come to see how they look on the screen. 

Some camera owners have been very successful in making ar- 
rangements with local papers to conduct a popularity contest, 
after which the winners were used in staging a little play in 
local surroundings. The interest aroused by the advertising 
will bring out a large crowd to see the picture on the screen, and 
a local theatre can well afford to charge a small additional en- 
trance fee and give you a good percentage of the box office 
receipts for the privilege of running it. Often the local theatre 
and local paper can be induced to work in conjunction on this 
kind of contest stimulating interest by throwing side pictures of 
the contestants and the progress of the voting upon the screen. 

Another source of revenue from a picture of this kind is 
that of advertising various merchants and Industries, by using 
them for backgrounds In the story and charging a reasonable 
price for this publicity. 

For work of this kind It is, of course, almost imperative that 
you use a camera of professional grade. 



There are many manufacturers who would like to have mo- 
tion pictures made of their factory processes, or of the workings 
of their products. The Ford and Studebaker automobile fac- 
tories have had motion pictures made of the manufacture of their 
cars showing all the details of manufacture from the raw ore 
to the finished car. The Heinz Company has had pictures made 
showing the sanitary methods of making and packing preserves 
and the final consumption of the goods by the consumer. Many 
industrial processes of general interest have been regularly re- 
leased by the big manufacturers of motion pictures, such as big 
gun forging and machining and testing; the manufacture of 
fountain pens ; safety devices used by large corporations for 
protection of their workmen; the manufacture of salt, borax, 
soap and dozens of other staple articles; the construction of 
dams, spillways, power plants, viaducts, canals, bridges, etc. 

There are dozens of commercial studios where negative de- 
veloping and printing are done at reasonable rates. Or the 
ambitious amateur may construct much of his own apparatus. 
He can fix his camera so that he can use it as a printing ma- 
chine, or he can make a printer from an old projection head. 
The tanks, racks, drying drums or frames can all be made at 
home by anyone who is handy with carpenter tools. I know of 
two or three experienced operators who are good mechanics, 
who even made their own cameras. These men, of course, were 
exceptions. While I would not as a rule advise everyone to try 
to make his own camera, I don't see why any operator who is a 
good mechanic and who knows photography should not derive a 
lot of satisfaction and fun from constructing his first camera. 

An old projection head is generally too much worn and much 
too heavy to use for the mechanism of a camera. Beside the 
weight and difficulty of making over and changing the shutter, 
etc., the Maltese cross of Geneva movement is not suitable for the 
production of negatives. 

In making industrial films, bear in mind that they must be of 
general interest unless they are being made to show only to 
parties interested in that particular industry. Show the interest- 
ing points, the magnitude of the industry, its great stocks of raw 
material, the various processes of manufacture and, most im- 
portant of all, the proper use and application of the products. 
Get all the action possible. Don't show one thing or scene for 



more than fifteen or twenty feet — ten feet is sometimes enough. 
Do not show the same process more than once, unless from a 
different viewpoint to explain it more clearly, and avoid monoto- 
nous repetitions. Don't let the manufacturer mislead you as to 
what is interesting. His business can never be as interesting to 
another as to himself. 

I know two young fellows who have hobbies. One is in- 
terested in small animals, the other in insects — one lives in 
California and the other in a small town in New York State. 
Each of them has fitted a small studio for himself. Both are 
turning out negatives on the subjects embraced by their hobbies 
and selling them to big companies to be used to fill out split 
reels or for educational subjects. 


Chapter XXIV 

ONE of the hardest problems that confronts the student of 
cinematography is how to find out the things that he wants 
to know. This book was compiled to answer most of the 
questions that puzzle the beginner and more advanced workers 
as well. Yet no one book can hope to cover all subjects and enter 
minutely into all of the ramifications of all the diverse branches 
of work embraced in the art and science of cinematography. In 
the first place, as cinematography is based on photography it 
v;ould be superfluous to try to cover that subject before treating 
the main subject. 

On the subject of still photography there are already printed 
and for sale a multitude of books which cover the subject more 
adequately and thoroughly than could be attempted in a text 
of this kind and the many still photographers who will purchase 
this course would not wish to pay for the additional matter with 
which they are already familiar. Those who have not already 
acquired a foundation training in still photography are advised 
to secure text books on the subject and study them before at- 
tempting to go deeply in the art of motion picture making. 

For those who wish to consult literature on photographic and 
motion picture topics the following list of books has been 
prepared. There are many, many books on photography which 
are very good but which are not included in this Hst. This list 
has been compiled to help the earnest student of cinematography 
and each book listed is valuable in something which has a bearing 
on motion picture photography, although only those books listed 
under cinematography are devoted exclusively to that subject. 

On account of the interference of the war with book publish- 
ing many of the books listed are now out of print and, too, in 
some cases, the price has been advanced. Copies of out of print 
books may, however, be consulted at libraries and stray copies 
of others may be picked up from^ photographic supply houses 
that were well stocked before the war. 




Books under this heading give the primary lessons m still 
photography. No one should attempt motion picture photog- 
raphy without having first mastered the principles of still camera 
work, both practically and theoretically. It is not intended that 
the student should buy every book in the list. One or two 
titles that appeal to him most will be sufficient. 

Experimental Photography by Clement J. Leaper. A be- 
ginner's experimental course in photography, giving simple ex- 
planations of why and how. 1898. (English) 99 pp. Cloth, 
50 cents. Andrew J. Lloyd Co., Boston, Mass. 

Early Work in Photography by W. Ethelbert Henry (Eng- 
lish). A useful handbook, illustrated, with a chapter on lenses 
by H. Snowden Ward. 3d edition, 1901. Cloth, 50 cents. 
Andrew J. Lloyd Co., Boston, Mass. 

How TO Make Good Pictures. The Eastman manual for 
beginners, with chapters on special subjects by noted workers, 
illustrated. Paper, 25 cents, Cloth, $1.00. Eastman Kodak Co., 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Elementary Photography by John A. Hodges (English). 
About 100 pp. 1898. Cloth, 50 cents. Andrew J. Lloyd Co., 
Boston, Mass. 

The Right Road into Photography by Dr. J. Nicol. 189J8. 
A simple guide for the novice, plainly written, with instructions 
and formulae. Paper, 83 cents. Andrew J. Lloyd Co., Boston, 

Principles of Simple Photography by F. W. Sparrow. 1902. 
(English) 130 pp. Illustrated. Qoth, 50 cents. 

Photography for Novices by Percy Lund. 200 pp., 50 cents. 

Beginners' Troubles (Photo-Miniature, No. 114). Paper, 
25 cents. Tennant & Ward, New York City. 

Library of Amateur Photography, 4 vols. Comprehensive. 
1,620 pp. The most complete work of its kind and a valuable 
reference library. This work is out of print but may be found in 
libraries and second-hand book stores. 

Instruction in Photography by Sir De W. Abney. Eleventh 
Edition, illustrated. Large i2mo. Cloth, $2.50. J. B. Lippin- 
cott, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Romance of Modern Photography by Charles R. Gib- 



son. 63 illustrations. 345 pp. 8vo. Cloth, $1.50. J. B. Lip- 
pincott, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Saturday With My Camera by Stanley C. Johnson. With 
over 100 diagrams and plates, 8vo. Cloth, $1.50. J. B. Lip- 
pincott, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Photography of Today by H. Chapman Jones, 54 illustrations 
and diagrams. 342 pp. Crown 8vo. Qoth, $1.50. J. B. Lippincott, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Photo-Miniature Series, Tennant & Ward, New York City, 
35 cents each. 

The Pocket Classics of Photography. Each book covers a 
different subject and covers it well. Written in a manner 
which every one can understand from a practical standpoint. As 
there are nearly two hundred subjects in this series on photog- 
raphy and a new subject appears each month the list is too long 
to print here. They are carried by all photo supply houses or 
a complete list may be obtained from the publishers. 


Books for more advanced workers in still photography. 

Practical Pocket Book of Photography by E. Vogel, (Eng- 
lish) 1896. Comprehensive, brief. Cloth, $1.25. Andrew J. 
Lloyd Co., Boston, Mass. 

Photographic Instruction Text by George H. Paltridge. 
1900. A practical book. The outgrowth of a class in photog- 
raphy at the Lewis Institute, Chicago. 230 pp. Qoth, $1.00. 
Andrew J. Lloyd Co., Boston, Mass 

Professional Photography by C. H. Hewitt. In two 
volumes (English) 1904. Illustrated. Cloth, 50 cents per vol. 
Andrew J. Lloyd Co., Boston, Mass. 

Concise Photography by E. O. Hoppe, F. R. P. S., 19 12. 
$4.00. The mathematical principles of photography and how to 
apply them. An accurate system for the careful and exhaustive 
student. Photo-Era, Boston, Mass. 

Photography for Students of Physics and Chemistry by 
Louis Derr, A.M., S.B. 247 pp. $2.00 1916. MacMillan Com- 
pany, New York. Not so complicated as the title sounds and an 
excellent book for those who really want to know the scientific 
principles of photography. 

Barnet Book of Photography containing a complete photo- 


o ^• 




T/1 C 

> '^ 

> K 









graphic education. Every branch of photography is gone over in 
a way easily understood. Many formulae for various processes. 
68 cents. Bass Camera Co., Chicago, 111. 

Watkins' Manual by Alfred Watkins, 140 pp. 50 cents. 
Burke & James, Chicago., 111. This book gives many useful 
tables, formulae, illustrations of negatives and prints, which show 
comparative results of correct and incorrect exposure and de- 
velopment. It deals with all branches of photography, such as 
interior work, copying, enlarging, reducing, "pinhole" photog- 
raphy, snapshots, speed standards, lantern slides, printing in- 

British Journal Almanac. Year book of Photography. 
Paper, 75 cents, Cloth, $1.25. Contains many valuable formulae 
and tables and a resume of the photographic improvements and 
progress of the year. Carried by all good photo supply houses. 


No earnest worker can be without some reliable works of 
reference in his profession. The best reference book that one 
can obtain is a large loose leaf note book in which are filed the 
formulae and notes of the worker's personal experience and the 
pertinent articles that can be gradually accumulated from all 
sources, co-workers, trade journals, direction slips from pack- 
ages of films, plates, papers, catalogs. After that come the 
standard reference works. 

The Photographer's Note Book by F. C. Lambert. 1897. 
(English). 250 practical hints, formulae, etc., clipped from all 
sources as worth saving. 80 pp. Cloth, 50 cents. Andrew J. 
Lloyd Co., Boston, Mass. 

Processes of Pure Photography by W. K. Burton and 
Andrew Pringle. A standard compilation of the principal nega- 
tive and positive processes. 1889. 200 pp. Paper, $2.00. 
Andrew J. Lloyd Co., Boston, !Mass. 

The Photographic Reference Book by G. H. Mcintosh 
(English). Tells "how to do" things rather than describe 
methods. Brief and to the point. 835 references. 336 pp. 
Paper, 75 cents. Andrew J. Lloyd Co., Boston, Mass. 

Cassell's Cyclopedia of Photography, 1912. 572 pp. The 
most complete, up-to-date, reliable and easy reference photo- 
graphic book of recent years. Cloth, $3.75. Photo Era, Boston, 



The Dictionary of Photography by E. J. Wall, F.R.P.S., 
600 pp. $2.50. Photo Era, Boston, Mass. Readily accessible 
information compiled like an encyclopedia or dictionary. 

A Reference Book of Practical Photography by F. Dundas 
Todd. A collection of valuable paragraphs on chemical proc- 
esses, apparatus, etc. Paper, 25 cents. Tennant & Ward, 
New York City. 

P'igures, Facts and Formulae of Photography (Photo- 
Miniature 134). A new selection, comprising a treasury of in- 
formation for amateurs, gathered from practical experience. 
35 cents. Tennant & Ward, New York City. 

Photographer^s Note Book and Constant Companion by 
Rev. F. C. Lambert. Contains 250 practical hints, formulae, ex- 
pedients, etc. 88 pp., 60 cents." Tennant & Ward, New York 

A Photographic Reference Book by J. Mcintosh. One of 
the most complete and valuable collections of photographic for- 
mulae in existence. Paper, 75 cents. Tennant & Ward, New 
York City. 

Cyclopaedic Photography by E. L. Wilson. Though pub- 
lished many years ago, this American cyclopaedia is extremely 
complete on all standard processes of photography. $2.50, 
Tennant & Ward, New York City. 

Photography of Today by H. C. Jones. A simply told ac- 
count of the origin, progress, and latest achievements in photog- 
raphy. Illustrated. 242 pp. $1.85. Tennant & Ward, New 
York City. 

The Advance of Photography, Its History and Modern 
Application by A. E. Garrett. A descriptive handbook of 
photographpy, paying special attention to its scientific applica- 
tions. $4.25. Tennant & Ward, New York City. 


The old-time projection machine or "magic lantern'* is still in 
the ring, although the motion picture projector has handed it a 
mighty wallop in the jaw. Many thousands of slides are still 
being made, and many a projection machine operator might im- 
prove both his time and his finances by learning how they are 


The motion picture projector is also an optical lantern and a 



number of books listed under cinematography treat also of the 
use of the projection machine. 

jMotion Picture Handbook for Managers and Operators by 
F. H. Richardson. $440. 432 pp. Moving Picture World, 
516 Fifth Avenue, New York City. The recognized standard 
book on the work of projection. Complete descriptions and in- 
structions on all leading machines and projection equipment. In 
any projection room this carefully compiled book will save its 
purchase price each month. Illustrated with numerous cuts and 

The IModern Bioscope Operator. Cloth, 200 pp., 4 shillings. 
Ganes, Ltd., 31 Litchfield Street, London, W. C. An English 
book on projection machine operation. 

Lantern Slides (The Photo-]\Iiniature Series No. 9). 35 
cents. Tennant & Ward, New York City. 

Lantern Slide Manual by John A. Hodges, (English), 
140 pp. Diagrams. Cloth, $1.00 Andrew J. Lloyd Co., 
Boston, Mass. 

Coloring Lantern Slides (Photo-Miniature Series, No. 83). 
Paper, 35 cents. Tennant & W^ard, New York City. 

Lantern Slide Making by F. C. Lambert, a very satisfactory 
manual, illustrated (English), 144 pp. Cloth, 50 cents. Andrew 
J. Lloyd Co., Boston, IMass. 

The Optical Lantern (Photo-Miniature, No. 119). Paper, 
35 cents. Tennant & W^ard, New York City. 

The Lantern and How to Use It by C. Goodwin Norton and 
Judson Bonner. Full details of all varieties of projection, in- 
cluding the motion picture, with all kinds of illuminants and 
lanterns. A complete treatise on how to run a lantern exhibition. 
143 pp. 60 cents. Tennant & W^ard, New York City. 

Practical Slide Making by G. T. Harris. Simple working 
instructions for every process in the making of slides. 60 cents. 
Tennant & Ward, New York City. 

Optic Projection by Henry Philips Gage. $3.00. 1914. 
Comstock Publishing Co., Ithaca, N. Y. 


It IS astonishing how ignorant most photographic workers are 
of even the simpler principles of optics. What would you think 
of a mechanic who did not know what his tools were for or what 



they could do ? The photographer's lens is his principal tool and 
yet how little the most of them know about the lenses they use. 
Diaphragm openings seem the greatest of mysteries to many. 

Photographic Lenses by C. Beck and H. Andrews. Pub- 
lished by a firm of manufacturing opticians as an advertisement 
of their specialties, but containing more practical information on 
the choice and use of lenses than any other work at the price. 
288 pp. Illustrated (English) 1902. Cloth, 75 cents. Andrew 
J. Lloyd Co., Boston, Mass. 

Photographic Lensl3. How to choose and how to use. By 
John A. Hodges. 1898 (English). A good elementary hand- 
book. Cloth, $1.00. Andrew J. Lloyd Co., Boston, Mass. 

The Lens. A practical guide to the choice, use and testing 
of photographic lenses. The latest and most satisfactory hand- 
book on the every day use of lenses. By Thomas Bolas and 
George E. Brown (English), 164 pp. Cloth, $1.25. Andrew 
J. Lloyd Co., Boston, Mass. 

First Book of the Lens, a treatise on the action and use 
of the photographic lens. Not elementary, despite its title, but 
valuable to those familiar with mathematics. By C. W. Piper. 
170 pp. (English), $1.25. Tennant & Ward, New York City. 

Photographic Optics by R. S. Coles, M.A. i8g8. An advanced 
manual for modern workers. Cloth, $2.50. Andrew J. Lloyd 
Co., Boston, Mass. 

Choice and Use of Lenses (Photo-Miniature Series, No. 
79). Paper, 35 cents. Tennant & Ward, New York City. 

Practical Notes on Telephotography. A pocket book full 
of reliable information on its subject. (English) 1901. 25 cents. 
Andrew J. Lloyd Co., Boston, Mass. 

Telephoto Work by G. H. Deller. 63 pp. 50 cents. Andrew 
J. Lloyd Co., Boston, Mass. 

Practical Telephotography (Photo-Miniature Series, No. 
90). Paper, 35 cents. Tennant & Ward, New York City. 


The action played by the chemicals used in photographic solu- 
tions is an interesting one, and one does not need to be a chemist 
to get a very good idea of why each particular chemical is used 
in a bath, and what effect it has on the photographic image. 

Chemistry for Photographers by C. F. Townsend. An 



excellent first handbook, not exhaustive, but simple and prac- 
tical (English). 3d edition. 1902. Cloth, 50 cents. Andrew 
J. Lloyd Co., Boston, Mass. 

The Elementary Chemistry of Photographic Chemicals 
by C. S. Ellis (English). 19 13. 113 pp. Qoth, 50 cents, 
Andrew J. Lloyd Co., Boston, Mass. 

Photographic Chemicals (Photo-Miniature Series, No. loi). 
Paper, 35 cents. Tennant & Ward, New York City. 

Chemistry for Photographers by Wm. R. Flint. No knowl- 
edge of photography is complete without an understanding of the 
chemistry- underlying its processes. The author has written a 
book for the photographer who knows no chemistry, and has 
described every type of reaction underlying the photographic 
processes in language so simple that no knowledge of chemical 
ftmdamentals beyond what is given in the book is required. The 
reader who masters this book will know exactly how to proceed 
in every photc^^raphic process to insure success. $2xxy, Tennant 
& Ward, New York City. 

Photographic Chemistry^ (Photo-Miniature Series No. 149). 
Practical information about the chemistry of ever>^day photo- 
graphic processes ; the making of emulsions for plates and papers ; 
developers and de\'^elopment ; intensification and reduction; the 
making of prints ; fixing ; mixing chemical solutions, etc 35 cents. 
Temmnt & Ward, New York City. 

The Chemistry of Photography by R- Medola. A textbook 
embodying a series of lectures on the theory of the chemistry of 
photography delivered in Dublin, and chiefly valuable to students. 
$2.20. Teimant & Ward, New York City. 


The books under this heading comprise nearly all of the works 
published that are now in print which deal directly with cine- 

Practical Cinematography and its Application by Fred- 
erick A. Talbot, 262 pp. i2mo. $1.10. J. B. Lippincott, 
Phila., Pa. This is a popular work by an English writer and 
while it is published for the general reader, and the moving pic- 
ture fan, it holds much of interest for the cinematographer. It 
gives tbe fundamentals of motion |Mcturc production, describes 
the diflPerent sorts of cameras and projection apparatus used, 



and gives working methods of developing of film, printing the 
negative, and the operation of projection. Very complete in its 
information and abundantly illustrated. 

Moving Pictures: How They Are Made and Worked by 
Frederick A. Talbot. 270 pp. $1.50. J. B. Lippincott, Phila., 
Pa. On the same style as the above but containing different 
material about the same subjects. Not a textbook, but an in- 
teresting account of the many uses of motion pictures, and well 
worth reading and adding to your library. 

Cyclopaedia of Motion Picture Work by David S. Hulfish, 
2 vols. $4.00. American School of Correspondence, Chicago, 
111. About one-quarter devoted to motion picture photography 
and the remainder to projection. Also treats of picture pro- 
duction from the producer's and scenario writer's standpoint. 

The a. B. C. of the Cinematograph by Cecil N. Hepworth. 
128 pp. 50 cents. Tennant & Ward, New York City. Not an 
up-to-date book, but valuable as the best authority on camera 
movements, and interesting from an historical standpoint. 

Living Pictures: Their History, Reproduction and Prac- 
tical Working by Henry V. Hop wood. 1899. 265 pp. and 
index. One of the first books published about moving pictures. 
In spite of its age, it contains a good deal of valuable informa- 
tion and is a standard work. 

The Handbook of Cinematography, 200 pp. 6 shillings and 
6 pence, or $1.60. Kinematograph Weekly, Tottenham St., 
London, W., England. Comes the nearest to being what might 
be called a textbook on motion picture photography in this list. 

How to Make and Operate Moving Pictures by Bernard E. 
Jones. 168 pp. $1.00. Funk & Wagnalls, New York City. A 
very good book for the amateur cinematographer. To the be- 
ginner who wishes to learn the first steps this book is very good, 
but for the professional and the man already in the game, it 
contains little of value. 

The Art of the Moving Picture by Vachel Lindsey. 128 pp. 
$1.25. MacMillan, New York, N. Y. Not properly a book on 
motion picture photography at all but has many interesting ideas 
for the cinematographer and the producer to think about. 

Making the Movies by Earnest A. Dench, 1916. $1.25. 
MacMillan, New York, N. Y. A "popular" science type of book 
for the man in the street. Interesting and inst'.iictive but not 
professing to teach anyone to become a cameramafmi. 



How Motion Pictures Are Made by Homer Croy, 191 8. 
Harper & Bros., New York City. 366 pp. An account of the 
development of the motion picture industry in America written 
in an entertaining fashion. 

Motion Picture Operation, Stage Electrics and Illusions 
by H. C. Hortsmann and V. H. Tousley. A practical handbook 
and guide for theatre electricians, motion picture operators, and 
managers of theaters and productions. Clear, comprehensive, 
and accurate. $2.00. Tennant & Ward, New Y^ork City. 

A B C OF Motion Pictures by R. E. Welsh. A practical first 
book on this subject. 55 cents. Tennant & Ward, New York 

The Theatre of Science by Robert Grau. $5.00 Broadway 
Publishing Co., New York City. 

The Photoplay: A Psychological Study by Hugo von 
Munsterberg, $1.50, D. Appleton & Co., New York City. 

A Camera Actress in Togoland by Miss M. Gehrts, J. B. 
Lippincott, Phila., Pa. 

The Guide to Kinematograpiiy by Colin N. Bennett. $1.50. 
E. T. Heron & Co., Ltd., Tottenham Street, London, W. This 
handy treatise is a successor to Bennet's well-known Handbook 
of Kinematography and is a rather more concise volume than its 
predecessor. A variety of subjects is considered ; camera 
work, laboratory work and projection; each of these subjects 
being treated in a concise manner designed to be well understood 
by the novice or student. 

Tinting and Toning Motion Picture Film by Dr. Kenneth 
Mees, $2.50. Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y. (Out of 

Living Pictures by R. B. Foster, 191 5. Hatton Press, Ltd., 
London, England. 

Motion Picture Education by Ernest E. Dench. $2.50. 
MacMillan, New York City. A treatise on methods of using the 
motion picture for institution and commercial use. 

Advertising by Motion Pictures by Ernest Dench. $1.60. 
MacMillan, New Y^ork City. Covering the commercial end of the 
motion picture industry. Of interest to any camera user, with 
the increased popularity of the motion picture camera, this book 
is valuable to any one contemplating the purchase of a motion 
picture camera. Has many money-making devices which are 
open to everyone owning a cine camera. 255 pp. Illustrated. 



La Chronophotographie by Louis Gastine. 1899. $1.00. 
Gauthier Villars et Fils, 55 Quai des Grands-Augustins, Paris. 
A book of early cinematographic history, containing interesting 
illustrations of the early apparatus and results of Marey and 
others. Printed in French. 

La Photographie Animee by Eugene Trutat. $1.50. Pub- 
lisher Gauthier Villars, Paris, 1899. ^ splendid edition with 
fine illustrations showing the early cameras and projectors used 
by the various well-known foreign firms. The subject of persis- 
tence of vision is explained in the thorough French style. Some 
present day inventors would open their eyes after reading this 
book, which shows that many "new and novel" mechanisms orig- 
inated long ago. Printed in French. 

Le Cinematographe : Scientifique et Industriel by Jaques 
Ducom. $2.00. Publishers, Cinema Revue, 118 Rue d'Assas, 
Paris, 191 1. A pretentious volume, written in scholarly style 
and illustrating all the well-known foreign cine cameras and 
laboratory devices. A feature is the inclusion of the complete 
text of Demeney's "Les Origines du Cinematographe" (an im- 
portant chronology of early patents). In addition to the fine 
illustrations Ducom's work contains practical instructions and 
working formulae, which combined with the historical chapters 
make it a most desirable reference work. Printed in French. 

Conferences Sur La Cinematographe by E. Kress. $1.00. 
Publishers, Cinema Revue, Paris, 1912. Seven pamphlets. In 
this set of seven booklets the technique of motion picture produc- 
tion is studied from all angles. There is one booklet on raw 
film stock, and one on the early history of the art, while another 
treats of studio construction, lighting and proper costuming. 
Three numbers are devoted to a very good description of present 
day French cinematograph cameras, while the remaining booklet 
explains how all of the wonderful dissolves, visions, and tricks of 
the French film makers are accomplished. Printed in French. 

La Technique Cinematographique by Leopold Lobel. $2.50. 
Publishers, H. Dunod and E. Pinat, 47 Quai des Grands- 
Augustins, Paris, 1912. Printed in French. 

Motion Picture Making and Exhibiting by John B. Rath- 
bun, $1.00. Publishers, C. C. Thompson Co., Chicago, 1914. 
This is not a book of working instructions and formulae but 
rather a description of the various processes involved in the 



taking, making and exhibiting of motion pictures. As such the 
ground is fairly well covered by the author who, it appears, is 
not a practical film maker. Good illustrations contribute largely 
to the interest of this little volume. 

Picture Play Photography by H. M. Lomas, F.R.P.S., $1.50. 
Publisher, Gaines, Ltd. (The Bioscope) London, 1914. Lomas 
while quite skilled in the science and practise of ordinary photog- 
raphy does not provide as valuable a treatise as might be expected. 
The studio arrangements and lighting described are distinctly 
English, while in these, as is well known, we lead our otherwise 
superior (photographically) British cousins in the art of cine- 
matography. There are some good points brought out by Lomas, 
however, and while not very comprehensive the work will doubt- 
less prove interesting to the amateur worker. 

Die Kinematographie by K. W. Wolf-Czapek, published by 
Union Deutsche Velagsgesellschaft, Dresden, 1908, price about 
50 cents. In this booklet the late Herr Wolf-Czapek, always a 
keen student of the cinematographic art, explains the phenomena 
of persistence of vision and lays down the rudiments of cine- 
matographic practice for the benefit of amateurs. Printed in 

Magio Stage Illusions and Scientific Diversions, by Albert 
A. Hopkins. $2.50 Munn & Co., Inc., New York City. This 
book is not a cinematographic work at all, but, nevertheless, it 
forms an important and indispensable addition to the literature 
of motion photography. While the bulk of this work is devoted 
to elucidating the mysteries of stage-craft and the illusions of 
the showman, there are a number of chapters at the close of the 
book which deal with the making and exhibiting of motion pic- 
tures as practised in the early days of the art. A chapter on 
Qironophotography details and illustrates the experiments of 
the French pioneer, IMarey, while the following chapter illustrates 
such historically interesting devices as Demeney's "Chrono- 
photographe (The first Gaumont apparatus), Jenkin's "Phanto- 
scope," Edison's *'Vitascope," Lumiere's "Cinematographe" and 
Casler's "Mutoscope" and "Biograph." All of the early devices 
are illustrated from woodcuts which appeared in the Scientific 
Ainerican years back, and this is the only work at present obtain- 
able in which these old time cameras and projectors are figured. 
As a matter of fact we know of no other picture of the Edison 
"Vitascope" than the reproduction shown in this work. 



Der Kinematograph by Dr. Carl Forch. $i.oo. Publisher, 
A. Hartleben, Leipzig, 1913. A variety of cameras and projec- 
tion devices are illustrated, ranging from the days of the Lumaere 
*'Cinematographe" to the latest in ''natural color'* systems. In- 
termittents of many types are discussed and the geometry of 
Geneva movements is gone into. Printed in German. 

Animated Pictures by C. Francis Jenkins, published by the 
author, 1898, Washington, D. C. (out of print). This volume, 
by one of the earliest makers of motion pictures on flexible cel- 
luloid strips, is perhaps the earliest extended treatise on cine- 
matography. Camera work, perforating, printing and develop- 
ing are dealt with, and illustrations of all the author's early de- 
vices and mechanisms are presented. Particular mention must 
be given the bibliography of articles and the list of patents on 
animated photography prior to the year 1896 which are given 
in this book. 


Chapter XXV 


THE problem of making positives direct in the camera with- 
out the expense of making the extra negative film where 
only one copy is desired has occupied the attention of many 

The following method will enable anyone familiar with the 
ordinary film manipulations to make good projectable positives 
direct in the camera. 

To the camera owner who takes pictures for his own amuse- 
ment, or the man who makes a single picture for his local theatre, 
this method will prove a great saver in cost of materials. 

It is really a means of making a negative on a strip of film and 
then printing that negative on the same strip and destroying the 
original negative by a chemical process leaving the positive print. 

It requires a particular style of developing apparatus, that is 
a drum of metal or wood painted with black Probus paint or 
other similar black photographic enamel which is resistant to the 
action of photographic chemicals. This developing drum must 
be smooth and tight, the skeleton type with ribs will not do, as 
we shall see presently. 

Negative film may be used but positive film is much preferable 
where the strength of the light permits. Positive film gives much 
clearer, brighter, snappier results, i.e., negative film having a 
tendency to flatness and graying the high lights. As positive 
stock is very much slower than negative stock a much larger 
diaphragm opening must be used and if interiors or badly lighted 
exteriors are to be taken negative stock must be used. In either 
case the exposure must be rather full so that the image may 
penetrate well into the bromide of the silver film. 

A very contrasty hydroquinone developer is the best to use 
although the usual formula for positive titles works very well. 
The following is a good formula : 



Hydroquinone i oz. 

Sulphite of soda (Dry) 1 1 oz. 

Carbonate of soda (Dry) 7 oz 

Potassium Bromide i oz. 

Water i gallon 

Alcohol I pint 

The alcohol may be omitted but enables the developer to be 
used at a higher temperature thereby giving greater contrast. 

Development should be slow with dim, red light so as to give 
a brilliant snappy negative with pure whites and deep blacks. 
Development must be continued until the high lights have fully 
penetrated to the other side of the film and the picture is plainly 
visible from the back. This kind of development is the chief 
condition of success. After development, wash for five minutes 
or more to thoroughly remove all traces of developer. 

The development has probably caused the film to swell and 
lengthen and it is necessary to cinch it up close to the drum for 
the next operation which is that of printing the positive picture. 
The drum is carried to a window which admits diffused light and 
turned for ten to twenty seconds before the light. The white 
portions of the film, usually of creamy white or greenish shade, 
soon become grayish. This indicates sufficient exposure and the 
drum is carried back to the dark room and rinsed. 

In this process the negative on the film is printed on the re- 
maining silver bromide in the emulsion which has not previously 
been acted upon by the developer. We now see that only a tight 
drum can be used on which the film is tightly wound or the re- 
sulting positive would be light struck by light penetrating from 
the back of the film. 

The tight drum has the advantage of being very economical 
of developer as a shallow semi-circular trough in which the drum 
if revolved will develop a two-hundred foot drum of film with 
only a gallon or two of developer. 

The negative image is now destroyed or dissolved away in 
the following solution : 

Water i gallon 

Bichromate of potash i >^ oz. 

Nitric Acid 3 oz. 

This bath, compared with other formulae for the same pur- 



pose, is very weak but as a matter of fact a very small quantity 
of bichromate is necessary to oxidize the silver of which the 
image consists. This bath is allowed to work until the negative 
image has been entirely dissolved away and only the ^creamy 
white of the remaining silver bromide is visible. This remaining 
silver bromide carries the yet undeveloped positive image from 
which the bichromate solution must be thoroughly washed before 
immersing it again in the developer to materialize the positive. 

The same developer may be used in which the negative was 
originally developed although softer results may be obtained 
by using the regular metol-hydro or some other softer working 
developer for the second development. 

After the second development the positive should be fixed for 
five minutes in a fixing bath containing acid hardener or, if fixed 
in a plain bath, hardened afterwards with formalin solution or 
a 5% solution of chrome alum. 

The two developing solutions and the reversing solutions all 
have a softening effect on the film and care must be taken that 
the temperature does not rise sufficiently to cause the film to 

If trouble is experienced with softening of the film the fol- 
lowing developer may be substituted for the one given : 

Hydroquinone 2 oz. 

Sodium sulphite (Dry) 23^ lbs. 

Formaldehyde 2 oz. 

Water i gallon 

This developer works very contrasty indeed and has the smart- 
ing, disagreeable odor of formaldehyde; but will absolutely pre- 
vent frilling. This is distinctly a hot weather developer and 
must not be used under 70° Fahrenheit. 

Do not forget that a thorough development of the negative is 
essential to the success of this process. If this is not thoroughly 
done, then the lower strata of the emulsion will still contain un- 
developed bromide of silver which has not been reduced to a 
silver negative image by the negative development and which 
in the following second development will be reduced in the high 
lights of the positive clogging them with a veil of negative which 
has not yet been destroyed because it must be developed before 
the bichromate solution can dissolve it away. 



Do not attempt this process on a valuable exposure until you 
have made a number of test pieces successfully and are fully 
convinced that you can trust yourself to conduct the entire proc- 
ess with the same success that you would the ordinary developer 
and printing processes. 

There are several other methods for making direct positives : 

Partial reversals of negatives have been obtained by the addi- 
tion of thiocarbamide and similar reagents to the developer but 
completely successful results are seldom, if ever, obtained. The 
writer has tried a reversal process similar to that used in the 
development of the Lumiere Autochrome plates, but has never 
succeeded in getting good clear high lights. 

For the benefit of those who care to experiment with this in- 
teresting subject, the following details are given: 

Give about twice the normal exposure required for a full 
timed negative and develop in the developer ordinarily used, 
until the high lights show through plainly on the back; after 
washing well for one minute the film may be brought out into 
the ordinary light of the room and the remaining operations 
carried on in this light. Immerse in either of the following 
solutions until the black negative image has completely dis- 
appeared : 

Potassium permanganate, io% solution... i dram 
Sulphuric acid, io% solution by volume of 

1.9S acid 5 drams 

Water 5 oz- 

or use this solution : 

Potassium bichromate 100 grains 

Sulphuric acid 7 A^^i^ drams 

Water 10 oz. 

The latter solution is probably preferable as It works faster 
and is not so liable to stain as the permanganate. Immerse again 
in the developer when the positive image will develop up. Wash 
and dry. It is not necessary to fix in hypo as the silver which is 
ordinarily dissolved out by the hypo is what forms the positive 


Instead of the second development in developer, a sepia 
brown positive may be obtained by using : 



Sodium sulphide, 20% solution 3 oz. 

Water 20 oz. 

Formulae are given for small quantities as experiments are 
mostly conducted with short lengths of film of from one to 
four feet. 

Recovery of Silver From Spent Hypo Solutions 

For the precipitation of the silver from the hypo, two capacious 
tanks of concrete should be constructed a good distance away 
from the building; for the chemical used as a precipitant, when 
acted upon by an acid, produces a gas, the smallest quantity of 
which being present in the atmosphere of the dark room, fogs 
sensitive emulsion just as surely as sunlight would. 

The two tanks should each be of sufficient capacity to hold at 
least a week's run of spent hypo ; the top level of the lower one 
being below the bottom of the upper one. Each tank should 
be provided with a series of cocks or outlets or an adjustable 
syphon, thereby the liquid can be drawn off at any desired level 
and a weatherproof, but easily removable cover, and, if the size 
of the tanks warrants, a small flight of steps for the laborer 
who shovels the silver sludge into barrels. 

On account of the disintegrating action of the hypo solution 
the concrete should be protected by a heavy coat of asphalt. The 
upper tank has an inlet pipe from the dark room through which 
it receives its charge of solution and all its outlets drain into the 
lower tank. The lower tank in turn drains into the sewer. 

The precipitating solution is liver of sulphur of the cheapest 
commercial grade. It comes in large chunks of the fused chemi- 
cal, varying in color from light brown to dark brown, accord- 
ing to the purity. Chemically it is a mixture of indefinite poly- 
sulphidec of sodium and potassium, and the precipitate which 
it forms with the silver is silver sulphide, a dirty, brownish black 
appearing substance. Liver of sulphur is very soluble in water 
but, on account of the large impervious pieces in which it comes, 
it takes a long time to dissolve unless broken up, and breaking 
it up is no pleasant job, as it has the quintuple fragrance of 
ancient eggs. It is a good plan, therefore, to have a stout barrel 
or hogshead of snug-fitting cover, in which are placed water and 
chemical enough to have a saturated solution constantly on hand. 



Where it is not possible to have tanks on different levels, a 
small bronze centrifugal or rotary pump and electric motor will 
take care of the solution nicely. When the upper tank is two- 
thirds full of hypo solution and sulphuret solution, stir with a 
wooden paddle and pause once in a while to let the precipitate 
settle a little, and take a glass full of the supernatant liquid and 
add a little of the sulphuret solution to see if there is any further 
precipitation. If it produces a dark brown cloudy precipitate 
it is necessary to add more precipitant, but if the precipitate is 
only slightly cloudy or absent, the precipitation is complete and 
the tank should be allowed to settle until the next day, when 
the clear supernatant liquid may be carefully decanted into the 
lower tank. However careful you may be, you will find that 
it is impossible to remove all of the supernatant liquid without 
a portion of the precipitate escaping into the next tank. It is 
to receive and save this escaping precipitate that the lower tank 
was constructed. The lower tank is now allowed to settle and 
the clear liquid allowed to run into the sewer. This precipita- 
tion may be repeated until the accumulation of sludge in the 
bottom of the tank is sufficient to warrant putting it into tight 
barrels for shipment to the refiner. 

If any acid is used in the hypo do not fail to run enough spent 
developer solution into the tank to make sure that all the acid 
is neutralized and that the solution is decidedly alkaline. If this 
is not done the acid will react on the liver of sulphur and foul 
the whole neighborhood with the abominable odor of sulphuretted 
hydrogen or hydrogen disulphide, which has rotten eggs backed 
off the boards for fragrance. 

Reducing solutions and silver intensifying baths may also be 
run into these tanks for recovery of their silver content. 

Film Development in Hot Climates 

Film may be successfully developed under tropical conditions 
(up to 95° F.) by means of most developers, with the addition 
of 10% sodium sulfate and some potassium bromide in order to 
prevent fog, but much better with a special developer compounded 
with paraminophenal hydrochloride. Although it has been rec- 
ommended to develop film in the tropics by hardening the same 
either before or after development by the addition of a hardener 
such as formalin, it is only possible to secure the best results by 



using a developer free from such additional agents. The 
formula for the developer is as follows: 


Paramidophenol hydrochloride 360 grs. 

Sodium sulfite (Des.) 6 oz. 

Sodium carbonate (E. K. Co.) 6 oz. 

Water to i gallon 

Rinse for only one or two seconds before placing in the fixing 
bath, otherwise the film is apt to soften in the rinse water. 

The time of development with Eastman film at 95° F. for 
normal contrast is one and a half minutes though the time of de- 
velopment may be doubled by the addition of 100 grams of 
sodium sulfate (crystal) per liter of developer. 

At temperatures up to 75° F, the regular acid fixing bath 
should be used, but at temperatures up to 85° F. the following 
chrome alum bath is necessary: 


Hypo I lb. 12 oz. 

Sodium sulfite (Des.) 5>4 oz. 

Potassium chrome alum 11 oz. 

Acetic acid (glacial) 160 minims 

Water to i gallon 

Dissolve the sulfite and chrome alum together and add to the 
hypo solution finally adding acetic acid. 

At temperatures up to 95° F. the foillowing formalin bath 
should be employed : 


Hypo 2 lbs. 2 oz. 

Sodium sulfite (Des.) 7 oz. 

Formalin (formaldehyde 40%) ' 17 oz. 

Water to i gallon 

First dissolve the hypo, then the sulfite, and finally add the 

In order to eliminate the odor of the formalin, the bath should 
be enclosed in a covered tank if possible. The above baths 
keep well at the temperatures stated, so that the special chrome 
alum bath is very suitable, while in special cases such as expedi- 
tionary work, when very high temperatures may prevail, the 
formalin bath will give perfect results. 



Still picture negatives may be successfully treated in a tray in 
the same way as film though so far it has not been possible to 
devise a method of using the Kodak film or film pack tanks at 
the temperatures named. 

Although no difficulty is to be expected when developing gas 
light and bromide papers at high temperatures, the use of a stop 
bath of 3% acetic acid, and twice the usual amount of liquid 
hardener in the fixing bath is recommended. 

United States Weights and Measures 
abbreviations used below 

Ounce, oz.; pint, pt. ; quart, qt. ; pound, lb.; gallon, gal.; grain, gr. ; gram, gm.; 
pennyweight, pwt. ; scruple, scr.; dram, dr. 

i6 OZ I pt. 

2 pts I qt. 

4 qts 1 gal. 

1 6 oz. or a pint is sometimes called a fluid pound. 

Troy Weight 

24 grs I pwt. 

20 pwts I oz. 

12 oz I lb. 

'Apothecaries' Weight 

20 grs I scr. 

3 scr I dr. 

8 dr I oz. 

12 oz I lb. 

The pound, ounce and grain are the same in both 
Apothecaries' and Troy weights. 

Avoirdupois Weight 

1.77 gms I dr. 

27.34 grs. (Troy) o . . . I dr. 

16 dr I oz. 

16 oz lib. 

Engish Weights and Measures 

Apothecaries Weight 
20 grs I scr 20 grs. 

3 scr I dr 60 grs. 

8 dr I oz 480 grs. 

12 oz I lb 5760 grs. 



Fluid Measures 

60 minims i fluid dr. 

8 dr I fluid oz. 

20 oz I pt. 

8 pts I gal. 

The above weights are usually adopted in com- 
pounding photographic formulae. 

Avoirdupois Weight 

27 11/32 gr I dr. 

16 dr I oz. 

16 oz I lb. 

Photographic chemicals are as a rule sold by- 
avoirdupois weight. 

Handy Emergency Weights 
In an emergency, coins may be used as weights, and the 
weights given in the following table are accurate enough for all 
ordinary purposes. 

Dime 40 grs. 

Cent 50 grs. 

Nickle 80 grs. 

^-Dollar 100 grs. 

-Dollar 200 grs. 

Dollar 400 grs. 

By simple addition and subtraction many different w^eights can 
be made with these coins; for instance to obtain a weight of 10 
grains, place a cent on one side of the scale and a dime on the 
other and th^n add enough of the chemical to balance the scale. 

Electrolytic Recovery of Silver From Waste Solutions 

The main source of silver lies in the exhausted negative fixing 
solutions and in the hypo baths in which positive film has been 
fixed. These solutions are certainly worth saving, amounting 
to $100 or more, per month in even a small-sized film laboratory. 
By a novel method of precipitating the silver, a plan has been 
formed that entirely supercedes the use of that very offensive 
chemical, sulphide of potassium (liver of sulphur). The pre- 
cipitated silver is brought about by electro-chemical action, every 
grain contained in the waste hypo fixing solutions being pre- 
cipitated, without either loss or offensive smell, or there are no 



volumes of liberated sulphuretted hydrogen emitted as is the 
case always when the potassium sulphide is used, which is not 
only offensive, but is also injurious to the health of those who 
have to work within its sphere of action, and causes injury to 
every kind of sensitive material that may be in near proximity to 
vessels that contain the waste solutions. Where there are large 
quantities of waste hypo solution use two asphalt-lined concrete 
or brick tanks, fitted with stop cocks at intervals from the bot- 
tom, to run off the exhausted solution after precipitation, in 
the same way as used for sulphide plan. If smaller quan- 
tities are used, large barrels will be just the thing. Now for 
the process. Obtain half a dozen sheets of zinc, any thickness 
will do; suspend them from the top of the tank or barrel by 
means of two very stout, long copper wire hooks, these hooks 
being held in position by as many wooden strips across the top 
of the tank. The bottom ends of the hooks and the sheets of 
zinc must be completely submerged in the old fixing solution. 

If the bath is alkaline, sulphuric or acetic acid should be added 
until it is distinctly acid to litmus paper. The acid condition of 
this mixture will set up an electric current, with the result that 
the zinc becomes consumed, and the metallic silver is thrown 
down as a dark gray powder, so much so that if the liquid is 
left undisturbed for a week the whole of the silver will be 
throw!n down and the liquid above will be clear. The electric 
action is due to the copper wires and the zinc plates in contact 
with the acid hypo solution. 

As soon as this occurs, this exhausted liquid may be drawn 
off and thrown away. A good plan to adopt is to fill one tank 
first, then arrange this for precipitation while the second tank 
is being filled. Of course this will take some time. This will 
allow complete precipitation in one tank. 

This process must be continued until there is a considerable 
deposit formed at the bottom before removal in the same way 
as employed when using sulphide. The difference between the 
two methods is that in one the precipitate is sulphide of silver, 
wrhile in the other the precipitate is mainly metallic silver thrown 
down without waste. 

The cost of scrap zinc is about five or six cents per pound, so 
that the cost eventually of precipitating one pound of silver will 
not be so much as would be the case with potassium sulphide, 
the cost of which is about 15 cents per pound. 



Sixty-live and a half ounces of zinc is capable of precipitating 
io8 ounces of silver under exact chemical conditions, allowing 
for small losses during this method of electrolytic precipitating. 
It can be safely stated that a pound of zinc will throw down a 
pound of silver. 

The following result has been obtained by the method de- 
scribed. About 103^ gallons of spent hypo was used. The 
dried silver precipitate amounted to fifteen ounces which sold 
at fifty cents an ounce. Where it is considered that this quantity 
has been obtained with but little labor, small cost and no offensive 
smell, the method should bid fair to supplant the potassium sul- 
phide plan in every photographic establishment. No special 
skill is necessary; any person who possesses a small amount of 
common sense can attend to it, insuring as it does, the depositing 
of every grain of silver contained in the old fixing bath, thus 
giving a profitable return in cash that will aid considerably in 
reducing the cost of production. 

Dead or Flat Black Varnish for Blacking Inside of 

Cameras, Tubes, Etc. 

Alcohol 8 oz. 

Lamp black 2 oz. 

Shellac i oz. 

Dissolve the shellac in alcohol by agitation, then add the lamp 
black and mix thoroughly. 

Black for Diaphragms, Shutters and Other Metallic Parts 

Nitric acid 4 oz. 

Copper wire /4 oz. 

Dissolve the copper wire in the nitric acid and then add slowly 
ij4 oz. of water. The parts to be blackened must be thoroughly 
cleaned, then heated and immersed in the acid bath after which 
they are taken out and brushed off or until the article shows a 
rich blue black. 

Ink for Writing on Gij^.ss 

White Ink — Mix i part Chinese white (water-color pigment) 
or barium sulphate with 3 or 4 parts of sodium silicate solution 
(water glass). The sodium silicate solution should have the 
consistency of glycerin. 

Black Ink — Mix I part liquid Chinese ink (or Higgin's Eternal 



Ink, or some similar carbon ink) with 2 parts sodium silicate 

Apply with an ordinary steel pen. The ink will dry in fifteen 
minutes and will withstand water. It may be readily removed 
by scraping with a knife. 

Dead Black for Wood 

Borax 30 grs 8 gms 

Glycerine 30 minims 8 c.c.s. 

Shellac 60 grs 16 gms. 

Water 8 oz. looo c.cs. 

Boil till dissolved and add 

Nigrosine, W.S 60 grs 16 gms. 

Or paint the wood first with 

Cupric chloride 75 grs 75 gms. 

Potassium bichromate. 75 grs... 75 gms. 

Water . 2^ ozs.. . . . . . . .1000 c.c.s. 

and as soon as the surface dries apply 

Aniline hydrochlorate.150 grs 150 gms. 

Water 2j4 oizs 1000 c.c.s. 

and wipe off any yellow powder that forms. Repeat the process 
till black enough, and then rub over with boiled linseed oil. 

Waterproofing Solution for Wood 

Asphalt 4 ozs 400 gms. 

Pure rubber 30 grs 6 gms. 

Mineral naphtha 10 ozs 1000 c.cs. 

Apply with stiff brush and give three successive coats, allowing 
to dry between each. The vapor from this solution is very 

Polish for Cameras^ Woodwork, Etc* 

Linseed oil 20 ozs 400 c.c.s. 

Spirits of camphor. . 2 ozs 40 c.c.s. 

Vinegar 4 ozs..., 80 c.c.s. 

Butter of antimony, i oz 20 gms. 

Liquid ammonia ... /4 oz 5 c.c.s. 

Water }4 oz 5 c-C-s. 

This mixtirre is applied very sparingly with a bit of old flannel, 
and thoroughly rubbed off with soft rags. 



Blackening Brass Work 

A. Copper nitrate 200 grs 450 gms. 

Water i oz 1000 c.c.s. 

B. Silver nitrate 200 grs 450 gms. 

Water i oz looo c.c.s. 

Mix A and B, and place the brass work (perfectly cleaned) in 
the solution for a few moments, heating it on removal. 

Varnish for Brass Work 

Celluloid 10 grs 4 gms. 

Amyl alcohol ^ oz 100 c.c.s. 

Acetone 3^ oz 100 c.c.s. 

Instead of this cold celluloid varnish, commercial "cold lacquer" 
can be used. 

To Blacken Aluminum 

Clean the metal thoroughly with fine emery powder, wash well 
and immerse in 

Ferrous sulphate i oz 80 gms. 

White arsenic i oz 80 gms. 

Hydrochloric acid ... 12 ozs lOOO c.c.s. 

Dissolve and add 

Water 12 ozs 1000 cc.s. 

When the color is deep enough dry off with fine sawdust, and 

Silvering Mirrors (Martin's Method) 

In employing the following formulae, it should be well under- 
stood that the glass plate to be silvered must be scrupulously 

A. Nitrate of silver 175 grs 40 gms. 

Distilled water 10 ozs 1000 c.c.s. 

B. Nitrate of ammonium . 2(^2 grs 60 gms. 

Distilled water 10 ozs 1000 cc.s. 

C. Pure caustic potash. . . i oz 100 gms. 

Distilled water 10 ozs 1000 c.c.s. 

D. Pure sugar candy.... ^ oz.( Avoir.) 100 gms. 
Distilled water 5 ozs 1000 c.c.s. 



Dissolve and add 

Tartaric acid 50 grs 23 gms. 

Boil in flask for ten minutes, and when cool add 

Alcohol I oz 200 CCS. 

Distilled water, quantity sufficient of make up to 10 ozs. or 

2000 CCS. 

For use, take equal parts of A and B. Mix together also equal 
parts of C and D and mix in another measure. Then mix both 
these mixtures together in the silvering vessel, and suspend the 
mirror face downward in the solution. 

Thermometric Rules 

The following rules for the rapid conversion of degrees in 
one system into another will be found useful : 

To convert Centigrade into Fahrenheit : 

Degrees centigrade times 9 divided by 5 plus 32. 

Ex. — 80° C. times 9 divided by 5 equals 144 plus 32 equals 
176° F, 

To convert Centigrade into Reaumur: 

Degrees Centigrade times 4 divided by 5. 

Ex. — 60° C. times 4 divided by 5 equals 48° R. 

To convert Fahrenheit into Centigrade: 

(Degrees Fahrenheit minus 32) times 5 divided by 9. 

Ex. — 100° F. minus 32 equals 68 times 5 divided by 9 equals 

37.8° c. 

To convert Fahrenheit into Reaumur : 
(Degrees Fahrenheit minus 32) divided by 9 times 4. 
Ex. — 95° F. minus 32 equals 63 divided by 9 times 4 equals 
28° R. 

To convert Reaumur into Centigrade. 

Degrees Reaumur times 5 divided by 4. 

Ex. — 80° R. times 5 divided by 4 equals 100° C. 

To convert Reaumur into Fahrenheit. 

Degrees Reaumur times 9 divided by 4 plus 32. 

Ex.— -16° R. times 9 divided by 4 equals 36 plus 32 equals 

68° F. 

Depth of Field 

Depth of field is governed by angular aperture, which is a 
measure of the angle at the apex of the cone of light reaching 



the plate when focusing on an infinitely distant point of light. 
The diameter of the angular aperture is the diameter of the 
base of the cone when its height is made equal to the focal 
length. Depth is often calculated on effective aperture; this 
introduces small errors that are very generally ignored. 

Let a equal focal length divided by diameter of angular aper- 
ture, c equal diameter of circle of confusion. Usually taken at 
o.oi inch but for critical definition 0.005 ^s necessary. 

H equals hyperfocal distance. See definition below, 

f^ 100 f» 

Then H equals equals when c equals o.oi inch 

ac a 

measuring all distances from node of admission. 

If we focus on infinity, the nearest object in focus is at a 
equal to H. 

If we focus on a distance equal to H -\- f, all objects are in 
H + f 

focus from up to infinity. This is the maximum amount 

of depth possible. 

If we focus on a point at a distance n the distance of nearest 

Hu Hu 

object in focus equals equals and the distance 

H + u — f H + d 

Hu Hu 

of farthest object in focus equals equals . 

H— u+f H— d 

When / is small compared with w it can be disregarded, and u 
and d can be considered equal, while distances can be measured 
either from the node or the principal focus. 

Very approximately, when we focus on a distance equal to — 

H H 
depth extends from to 

n+ I n — T 

If an image produced with a lens of focal length / and with 
aperture of / number a is enlarged n times the result is equiva- 
lent, both as regards size and depth, to one produced directly 



with a lens of focal length nf and aperture / number na, that is, 
an aperture of the same diameter. 

To produce the same depth with two different lenses the 
aperture / numbers must vary in proportion with the squares 
of the focal lengths. 

Eastman Negative and Positive Film Developer for 

Motion Pictures 

Developer No. i6 is a formula worked out by the Research 
Laboratories of the Eastman Kodak Company and recommended 
by them as being most suitable for the film stock which they 
supply. The writer recommends that wherever the conditions 
will permit that separate tanks of developer be kept for positive 
and negative stock even though the same formula be used in 
each tank. A bath which has been used for positives will not 
produce as good results on negative stock as one which is re- 
served exclusively for that purpose. 

Developer No. i6 
Dissolve the following chemicals in order named : 

Avoirdupois Metric 

Water (8>4 Imperial gals.) . . lo U. S. gals. . 40 1. 

Elon (metol) 180 grs 12 grm. 

Sodium sulphite (des.) 3 lbs. 5 ozs. . .1590 grm. 

Hydroquinone 8 ozs 240 grm. 

Sodium carbonate (des.) i lb. 9 ozs 750 grm. 

Potassium bromide i oz. 63 grs. . . 36 grm. 

Citric acid 400 grs 28 grm. 

Potassium metabi sulphite ... 2 ozs 60 grm. 

When in use, temperature of developer should be maintained 
at 65° F. When development is complete, rinse film in two 
changes of water and fix in an acid fixing bath. 

Although there are reasons against the use of the same de- 
veloper for negatives and positives, the following is capable of 
yielding most satisfactory results for both, and is recommended 
for use where the number of developing tanks is limited. 



Metol-Hydroquinone Developer 

Water i8o gals. 

Hydroquinone 8 lbs. 

Sodium sulphite (anhydrous) 40 lbs. 

Sodium carbonate 22 lbs. 

Potassium bromide i^ lbs. 

Potassium metabisulphite 2 lbs. 

Metol 8 ozs. 

Citric acid 10 ozs. 

The following is slower in action : 

Water 160 gals. 

Hydroquinone 8 lbs. 

Sodium sulphite (anhydrous) 25 lbs. 

Sodium carbonate 25 lbs. 

Potassium bromide i lb. 

Care must be taken to have temperature 65° to 70° F. as hydro- 
quinone does not work well below 65° and is too contrasty above 


Edinol — Hydro Developer for negatives only 

Water 160 gals. 

Acetone sulphite 6 lbs. 

Sodium sulphite (anhydrous) 24 lbs. 

Edinol 2y2 lbs. 

Hydroquinone i ^ lbs. 

Potassium bromide i lb. 

Potassium carbonate 40 lbs. 

Note — This is an excellent developer for Negatives, Films or 
Plates, buit not suitable for Positives. 

A Glycin Developer 

Glycin is slow acting developer which keeps for a long time 
and yields negatives perfectly free from stain. It also makes an 
excellent positive developer giving a rich blue black print and 
when re-developed gives very pleasing sepia tones. Its keeping 
qualities and close grained deposit recommend it especially for 
those whose work is on small quantities and infrequent. When 
exhausted it becomes strongly fluorescent showing a bluish cast 
like kerosene and should then be thrown away. 



Try the following formula and if you find it satisfactory you 
can easily calculate for larger quantities : 

Glycin 2 ozs. 

Sodium sulphite 5 ozs. 

Potassium carbonate 10 ozs. 

Water i eal. 


Metol Substitutes 

Metol is the trade name of a German-made developing agent 
which was in extensive use in this country before the War. 
Genuine Metol has been practically unobtainable since the first 
year of the war and yet the name had become so firmly rooted 
that it is still used as a designation for any one of a number 
of developing agents of similar properties which may be sub- 
stituted for it in the preparation of developing solutions. 

The names of some of them are as follows : Monomet, Elon, 
Kodalon, Phenomet, Paramidophenol, Ardel, Wallace's "Metol/* 
Cooptol, Rhodol, etc., any of which may be substituted for metol 
in any developer formula. Most of them may be substituted in 
equal quantities, those which require more or less so state on 
the sheet of directions accompanying them. 

Motion Picture Negative Developer 

Water — 160 gal i gal. 

Metol 12 oz 1% dr. 

Hydroquinone 3 lbs 4J4 dr. 

Sodium sulphite (anhydrous) . . 30 lbs 3 oz. 

Sodium carbonate (anhydrous) . 10 lbs i oz. 

Potassium bromide 8 oz. 5^ dr. 

Citric acid i lb i>^ dr. 

Positive Developer 

Water 200 gal I gal. 

Paramidophenol sulphate 12 oz i dr. 

Hydroquinone 2y oz 2^ dr. 

Sodium sulphite (anhydrous) . . 28 lbs 2^ oz. 

Sodium carbonate (anhydrous) . 24 lbs i}i oz. 

Potassium bromide 10 oz. ..... .22 gr. 

Sodium hydroxide 4 lbs 5J^ dr. 



Fixing Bath 

While the ordinary plain "Hypo" of two pounds of hypo 
per gallon of water seems all that may be desired, yet there are 
times and conditions where it fails, particularly in hot weather. 
The following mixture (for all times) on account of its un- 
failing certainty even under the most trying conditions is 

Acid Hypo Fixing Bath 

Avoir. Metric 

Water lo gals 40 1. 

Hyposulphite of soda. .21 lbs 10 kg. 

When thoroughly dissolved, add the following hardener: 

Water 40 oz 1200 c.c. 

Sodium sulphite (des) . 4 oz 120 gms. 

Alum 8 oz 240 gms. 

Acetic acid 28% 24 oz 720 c.c. 

When fixing is complete, wash thoroughly and immerse for 
two minutes in the following: 

Glycerine Bath 

Avoir. Metric 

Water 10 gals 40 1. 

Glycerine 32 liq. oz i 1. 

The object of the glycerine bath is to maintain flexibility in 
the film. 

Another Acid Fixing Bath 

Mix in the order given. 

Water 250 gals. 

Hyposulphite of soda (crystals) 400 lbs. 

Sodium sulphite (anhydrous) 25 lbs. 

Acetic acid No. 8 (>4 carboyer) 50 lbs. 

Powdered alum i^ lbs. 

Note — Remove "scum" before using. Where mixing facilities 
permit, it is better to mix the last three ingredients separately 
in 10 gallons of the water and decant or filter into the hypo after 



Silver Cyanide Intensifier 

In cartoon and title work where intense contrast is wanted 
between black and white, an intensifier is often wanted that will 
give an unusual degree of intensification. Such an intensifier may 
be made as follows : 

Sol. A, 

Bromide of Potassium i lb. 

Bichloride of mercury i lb. 

Water lo gals. 

Sol B. 

Pure cyanide of potassium i lb. 

Nitrate of silver i lb. 

Water lo gals. 

Place the film to be intensified in Sol. A until the image has 
bleached clear through to the back of the film, then rinse well 
and transfer to Sol. B. 

Note — These solutions are highly poisonous. 

One immersion gives a heavy degree of intensification but if a 
greater degree is required the operation may be repeated. 

Intensification by Toning 

A very considerable degree of intensification may be given a 
negative by toning it sepia in the same bath that is used for 
toning sepia positives. Full directions are given in the chapter 
on Tinting and Toning. 

Iodide of Mercury Intensifying Formula 

Note — This solution is poisonous and should be labeled 

This method is more regular than bichloride of mercury and 
has the faculty of reducing contrasts in addition to intensifying 
the general image. 

Water ^ loo gals. 

Sulphite of soda (anhyd. )..*...... .. 83 lbs. 

Iodide of mercury 8^4 lbs. 

Submerge the frame of film in this solution and allow to re- 
main therein until the desired strength has been obtained, then 



wash in running water for at least 15 minutes and place in the 
regular developer for from 3 to 5 minutes, after which it should 
be washed again for 30 minutes. 


Persulphate Reducer 

This formula is advised, where the film is very contrasty for 
it has the faculty of reducing the dense portions of the negatives 
without any material change in the high lights or thinner por- 
tions. Place the wet film in solution No. i which is made up of : 

Water 100 gals. 

Persulphate of ammonium 33M ^^s. 

As soon as the right density has been obtained place the film 
in solution No. 2 which consists of : 

Sulphite soda 10 lbs. 

Water 100 gals. 

This will stop the reduction immediately after which film 
should be washed for from 15 to 20 minutes in running water 
and then dried as usual. 

Ferrichloride Reducer 

This is an efficient method of reduction. It has been found of 
particular value in reducing high lights at a greater speed than 
shadows thereby overcoming extreme contrast. 

Ferrichloride i dr. 

Hydrochloric acid 2 dr. 

Water 10 oz. 

The negative to be reduced is first thoroughly washed until the 
last traces of hypo are eliminated. It is then immersed in the 
reducer for a minute or so. On taking the negative out from this 
solution, no action will be apparent, but on transferring it to a 
freshly mixed hypo bath, reduction will take place very quickly. 
The operation should be carefully watched, being stopped a little 
short of completion. 

Ferricyanide or Farmer's Reducer 

This reducer acts differently than those given above as it in- 
creases contrast by attacking the shadows more than the high 



lights. It must be freshly prepared as it deteriorates rapidly. 

To prepare it, take as much fresh hypo solution as is required 
to cover the film and add to it enough of a saturated solution of 
potassium ferricyanide to make it lemon colored. If the color 
is too deep, verging on the orange, the reduction may proceed 
too rapidly to be controlled. When reduction has proceeded far 
enough, wash quickly to prevent further action. 

Dye-Toning Positives 

Dye-toning is different from either toning or tinting in that a 
dye image is substituted for the silver one. 

The dyes used for tinting film are not suitable for this process 
as only certain basic dyes may be used. The process is based 
on the discovery that silver iodide acts as a mordant for certain 

To convert the silver image to silver iodide it is first immersed 
in the following solution : 

Sol. A. — In four quarts of water dissolve 7 pounds of potas- 
sium iodide. In this iodide solution dissolve 3 pounds of iodine 
scales and then add to it 32 gallons of water for one rack tank. 

In this bath the film must remain until the image has bleached 
to a pale straw color, when it is removed and washed, then 
placed in one of the following solutions : 







r Malachite Green i lb. 2 oz. 

[Water 32 gals. 

/victoria Blue 3 oz. 

[Water 32 gals. 

Auramine 2 lbs. 

Saffranine 7 dr. 

Water 32 gals. 

r Ponceau Red 2 lbs. 

[Water 32 gals. 

jAcridine Orange i lb. 12 oz. 

[Water 32 gals. 

fViolet de Paris 4>^ oz. 

[Water 32 gals. 



The iodized film is allowed to remain in the dye bath until the 
image is saturated with color to the back of the film. It is then 
removed and the high lights cleared by immersion in : 

Bath B 

Glacial acetic acid i lb. 6 oz. 

Denatured alcohol 5 lb. 

Water 32 gal. 

The next step is the removal of the iodized silver which may 
be done in the following bath : 

Bath C 

Hypo 15 lbs. 

Sodium acetate 10 lbs. 

Tannin 10 lbs. 

Water 32 gals. 

After clearing, the film is washed and dried. 

Bath C is not absolutely necessary if the film is simply dye- 
toned to obtain a pleasing color but for color photography where 
a transparent image is required Bath C must be used. 

Concentrated Developer for Gaslight Papers 

Metol Yi. oz. 

Sodium sulphite (Anhyd.) i lb. 

Sodium carbonate (Anhyd.) . 12 oz. 

Hydroquinone 2 oz. 

Potassium bromide 54 oz. 

Water i gal. 

For use, dilute with four parts of water. 



Aabameter, Steadman's, 214 

Aberration, chromatic, 72-73 

Aberration, spherical, 70 

Absorption of light 34 

Accelerator 115 

Accommodation, how to make fo- 
cusing screen to avoid trouble 
of, 90-91 

Accommodation of the eye 85 

Accommodation or focal adjust- 
ment of the eye 83 

Acetic acid 120 

Achromatic loups for focusing 87 

Acids 120 

Acid dyes 181 

Acid Hardener 119, 365 

Acid Hypo Fixing Bath 365 

Actinic focus 45 

Actinic light 30 

Actinic or chemical rays 73 

Actinic rays 80, 81 

Actino-Photometer 215 

Advertising films 20 

Advertising with movies 331 

Aerial image 83, 84 

Agfa dyes 194 

Air compressor 176 

Air filter 176 

Airplane camera mount 308 

Airplane Photography 304 

Air pressure 175 

Albertype 42 

Alkali 114 

Allison & Hadaway lamp 232 

Amateur cameramen 22 

Amateur cinematographers 251 

Amateur model camera, Pathe 
Freres, 58 

Amateur photography 335 

American Photography Exposure 
Tables 212 

Analysis of Developers 129 
Analysis of motion 8 
Ancients 7 

Angle of camera 225 
Angle of reflection 35 

Angle of view 65 
Angle, wide angle lenses, 65 
Anhydrous salts 110 
Animated cartoons 12, 257 
Anschuetz 14 
Anterior conjugate 50 
Aperture, effective, 66 
Aperture, relative, 66 
Apochomatic 80 
Apothecaries' weight 354 
Apparatus, cameraman's, 92 
Apparatus to mix solutions 108 
Appendix 347 

Applying for a position 328 
Arc carbons 231 
Ardel developer 364 
Aristo lamps 232 
Arithmetic, photographic, 107 
Armat, Thos., 16 
Army films 19 
Artificial lighting 220 
Artistic balance 293 
Artistic motive 289 
Art titles 199 
Assembling 204 
Assistant cameramen 95 
Astigmatism 71 
Astronomical photography 46 
Athletic pictures 252 
Automatic dissolve 60 
Automatic light change 172 
Automatic light shift 170 
Automatic shutter 267 
Aviation pictures 304 
Avoirdupois System 102 
Avoirdupois Weight 354 
Axis of a lens 39 
Axis, optical, 64 
Axis, principal, 48 
Axial rays 47 


Back focus 64 

Backlash of focusing mount 78 
Back lighting exposure 217 
Bacteria on film 163 
Badische dyes 194 


Bahama Islands 310 

Balloon photography 305 

Bangs, Frank, 325 

Barrel Distortion of lens 72 

Bartsch, Dr. Paul, 313 

Basic dyes 191 

Bath, Toning, 178 

Bausch & Lomb 79, 268 

Baynes, G. McL., 224 

Beards, false, 316 

Bell & Howell movement 60 

Bell & Howell Printer, operation 

of 173 
Bibliography 334 
Biggs, Alfred, 5 
Binocular mask 270 
Biograph Studio 221 
Black Maria 228 
Black matte varnish 357 
Black smoke 278 
Bleeding 192 
Blue tone 187 
Box sets 318 
Brass, to blacken, 359 
Breaker-box 172 

British Journal of Photography 88 
Brittleness 191 
Bromides 116 
Bromine vapor 81 
Brown red tone 181 
Buckling 94 
Bunsen burner 28 
Burrough & Wellcome Meter 213 

Calibrated lens mount 76 

Calibrating lens mount 77 

Calibration of mixing vessels 108 

Cam, Harmonic cam movement, di- 
agram of Universal, 54 

Camera angle 225 

Camera, cartoon, 264 

Camera, choice of, 60 

Camera, focusing of, 76 

Cameras, magazines side by side, 62 

Camera mount, airplane, 308 

Camera, oil for, 94 

Camera, Pathe Freres amateur 
model, 58 

Camera repair 92 

Camera, still, 96 

Camera, threading of, 62 

Camera, toy motion picture, 60 

Cameraman's assistant 95 

Cameraman's relationship to other 
workers 320 

Camp-fire effects at night 286 
Captions 201 
Carbons, arc, 231 
Carborundum powder 90 
Carboy, glass, 139 
Carelessness 326 
Carew, Edwin, 204 
Carnegie, Douglas, 90 
Carpenters, stage, 321 
Cartoons, Animated, 12 
Cartoons, animated, 257 
Cartoon board 260 
Cartoon Camera 264 
Carus, Titus Lucretius, 7 
Cavern effect 270 
Celluloid 12 

Celluloid for cartoons 261 
Centigrade thermometer 114, 360 
Changing bag 94 
Changing focus 77 
Characteristic curve 149, 150 
Chart, focusing, 208 
Chart, Lens testing, 79 
Chemical definitions 100 
Chemicals, dessicated, 116 
Chemical fog 114, 118 
Chemical impurities 129, 130 
Chemical rays 46, 73 
Chemical reactions 100 
Chemical solutions 100 
Chemicals, storage of, 130 
Chemicals, substitution of, 122 
Chemistr>% Photographic, 340 
Chevreul's black 35 
Chiaro oscuro 299 
Chicago Stage Lamp 232 
Chromatic aberration 72, 73 
Chromium focusing screen 89 
Chronomatograph 9 
Chronophotographoscope 9 
Choice of camera 60 
Cigarette smoking 320 
Cinching up 163 
Cinematographer's duties 92 
Cinematographic Literature 334 
Cinematography, Books on, 341 
Cinematography, Fascination of, 19 
Cinematography, History of, 7 
Cinematograph lenses 64 
Circle-in 268 

Circle of confusion 40, 68 
Circle-out, Length of, 269 
Circle-out 268 
Citric Acid 120 
Clarke, H. T., 129 
Claw, slip claw movement, 58 
Close-up, dissolve into a, 277 


Cloud photography 294 

Climbing side of building, man, 278 

Cockpit, airplane, 305 

Coins as weights 355 

Colby, Vincent, 260 

Colloidal salts 178 

Color screens 301 

Color tinting 177 

Color toning 177 

Coma of lens 70 

Commercial Studios 332 

Committee on Public Information 19 

Compass 248 

Composition 288 

Concave lens 48 

Concavo-convex lens 48 

Concentrated developers 117 

Concentrated paper developer 369 

Conduct, cameraman's, 325 

Confidence 327 

Confusion, circle of, 40, 68 

Conjugate foci 48 

Conjugate foci, determination of , 51 

Contact printing 167 

Continuous printer 166, 171 

Contrast developer 348 

Contrast in art 290 

Contrast factor 157 

Control card 170 

Conversion of Formulae 102 

Cooper-Hewitt Lamp 28, 221 

Cooper-Hewitt quartz lights 311 

Cooptol developer 364 

Copper ferrocyanide 177 

Corrected lens 47 

Correct exposure 140, 153 

Correct development 141 

Counting for Double Exposures 271 

Covering Power of Lens 74 

Crabtree, J. I., 5, 100 

Crank turners 98 

Crepe hair 315 

Crookes tubes 81 

Cross lines 85 

Croy, Homer, 5 

Curtis, Edward S., 325 

Cut-ins 204 

Cut-outs, Cartoon, 263 

Cutting and editing 199 

Curvature of field of lens 71 


Dark room 96 

Dark room lights 33 

Dark tent 255 

Day's work, Preparation for, 92 

de Abney, Sir W. W., 81 

De Brie camera Double loop 62 

De Brie camera, focusing device of, 

De Brie movement 69 

De Brie type of focusing glass 87 

Decalso 129 

Decanting 110 

Decorative design 288 

Decorative titles 199 

Decoudin's Exposure Meter 214 

Definitions, chemical, 100 

Definition of lens 73 

Deliquescence 131 

DeMille, Cecil B., 243 

Density 145 

Density ratios 150 

Depth of field 360 

Depth of focus 67, 08, 69, 83 

Dessicated chemicals 116 

Develope, How to, 157 

Developer, combined, 362 

Developer, concentrated, 117 

Developer, Edinol, 363 

Developer for paper 369 

Developer for contrast 348 

Developer for M. P. negatives 117 

Developer formula 116 

Developer, Glycin, 363 

Developer, M-Q, 363 

Developer, negative, 364 

Developer, positive, 364 

Developing racks 158 

Developer, Tropical, 353 

Developer, two-solution, 118 

Developing agents 114 

Developing, instructions for Spiral 
Reel, 140 

Developing outfit, portable, 255 

Developing outfits, Spiral Reel, 140 

Developing rack. How to Make, 136 

Developing solutions, to mix, 114 

Developing test in double exposure 
work 274 

Developing tray, How to Make, 137 

Developing troubles 118 

Development, correct, 141 

Development, Drum system of, 133 

Development, Gaumont Co. Ma- 
chine, 134 

Development, Machine, 134 

Development, Machine by Pathe 
Co., 134 

Development of the negative 133 

Development, Spiral Reel for, 139 

Diagrams, Animated, 257 

Diaphragm 40, 268, 269 


Diaphragm, Effect of, 41 

Diaphragm numbers 216 

Dichroic fog 184 

Diffused light 36, 37 

Diffusers 37 

Dilution of liquids 107 

Director 320 

Director, Conferring with, 92 

Director, Relations to, 97 

Direct positives 347 

Dirty film 163 

Discoloration of film 162 

Dispersion 34 

Dispersion, Correction of, 45 

Dispersion of light 44 

Dissolve 276 

Dissolve, Automatic, 60 

Dissolve, Hand, 60 

into a close-up, 277 
shutter, 60 
Dissolving chemicals 109 
Distortion, Barrel, 72 
of lens, 72 
Pillow, 72 
Diverging lenses 48 
Diving chamber. Photographic, 310 

deep sea, 311 
Donisthorpe, Wordsworth, 12 
Double concave lens 48 
convex lens 48 
Exposure, Counting ior, 271 
Exposure on dual roles 279 
Exposure work. Developing 

test in, 274 
Exposure, jMarking film 

for, 271 
Exposure, Trick-Work 

and, 276 
Exposure work, markinj 

groundglass in, 272 
Exposure work. Record on 
film, 275 
Double loop, i)e Brie camera, 62 
Newman & Sinclair 

Camera, 62 
Pathe Portable, 62 
Double Printing 282 
Dramatic pictures 19 
Drawings for Animated Cartoons 

Driffield, V. C, 210 
Drops 105 
Drum system 134 
Drum system 190 
Drums, drying, 139 
Drunken screw 59 
Drying drums 139 

Drying film 139 
Dual roles, photographing, 379 
Duplex Arc Lamps 235 
Duplex Printer, Operation of the, 
Threading, 171 
Dyes, Manufacturers of, 194 
Dye-Toning 368 

Earthenware for solutions 108 

Eastman, Geo., 12 

Eastman negative stock 135 

Eder's Handbook 223 

Edison, Thos. A., 11 

Edinol developer 363 

Editing film 199 

Educational films 20 

Educational Pictures 247 

Effective aperture 66 

Efilorescence 131 

Electrician 320 

Elementary photography 335 

Elon 100, 114 

Elon developer 364 

Employees 324 

Employer 324 

Emulsion 156 

English Arc Lamps 235 

English Weights and Measures 354 

Equivalent focal length 64 

focus 68 
Ernemann movement 59 
Errors, Zonal, 70 
Ether 25 
Evans, M., 13 
Experience 329 
Exposure 140-, 159, 208 
Exposure chart 216 
Extension ring 79 
Exterior lighting 206 
Extras 322 
Eye piece 44 

Facination of Cinematography 19 

Factors, exposure, 211, 302 

Fade 268 

Fade-in 60, 267 

Fade-out 60, 267 

Fades, length of, 268 

Fahrenheit thermometer 114, 360 

Fake 267 

Fancy masks 270 

Farmer's Reducer 267 


Faucets 178 

Ferrichloride Reducer 367 
Ferrocyanide Copper 180 
Iron 183 
Silver 178 
Uranium 181 
Vanadium 184 
Ferrlcyanide Reducer 367 
Field, Curvature of, 71 
Film, Drying, 139 
Film for focusing, To make, 88 

ground 84 
Film-notching device 173 
Film, Slitting, 15 

Film stock, Eastman negative, 135 
unperf orated, 15 
X-back, 93 
Filter bags 111 
Filtering solutions 110 
Filters 110 

Light, 301 
Fine focusing screens 90 
Finger marks 163 
Finish, Black Matte, 357 
Fish, Deep sea, 313 
Fixing bath 365 

solution 119 
Flame arcs 233 
Flare spots 74, 75 
Flexible support 13 
Floor covering 319 
Fluid measure 354 
Flying outfit 309 
Focal length. Equivalent, 64 
of lens 64 
plane 40, 64 
point 40, 64 
Focus, Back, 64 

Changing of, 77 
Depth of, 67, 68, 69, 83 
Equivalent, 68 
Ocular, 84 
Focusing 207 

Achromatic loups for, 87 

cloth 95 

device 86 

device of De Brie camera 

dodge for 86 
glass, De Brie type of, 87 
loup 83 
magnifier 207 
method of, 90 
mount, Backlash of, 78 
scale for, 76 
screen, Chromium, 89 
screen, How to make 
novel, 90 

screens, fine, 90 

How to make 
iodide 89 
screen, How to make, to 
avoid trouble of accom- 
modation, 90, 91 
Tape line measurement 

for, 76 
the Camera 76 
To make film for, 88 
tube. Microscopic, 84 
Fog 70, 160 

Chemical, 114, 118 
Fogging 179 
Formaldehyde 353 
Foreground 290 
Formulae, How to use, 100 
Formulas, See Appendix 
Formalin 197 
F System 67 
Frame line 170 
Free lance cameramen 23 
Frilling 161 

Fringe, Prismatic, 45, 46 
Fuselage 30 

Galbraith, Frank, 23 

Gaumont Company machine de- 
velopment 134 

Geissler tube 14 

Geneva movement 57 

Genthe, Arnold, 325 

Getthemoneygraph 9 

Ghost or spirit figures 281 

Gillies, John, 325 

Gillon camera. Threading, 62 

Gillon movement 57, 59 

Gimbal panorama 77 

Glacial acetic acid 121 

Glass carboy 139 

Glass disk 9 

Glass graduates 109 

Glass, Ground, 84 

Glass ink 357 

plates 9, 13 
studios 221 

Gloss, To kill, 319 

Glycerine bath 133, 180, 197, 365 

Glycin Developer 363 

Goerz, C. P., American Optical Co., 

Goggles 309 

Goodwin, Rev. Hannibal, 12 

Gosport 305 

Government films 20 


Gradation 154, 295 
Graduates, Glass, 109 
Granularity 161 
Grease paint 315 
Greene, W. Friese, 13 
Green blue tone 186 
Green tone 184 
Griffith, D. W., 204 
Grinding the backs of lantern 

slides 88 
Ground glass or film 84 
Gun, Photographic, 11 


Hadden-Smith, Gov.. 311 

Halation 160, 230 

Halftone dots 42 

Halo 70 

Handbooks 339 

Hand dissolve 60 

Hardener, Acid, 119 

Hardening Bath 365 

Hard lights 223 

rubber racks 179 

Harmonic cam movement 56, 27 

diagram of 

Haughton, Percy, 23 

Harvey Meter 212 

Heat, radiant, 81 

Hepworth Film Co. 224 

Herschel, Sir John, 9 

Hertzian waves 26 

Heyde's Exposure Meter 215 

High lights 294 

Hinton, A. Horsley, 209 

Historical Pictures 247 

History of Cinematography 7 

Hoechst dyes 194 

Hoffman, Chas. W., 5 

Hood, lens, 269 

Hopwood, Heii^y V., 5 

Horizon line 293 

Horner, W. G., 7 

How Submarine Movies are made 

How to make developing rack 136 

tray 137 
focusing screen to 
avoid trouble of ac- 
commodation 90-91 
novel focusing screen 

Hoyt, Dudley, 325 

Hvmtington, R. J., 5 

Hurter and Driffield 141, 144, 150 
Hurter, F., 210 
Hydrochloric acid 120 
Hydrolysis 192 
Hydrometer tests 105 
Hydroquinone 114 

developer 363 
Hypo, Acid, 119 

Bath 365 

How made, 119 

Milky, 120 

Solution 101, 119 

Tropical, 353 

Illumination 32 

of lens 74 
Illustration or picture brought to 

life 282 
Image, Aerial, 83, 84 

Circle 65 

Color, 177 

Intensity, 178 

Production of, 43 

Real, 43 

Virtual, 93 
Impressionism 295 
Impurities in chemicals 129 
In and out movement 58, 59 
Incandescent lamps 28 
Ince, Thomas, 204 
Index of refraction 38 
Industrial films 20 

pictures 247, 332 
Infallible Exposure Meter 213 
Infra-red rays 30, 81 
Ink for glass 357 
Instructional films 20 
Intensification by toning 178 
Intensifiers 366 
Intensity of light 31 
Interior lighting 220 
Interpretation of ideas 325 
Introduction 5 
Inversion of image 43 
Invisible light 30 
Invisible rays 81 
Iodide in developer 116 
Iodide focusing screens, How to 

make, 89 
Iron ferrocyanide 177 

Japanese art 292 
Jenkins, C. Francis, 5, 9 


Johns Hopkins University 81 
Johnstone, Francis B., 325 
Joyce flame arc 232 
Judgment, Cinematographer's, 92 


Kalle dyes 194 
Kasebier, Gertrude, 325 
Keyholes 269 

Kinematograph Meter 213 
Kinetoscope 17 
Klieglight 233 
Klieglight Portable 234 
Kodak portrait lens 79 
Kodalon developer 364 


Lacquer for metal 359 
Landscape photography 288 
Lantern Slides 339 
Lantern slides. Grinding the backs 

of 88 
Latent image 150 

Lateral shrinkage, Taking care of 
Latitude of emulsions 210 
of exposure 153 
of film 303 
Law of inverse squares 31 
Learning photography 96 
Length, Equivalent focal, 64 
Lens, Axis of, 39 
Lens, Coma of, 70 

Corrected, 47 

Covering Power of, 74 

Curvature of field of, 71 

Definition of, 73 

Focal length of, 64 

Focal point of, 64 

Forms 48 

Hood 269 

Illumination of, 74 

Kodak Portrait, 79 

Magnifying, 46 

Mount, Calibrated, 76 

Mount, Calibrating, 77 

Photographic, 46 

Supplementary, 79 

Tessar, 69, 70 

testing chart 79 

unsymmetrical combination, 
Lenses 38 

Books on 340 
Cinematograph, 64 
Negative, 48 

Positive, 48 
Rectilinear, 73 
Speed of, 66 
Wide angle, 65 
Leventhal, J. F., 262 
Lewis, Edgar, 204 
Light, Actinic value of, 33 

Books on, 339 

card 170 

change 175 

automatic, 172 
Light-changing mechanism 171 
movement 172 
Light dispersion 44 

Intensity of, 31 
Light intensity 143 
Light path 27 

ray 26 

shift 168 

the nature of, 25 

variation table 211, 227 

Velocity of, 30 

waves 26 

waves, length of, 30 

Wave length of 80 
Lighting, Artificial, 220 

diagram 239, 243, 244, 245 
Interior, 220 
Lightning striking 285 
Life of Toning bath 180 
Line composition 291 
Lip rouge 316 
Liquids, Dilution of, 107 
Liquid measure 354 
Lithographic process 43 
Liver of sulphur 351 
Loading retorts 94 
Local color 247 
Locations 95 
Loop, true or return, 63 
Lumiere-Carpentier Movement 56 
Lumiere movement 56 
Luminosity, visual, 143 
Luminous point 29 


Macbeth Lamps 233 

Machine development 134 

Machine development, Pathe Com- 
pany, 134 

Machine development, Gaumont 
Company, 134 

Magazines side by side 62 

Magnesium torches 286 

Magnifying Lens 46 

Majestic lamps 233 


Major conjugate 50 
Make-up 230 
Make-up for movies 315 
Making motion picture positives 165 
Making Submarine Movies 310 
Maltese Cross movement 57 
Manager, Studio, 323 
Marey, E. J., 11 

Marking film for double exposure 

groundglass in double ex- 
posure work 272 
Markings on film 163 
Martin, Julius, 151 
Masks 269 

fancy, 270 
Matt celluloid 20 
Mayers, Max, 226 
McDonald, Pirie, 325 
McKay, Winsor, 257 
Measuring chemicals 109 
Meniscus lens 49 
Merck chemicals 185 
Mercury Intensifier 366 
Metal-coated carbons 238 
Metal Lacquer 359 
Metal trays 139 
Meter, Harvey, 212 
Method of focusing 90 
Metol substitutes 364 
Metric system 101 
Meyerowitz, E. B., 268 
Microscope eye-piece 86 
Microscopic focusing tube 84 

pictures 250 
Milky hypo 120 
Miniatures 278 
Minor conjugate 50 
Mirrors, silvering, 359 
Mirror, vision in a, 281 
Miscellaneous solutions 123 
Mixing acid hardener 120 
Mixing developer 114 

tanks 110 

vessels 108 
Money with your camera 331 
Monomet developer 364 
Mosstype 42 
Motion analysis 8, 23 
Motion Picture Camera, The, 53 

Engineers, Society 
of, 223 
Motion Study 252 

Synthesis of, 8 
Mott, Wm. Roy, 223 
Mottled film 161 
Mount, Blacklash of focusing, 78 

Calibrated lens, 76 
Calibrating a lens, 77 
Movement, Bell & Howell, 60 

De Brie, 59 

Ernemann, 59 

Geneva, 57 

Harmonic cam, 56, 57 

In and out, 58, 59 

Lumiere, 56 

Lumiere-Carpentier, 56 

Maltese Cross, 57 

Pathe, 57 

Pathe Freres, 58 

Pittman, 58 

Prevost, 57, 59 

Rod and crank, 57, 58, 59 

Slip claw, 58 

Universal, 57 

Williamson, 58 
M. Q. Developer 363 
Munsterberg, Hugo, 224 
Muybridge, Ed., 8 
Mustaches, false, 316 


Navy Films 19 

Negative, Development of the. 133 
lenses 4S 

Overexposed, 141 
Perfect, 144 
Underexposed, 141 
thin, 160 
weak, 160 

Newman 286 

Newman & Sinclair camera double 
loop 62 

News films 21 

Newspaper photographers 96 

Newscameramen 96 

Nitrosodimethyl aniline 82 

Nodal points 48 

Notch, light change, 175 

Novel focusing screen, how to 
make, 90 

N. Y. Institute of Photography 5 


Objective 44 
Oblique rays 47 
Ocular focus 84 
Oil for cameras 94 
Olive green tone 187 
One-solution tone 177 
Opacities, Range of, 149 
Opacity 145, 150 


Operating motion-picture machines 

Operation of the Bell & Howell 

Printer 173 
Operation of the Duplex Printer 171 
Optical Axis 64 
Optical center 48 
flat 83 

Lanterns 338 
Optics, Books on, 339 

Photographic, 46 
Orthochromatism 300 
Orthochromatic film 230 
Outfit, camera, 206 
Overexposed Negative 141 
Overhead lights 222 
Oxidation of solutions 111 

Painted scenery 240 

Paint, Probus, 137 

Panchromatic film 130, 300 

Panorama, gimbal, 77 

Paper developer 369 

Paramidophenol 114 

Paramidophenol developer 364 

Parts, solutions by, 105 

Pathe Company machine develop- 
ment 134 

Pathe Freres amateur model camera 
58 ^ 

Pathe movement 57, 59 

Pathe Portable camera Double 
Loop 62 

Pathe, retorts 94 

Pedagogical pictures 247 

Peep show 17 

Percentage solutions 103 

Perfect negative 144 

Persistance of vision 7 

Personality 325 

Perspective 292 

Perspective, Exaggerated, 65 

Persulphate reducer 367 

Phantasmagoria 9 

Phantoscope 16 

Phenomet developer 364 

Phonograph 11 

Phosphorescence 28 

Photogelatine process 42 

Photographic arithmetic 107 
books 96 
gun 11 
objective 47 
optics 46 

solutions, How to 
prepare, 100 

Photographing dual roles 279 
Photography, Astronomical, 46 

Books on, 335 
Photokinematoscope 9 
Photomechanical reproduction 42 
Photometer 146, 209 
Photo-micrographic motion pictures 

Physics 25 
Pictorial unity 290 
Picture brought to life 282 
Pillow Distortion 72 
Pilot, Airplane, 306 
Pinch cock 112 
Pinhole 40 
Pitted emulsion 163 
Pittman movement 58 
Plano-concave lens 48 
Plano-convex lens 48 
Point of focus 39 
Polish for cameras 358 
Pop-eyes 317 

Portable developing outfit 255 
Portrait lens, Kodak, 79 
Position, Applying for, 328 
Positive developer 362 

lenses 48 

printing 165 

stock 166 
Positives direct 347 
Posterior conjugate 50 
Potassium salts 122 
Power of lens, Cover, 74 
Precipitating tanks 351 
Preparation for work 92 
Prevost camera 62 
Prevost camera. Threading of, 62 
Prevost movement 57, 59 
Preservative 114 
Primary colors 34 
Principal axis 48 
Principal focus 48 
Prism 34, 38^ 
Prismatic fringe 45 
Prism Glass 228 
Printer, Continuous, 171 

Operation of Bell & 
Plowell, 173 

Operation of the Duplex 

Step, 171 

Threading Duplex. 171 
Printing contact 167 
Double, 282 
leader 170 
light 166 
machine 165 


Positives 165 

Rolls 170 
Probus paint 137 

Profession of Cinematography 324 
Projection, Books on, 339 
Projector, Toy, 60 
Promotion 96 
Propaganda films 19 
Propagation of light 28 
Props 321 
Ptolemy 7 

Purification of water 128 
Pyro 114 

Quartz 81 



Race track 8 

Rack, How to make developing 136 

Developing, 158 
Radiant heat 81 
Radiographer 81 
Raff & Gammon 16 
Range of exposure 153 
Opacities 149 
Rays, Actinic, 80, 81 

Axial, 47 

Chemical or Actinic, 73 

Infra-red, 81 

Invisible, 81 

Oblique, 47 

Ultra violet, 81 

Visual, 72, 80, 81 

X-rays, 81 
Reactions, Chemical, 100 
Real image 43 
Reaumur thermometer 360 
Record on film for double exposure 

work 275 
Recovery of waste solutions 351, 355 
Rectilinear lenses 72 
Red tone. Copper, 180 

Uranium, 181 
Reducers 367 
Reduction by toning 178 
Reference books 337 
Reflection, Angle of, 35 
Reflection of light 33 
R^eflectors 95 
Refraction 32 
Refraction, Index of, 38 
Reichert, Dr. Ed., 11 
Relationship of caremaman to other 
workers 320 

Relations to director 97 

Relative aperture 66 

Rembrandt 295 

Rembrandt lighting 226 

Research Laboratory of Eastman 

Kodak Company 100 
Restrainer 114 
Retorts, Loading, 94 
Return or true loop 62 
Reversal 147 
Reverse take-up 271 
Reversing solution 348, 350 
Rheostat, Light change 175 
Rhodol developer 364 
Ring, Extension, 79 
Rock Crystal 81 

Rod and crank movement 57, 58. 59 
Roskam, Ed. J., 5 
Rouge in make-up 230 
Royal Photographic Society 67 

Salary 328 

Salts, Anhydrous, 110 
Saturation 101 
San Salvador 310 
Sarony, Napoleon, 325 
Scale for focusing 76 
Scale of gradation 296 
Scales, Weighing, 108 
Scenic films 20 

pictures 250 
Scenery 240 
Scott Lamps 233 
Screen Magazine 21 
Screw, Drunken, 59 
Scum, To remove, 113 
Sea gardens 310 
Sealing film tins 255 
Sepia red tone 183 
Sepia tone 184 
Shadows 294 
Sharks 312 
Shift, Light, 175 
Ship, Rocking, 286 
Shrunken film 168 
Shutter 59, 60 

. Automatic, 267 
dissolve 60 
Side by side magazine camera 62 
Side lighting 239 
Silk air filter 176 
Silver Cyanide Intensifier 366 
Silver ferrocyanide 177 
Silver foil 82 
Silvering mirrors 359 


Silverplated racks 179 
Silver recovery 351, 355 
Silver sludge 351 
Silver Sulphide 177 
Simons, Ed. L., 230 
Simplex twin arcs 233 
Skylights 222 
Slime 127 

Slip claw movement 58 
.Slot machine 16 
Sludge 110, 185 
Smithsonian Institute 313 
Smoke, Black, 278 
Smoke-pots 286 

Society of Motion Picture Engi- 
neers 18 
Softening of emulsion 161 
Soft focus 299 
Solar focus 50 
Solubility 101, 108 
Solute 100 
Solutions 100 
Solutions, How to prepare, 100 

Miscellaneous, 122 

Percentage, 103 

Stock, 107 

Volumetric, 101 
Solvent 100 
Spear, A. D., 232 
Spectroscope 33 
Spectrum 30, 33, 80 
Speed 69 

Speed determination 151 
Speed of lenses 66 
Speed testing 209 ^ 
Spherical Aberration 70 
Spiral Reel, Developing instructions 

for, 140 
Spiral. Reel developing outfits 140 
Spiral Reel for development 139 
Spirit figures, Ghost or, 281 
Split stage 279 
Spoken titles 201 
Spot lights 235 
Spots, Flare, 74, 75 
Spotted film 162 
Stage carpenters 321 
Stage hands 320 
Stain 115 

Stain, Black for wood, 358 
Stanford, Leland, 8 
Stars, Motion picture, 321 
Static 93 

Steadman Aabameter 214 
Step printer 166, 171 
Stereoscopic pictures 10 
Still camera 96 

Stirring rods 108 
Stock bottles 113 

Positive, 166- 

solutions 107 
Stops, Lens 216 
Stop motion 13 
Stop motion crank 278 
Stop motion pictures 24 
Stop motion work 278 
Storage of chemicals 130 
Storing solutions 131 
Streaked film 163 
Studio lighting 222 
Studio manager 323, 328 
Submarine boat cartoon 262 
Submarine Pictures 310 
Substitution of Chemicals 122 
Sub-titles 201 
Sulphuric acid 120 
Sunshade 269 
Superimpose 283 
Supers 322 
Super saturation 101 
Supplementary lens 79 
Swimming under water 279 
Switch back 205 
Symmetrical pictures 292 
Symographoscope 9 
Synthesis of motion 8 
Syrup of Vanadium 185 
System, F, 67 
System, Uniform, 67 
System, U, S., 67 

Table of chemical impurities 130 
Table of Density, Opacity and 

Transparency 151 
Tables, Avoirdupois, 102 

Metric, 101 

Weights and Measures, 354 
Tabloid Photo chemicals 256 
Tanks, Concrete, 351 

Fixing, 119 

for mixing, 110 
Tape line measurement for focus- 
ing 76 
Tartaric Acid 120 
Telephotography 340 
Telephoto lens 49 
Telescope 44 
Telescope effect 270 
Tempermental stars 322 
Temperature of solutions 114 
Tent, dark room 255 
Tessar lens 69, 70 


Test for vision 274 ' 

Test strips 170 

Testing by hydrometer 105 

Testing chart, Lens, 79 

Text books 25, 336 

Threading camera 62 

Duplex printer 171 
Ease of, 60 
Gillon camera 62 
Prevost camera 62 

Theatre stage 226 

Thermometric rules 360 

Thin negatives 160 

Timing negatives 169 

Tint and tone combinations 189 

Tinting and Toning 177 . 

Tinting formulae 195 

Title decorations 199 

Title writing 201 

Titling film 199 

Todd, F. Dundas, 155 

Toning and tinting 177 

Toning for Intensification 366 

Toning time 182 

Toning with dyes 368 

Topical cameramen 96 

Torches, iMagnesium, 286 

Toy motion picture camera 60 

Toy projector 60 

Tracing cartoons 263 

Tractor plane 305 

Transparency 145, 151 

Transparent spots 162 

Travel pictures 19, 249 

Trav, How to make developing, 137 

Trays, Metal, 139 

Trick-Work and Double Exposure 

Triple exposures 280 

Tripod socket 308 

Tropical development 353 
photography 255 

Troubles in developing 118 

Troy weight 354 

True or return loop 62 

Tucker, Geo. Loane, 204 

Two-solution developers 118 

Twa-solution tone 177 


Ultra speed pictures 23 
Ultra Violet light 30 
Ultra Violet rays 81 
Underexposed negative 141 
Under water, Swimming, 279 
Uniform System 67 

Universal Camera, Diagram of 
Mechanism, 54 

Universal Arcs 233 

Universal movement 57 

Unsymmetrical combination lens 70 

Uranium ferrocyanide 177 

Use of per cent solutions 106 

U. S. System 67 


Vanadium ferrocyanide 177 

Varnish, Matte Black, 357 

Waterproof, 190, 358 

Vessels for mixing 108 

View, Angle of, 65 

Vignette 269 

Violet tone 189 

Vioiet rays. Ultra, 81 

Virtual image 43 

Vision 273 

Visionary figures 283 

Vision in a mirror 281 

Vision in center of white space 275 

Vision on white or light-colored ob- 
ject 273 

Visions on Dark Walls 270 

Vision, Persistance of, 7 

Vision, Test for, 274 

Visual luminosity 142 

Visual focus 45 

rays 46, 72, 80, 81 

Vitagraph Studio 243 

Vitascope 17 

Volumetric Solutions 101 


Wallace, Prof. W. H. 155 
Wall paper 318 
Warburg, J. C, 5 
War films 19 

Waste, Recovery from, 351 
Water filter 129 
Waterproof varnish 190, 358 
Water supply 127 
Water to 101 
Watkins, Alfred, 155 
Watkin's Exposure Meter 213 
Wave length of light 80 
Waves, Light, 26 
Weak negatives 160 
Weighing chemicals 109 
Weights and Measures 354 
Welfare films 20 
Wheel of Life 7 
White Flame Arcs 224 
Wide Angle Lenses 65 


Wigs 316 

Williamson, J. E. & Geo. M., 310 
Williamson movement 58 
Wohl Duplex lamps 235 
Wollensack Optical Company 79 
Wooden trays, How to make, 137 
Wood, Professor R. W., 81 
Woodwork 318 
Wright, Orville, 313 
Wrinkled film 161 
Writing on Glass 357 
Writing titles SOI 


X-Back Film 93 
X-Rays 81 

Zambex Exposure Meter 213 
Zeolite 129 
Zero Parallax 91 
Zoetrope 7 
Zonal Errors 70 
Zoopraxoscope 9, 13 


The New York 
Institute of Photography 

gives a complete 
Residence Course 
in Photography 




covering in a thorough and practical way 
every phase of this profitable profession 

For Complete Catalog and location 
of our most convenient School 
address the central office: 

New York Institute of Photography 

Department 16 141 West 36th Street 


University of Toronto 
LibraiY / 








Acme Library Card Pocket